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Report

Effectiveness of Direct Verbal Instruction on IQ Performance and Achievement in Reading and Arithmetic [Academic Preschool, Champaign, Illinois]

Available from: ERIC

Academic achievement, Americas, Arithmetic, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Literacy, Mathematics education, North America, Reading, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This experiment was based on the assumption that the academic failure of the disadvantaged or middle class child is due to a failure of instruction and that if above-normal learning schedules were maintained, the second year of an enrichment program would not show the customary drop in gains from the first year. The subjects of this study were 43 disadvantaged Negro and white 4-year-olds of high, middle, and low intelligence. Fifteen of the children were placed in an experimental group (I) and 28 in a control group (II). A 2-year program involving a group (III) of middle class 4-year-olds was also conducted, with a control group (IV) consisting of middle class 4-year-olds in a Montessori preschool. Groups I and III received a 2-year experimental program in which rapid attainment of basic academic concepts was emphasized. Group II received a 2-year traditional preschool education. Group I achieved significantly greater Stanford-Binet IQ gains than Group II and maintained them over the 2-year program. Group III children also benefited measureably from the program and demonstrated greater achievement in many areas than Group IV.

Language: English

Published: Washington, D.C., 1966

Book

Psychoarithmetic: Arithmetic Developed Under the Guidelines Outlined by Child Psychology

Maria Montessori - Writings

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Abstract/Notes: Psychoarithmetic by Maria Montessori provides a view of the working of the human mind through the lens of exercises and study of mathematics (arithmetic, geometry, and algebra and their relationships), as well as applied mathematics in the form of measurement. The intention of the book, to forge a link between psychology and mathematics, is obvious from the title. The book demands that the reader attend to each and every detail while at the same time keeping in mind that all the details form part of the whole one is trying to understand. The book also pays homage to the people throughout the ages who have thought and found ways to solve their daily problems of living through mathematics. Yet without developing the mind through exploring mathematics, one cannot utilize these ideas. So the book is intended to be a handbook, for both children and adults, of how to help the mind develop in order to fulfil its potential.

Language: English

Published: Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company, 2016

Series: The Montessori Series , 20

Doctoral Dissertation

Academic Achievement: Montessori and Non-Montessori Private School Settings

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which sixth grade elementary school students in Montessori school settings and sixth grade elementary school students in non-Montessori school settings differ with regard to academic achievement as measured by the Ninth Edition of the Stanford Achievement Test. Schools that are certified as "Montessori" must meet stringent requirements and although the Montessori philosophy has been implemented in the United States for a number of years, little research has documented its effectiveness, at least as based on students' scores on standardized tests. In the Rio Grande Valley, few Montessori schools are in place and even fewer administer such assessments. A causal-comparative research design with matched pairs was used to describe the difference in academic achievement of sixth grade elementary school students in Montessori school settings with sixth grade elementary school students in non-Montessori school settings. Archival data were analyzed using five separate t-tests for paired samples in which the raw scores for reading, mathematics, language arts, science, and social studies were the dependent variables for achievement for both sixth grade elementary school students in Montessori school settings and sixth grade elementary school students in non-Montessori school settings as measured by the ninth edition of the Stanford Achievement Test. The results indicate that the academic achievement in reading and mathematics of sixth grade elementary school students who have attended Montessori school settings is statistically significantly higher than the academic achievement in reading and mathematics of sixth grade elementary school students who have attended non-Montessori school settings. The knowledge gained from this study might assist educators and parents in search of the most effective education to offer children. It will also extend knowledge of Montessori and the effects that it has on the academic achievement of children.

Language: English

Published: Houston, Texas, 2008

Report

Reading and Math Achievement for African American Lower Elementary Students in Public Montessori Programs

Available from: National Center for Montessori in the Public Sector (NCMPS)

Academic achievement, African American community, African Americans, Americas, Arithmetic - Achievement, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Lower elementary, Mathematics - Achievement, Montessori method of education, North America, Public Montessori

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Abstract/Notes: As Montessori programs in public schools expand, Montessori education is becoming available to a more diverse population of American students than ever before. Students of color have a significant presence in public Montessori schools; over a quarter of students in whole-school public Montessori programs are African American. As these programs grow, researchers have increasingly directed their attention to demonstrating that Montessori works in public schools; however, few studies have examined outcomes for African American students at the lower elementary level, when critical reading and math skills are being established. This study sought to answer the question, how effectively does Montessori instruction promote achievement for African American third grade students in reading and math, compared to similar traditional schools and other public school choice programs?

Language: English

Published: Washington, D.C., 2016

Doctoral Dissertation

A Comparison of Student Achievement, Student Self-Concept, and Parental Attitude Toward Traditional and Montessori Programs in a Public School Setting

Available from: University of North Texas Digital Library

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Abstract/Notes: This study investigates differences in academic achievement and self-concept of students enrolled in a traditional public school program and a public school Montessori program. The attitudes of parents of students are also compared. The population includes 182 experimental and control kindergarten, first-, second-, and third-grade students in a Texas metropolitan school district. Academic pretest and posttest data include scores on the Bilingual Syntax Measure, Metropolitan Readiness Tests, California Achievement Tests, and the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. The McDaniel-Piers Young Children's Self Concept Scale and the Parent Opinion Survey were also administered. A two-way analysis of covariance was used to analyze pretest and posttest academic achievement and self-concept scores, and to test for possible interaction between the programs and the sex variable. The pretest score was used as the covariate. The means of both parent groups were analyzed using the t test for two independent samples. The .05 level of significance was used to test each hypothesis. First-grade traditional students had significantly higher academic achievement scores than first-grade Montessori students. A significant interaction effect at the first-grade level revealed that traditional males had the highest adjusted mean score for academic achievement and Montessori males had the lowest adjusted mean score. Second-grade traditional students showed a significant increase over second-grade Montessori students in self-concept. No significant difference was found in the attitude of parents of students enrolled in both programs. Conclusions based on this investigation are that more similarities than differences are evident between the two programs, differences in academic achievement and interaction effects and sex appeared at only one grade level, differences in self-concept appeared at only one grade level, and parent attitudes are similar. Recommendations include continuation of the Montessori program evaluation and replication using a larger population, different grade levels, and different socioeconomic levels.

Language: English

Published: Denton, Texas, 1982

Doctoral Dissertation

An Exploratory Study on the Effectiveness of Montessori Constructs and Traditional Teaching Methodology as Change Agents to Increase Academic Achievement of Elementary Black Students

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Academic achievement, African American children, African American community, Americas, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Black students consistently underachieve academically in comparison to White students. To minimize the achievement gap between Black students and White students, some experts advocate the use of differentiated instruction as an alternative methodology to teach underachieving students. Differentiated instruction is predicated on teaching students based on their learning abilities and/or learning preferences. The differentiated instructional model examined in this study combined traditional teaching methodology with specific Montessori stage two and stage three constructs. This exploratory qualitative study examined the impact that Montessori constructs combined with traditional teaching methods had on academic achievement of Black students in grades four and five in an inner city school in Dallas County, Texas. The study further explored the sample’s perceptions of and preferences for the combined teaching methodology. The sample group had been exposed to the differentiated teaching model evaluated in the study. Disaggregated 2007 and 2008 TAKS results from the Texas Education Agency were obtained to compare the school’s fourth and fifth grade Black students’ achievement to their cohort groups in the district and in the state. The TAKS data comparisons found variability in performance among the groups in each of the subject areas assessed by TAKS. Qualitative data from a Likert Scale, multiple choice questions, questionnaires, written essay, and interviews were obtained from the participants to examine the students’ perceptions of and preferences for the combined teaching methodology. Data responses were analyzed and themes were developed to determine black students’ preferences for teaching, learning, and factors that contribute to learning. The findings of this study imply that future use of a differentiated instructional model that combines traditional teaching methodology and specific Montessori constructs and principles might be effective in improving Black student achievement.

Language: English

Published: Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2009

Report

The Effects of Multiage Grouping on Achievement and Self-Concept

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Abstract/Notes: The effects of multi-age grouping on achievement and self-concept were studied. The achievement variables examined were reading and mathematics achievement as measured by the Stanford Achievement Tests. The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale was used to measure self-concept. The groups studied consisted of single-age and multi-age classrooms of children in grades one through five. No significant differences were found between children in multi-age and single-age classrooms on any of the achievement measures. The multi-age classrooms had significantly higher mean scores on one of the six factors in the self-concept scale--happiness and satisfaction. The multi-age classrooms had slightly but consistently higher mean scores on the other five factor scores and on the total self-concept score but the differences were not significant. (Author)

Language: English

Published: Cortland, New York, Apr 1979

Article

School Environment and Methods of Teaching as Correlates of Language Skills Achievement of Pre–Primary School Pupils in Edo State Nigeria

Available from: Asian Institute of Research

Publication: Education Quarterly Reviews, vol. 4, no. 3

Pages: 243-251

Africa, Comparative education, Montessori method of education, Nigeria, Sub-Saharan Africa, West Africa

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Abstract/Notes: The study investigated the effects of school environment and methods of teaching on language skills achievement of pre – primary school pupils in Edo State. It also investigated the interaction effects of Montessori and played methods and urban and rural environments on pupils' achievement in listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Three urban and three rural areas which were selected from two Local Government Areas (LGAs) were used for the study. Six pre - primary schools were purposively selected for the study. A total of 228 kindergartens 2 pupils intact classes were used for the study which lasted for eight weeks. The study was a pretest, posttest, quasi- experimental control group design with independent variables as methods and school location while achievement in Language Skills Achievement Test (LSAT) was the dependent variable. Descriptive statistics and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) were used to analyze the data obtained while the Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) was used as post-hoc test for further significance. Three research questions were answered with three hypotheses, tested at 0.05 level of significance. Results showed that the Montessori Method of teaching pre –primary pupils was more effective than the play method. Similarly, urban school pupils achieved higher than their rural counterparts. There was also a significant interaction effect of methods and school location on pupils' academic achievement in Language skills. It was therefore recommended that the Nigerian Government should adopt the Montessori Method as a dominant method of teaching pre – primary school pupils and that pre – primary school owners should provide materials adequately for teaching and learning.

Language: English

DOI: 10.31014/aior.1993.04.03.335

ISSN: 2621-5799

Doctoral Dissertation

Longitudinal Academic Achievement Outcomes: Modeling the Growth Trajectories of Montessori Public Elementary School Students

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: Elementary education has theoretical underpinnings based on cognitive psychology. Ideas from cognitive psychologists such as James, Dewey, Piaget, and Vygotsky coalesce to form constructivism (Cooper, 1993; Yager, 2000; Yilmaz, 2011). Among others, the Montessori Method (1912/1964) is an exemplar of constructivism. Currently, public education in the United States is heavily impacted by the No Child Left Behind legislation (Paige, 2006) which emphasizes high stakes academic achievement testing. Absent from the literature is an examination of the academic achievement of Montessori students in public education. This study explores the academic achievement outcomes of public school students who completed varying numbers of years in Montessori elementary education. Singer and Willett's (2003) multilevel model of change serves as the statistical tool utilized to explore the academic achievement outcomes of a first grade cohort through their elementary and secondary school careers. Accrued years in Montessori did not account for significant variance amongst the trajectories, and gender and ethnicity, when considered without the interactions with accrued years, had minimal impact. Socioeconomic status, when the variable of accrued years in Montessori was removed from the equation, was a significant predictor of reading and math achievement.

Language: English

Published: Commerce, Texas, 2014

Article

Achievement and Self-Concept in Multiage Classrooms

Publication: Educational Research Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 2

Pages: 69-75

Academic achievement, Americas, Comparative education, Elementary education, Language arts, Mathematics education - Achievement, Nongraded schools, North America, Reading - Academic achievement, Self-perception, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Effects of multiage grouping on achievement and self-concept were explored. No significant differences were found between children in multiage and single-age classrooms on any of the achievement measures. Multiage classrooms had higher mean scores on one of the six factors of the self-concept scale, Happiness and Satisfaction.

Language: English

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