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Article

Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Preschool Children: Comparison Between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

Available from: BioMed Central

Publication: The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 10, no. 2

Pages: Article 2

Americas, Comparative education, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - Evaluation, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as <200 counts/15-second. The accelerometry data were summarized into the average minutes per hour spent in sedentary behavior during the in-school, the after-school, and the total-day period. Mixed linear regression models were used to determine differences in the average time spent in sedentary behavior between children attending traditional and Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-2

ISSN: 1479-5868

Article

Interaction of Children with and without Communication Disorders Using Montessori Activities for the Tablet

Available from: SpringerLink

Publication: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 25

Pages: 495-507

Children with disabilities, Communicative disorders in children, Inclusive education, Montessori method of education, Montessori method of education, People with disabilities

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Abstract/Notes: Mobile technologies used for education may offer advantages for children with Communication Disorders, among which we can find language disorders and speech disorders, which are identified in DSM-V. In this research, we have introduced two educational activities, “Matching Cards” and “Cards & Sounds”, based on the Montessori Method and which deal with the first stages of reading and writing. We have tested these two activities with children with and without Communication Disorders in order to study how they interact. These groups of children use a Tablet to perform the two activities, which vary in visual and auditory stimuli. The activities employ two touch interactions: tap and drag & drop. Based on Montessori, the activity and the interaction do not produce either positive or negative feedback. The analysis performed with the variables of time, interaction and mistake has shown that children from both groups change their efficiency of use. Differences regarding the interaction of children with and without Communication Disorders have also been observed. Additionally, children with Communication Disorders need additional strategies as explicit indicators in the interaction which may be a guide to be able to carry out specific actions.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/s00779-020-01471-7

ISSN: 1617-4909, 1617-4917

Article

Children’s Preference for Real Activities: Even Stronger in the Montessori Children’s House

Available from: University of Kansas Libraries

Publication: Journal of Montessori Research, vol. 4, no. 2

Pages: 1-9

Americas, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: In the United States, children are often given the opportunity to engage in pretend activities; many believe this kind of play benefits children’s development. Recent research has shown, though, that when children ages 4 to 6 are given a choice to do the pretend or the real version of 9 different activities, they would prefer the real one. The reasons children gave for preferring real activities often concerned their appreciation of the functionality; when children did prefer pretend activities, their reasons often cited being afraid of, not allowed to, or unable to do the real activity. Given that children in Montessori classrooms have more experience performing real, functional activities, in this study we asked if this preference for real activities is even stronger among children in Montessori schools. We also asked children to explain their preferences. The data are from 116 3- to 6-year-old children (M = 59.63 months, SD = 12.08 months; 68 female): 62 not in Montessori schools and 54 in Montessori schools. Children explained their preferences for pretendand real versions of 9 different activities. Children in Montessori schools preferred real activities even more than did children in other preschools, but all children explained their choices in similar ways. The implications of these results are discussed with regard to play in preschool classrooms.

Language: English

DOI: 10.17161/jomr.v4i2.7586

ISSN: 2378-3923

Article

The Effectiveness of a Counseling Program Based on the Use of Montessori Method on Adaptive Environmental Behavior in a Sample of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

Available from: The Egyptian Knowledge Bank

Publication: Journal of Environmental Science, vol. 49, no. 9

Pages: 181-216

Africa, Children with disabilities, Counseling, Egypt, Middle East, Montessori method of education, North Africa

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Abstract/Notes: The present study aims to identify the effectiveness of a counseling program based on the use of the Montessori method on the environmental adaptive behavior in a sample of children with mild intellectual disabilities, identifying also the differences in the level of behavioral adaptation in a sample of children on the adaptive behavior scale pre/post application of the program. The researchers define a sample of (40) items, applied to a sample consisting of (40) children with mild intellectual disabilities, aged between (10-12) years, selected from boys, divided equally to (20) experimental samples and (20) control samples, from Al-Ghafir Foundation for people with special needs. The researcher has used the (experimental) method and applied the scale of adaptive behavior. The research has come to several results, the most important of which is that there is a statistically significant correlation between the average scores of the control group and the experimental group, regarding the post application of the total adaptive behavior scale. There are statistically significant differences between the average scores of the experimental group, regarding the post/ follow up application of the adaptive behavioral scale. There are statistically significant differences between the average scores of the control group and the experimental group regarding the post-application of the total behavior scale, in favor of the experimental group. The research reached a set of recommendations, the most important of which are: the necessity of providing the necessary tools for developing skills for children with disabilities within government institutions, setting a special budget.

Language: Arabic

DOI: 10.21608/jes.2020.206380

ISSN: 1110-0826

Doctoral Dissertation

A Comparison of Traditional vs. Montessori Education in Relation to Children's Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy, and Prosocial Behavior

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Academic achievement, Americas, Caribbean, Comparative education, Elementary education, Latin America and the Caribbean, Montessori schools, Puerto Rico, Student attitudes

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Abstract/Notes: The present study compares elementary school children from Traditional and Montessori programs. The purpose is to investigate how different educational philosophies and teaching methods affect perceived levels of self-esteem, self-efficacy, prosocial behavior and aggressive behavior in children. The participants in this study consisted of second through sixth grade students who were attending Montessori and Traditional schools since the age of five, or earlier. All children completed the Washington Self-Description Questionnaire (WSDQ), three subscales of the Children's Multi-dimensional Self-Efficacy Scales (i.e., academic achievement, self-regulated learning, & social), the Physical and Verbal Aggression Scale, and the Prosocial Behavior Scale. No significant differences were revealed between the Montessori and Traditional programs in relation to the children's perceived levels of self-esteem, self-efficacy for academic achievement, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, social self-efficacy, or prosocial behavior. However, the Montessori children reported significantly lower levels of physical/verbal aggression than the Traditional children. Moreover, as Montessori children develop a heightened ability to work within a group of peers, they seem to develop lower levels of physical/verbal aggression, which was not found among Traditional children. Furthermore, Montessori children's perceived ability to make and keep friends of the same gender was found to significantly improve with increased years in the program, which was not found in the Traditional method. For Montessori children, their perceived ability to work together in a group was found to be positively associated with heightened levels of self-efficacy for academic achievement and self-efficacy for self-regulated learning. Furthermore, the Montessori children's levels of self-esteem were correlated significantly with their perceived levels of self-efficacy for academic achievement and self-efficacy for self-regulated learning. Although Traditional children were also found to gain self-efficacy for self-regulated learning through working together at young ages, as they proceed to higher grade levels, their self-efficacy for self-regulated learning decreased.

Language: English

Published: San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2002

Article

President Wilson's Daughter to Aid Mme. Montessori Show Her System

Available from: Library of Congress

Publication: The Sun (New York) (New York City, NY)

Pages: 6

Americas, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The Montessori movement, considered by many a radical departure from traditional educational methods, will receive new emphasis and publicity from the fact that visitors to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition will see during the months of August, September, October and November not only a demonstration of the Montessori system but will see it conducted by the talented woman herself. Associated with her will be Miss Margaret Wilson, daughter of the President, Dr. David Starr Jordan, chancellor of Leland Stanford Junior University, and other well known educators. The Montessori method has been summed up as 'freedom for development of the child under best conditions disturbing as little as possible but helping buy every means this development.' Any estimate of Mme. Montessori's work to be of practical value will involve a comparison between the Montessori method and that of the kindergarten, since the kindergarten is the only system of organizes educational work for young children that has so far received general recognition. In the middle of the last century the sensitive woman soul and philosophic mind of Froebel grasped the fundamental principle of development and say that the first six or seven years are the most important in the life of the individual. After years of study he embodied what he conceived to be the fundamental principles of the education of little children in what is known as the kindergarten, and his ideas of the best means for the application of these principles in his kindergarten program, materials and devices. The discovery of the kindergarten marked a new era in the history of the educational world. Though suppressed for years by government authority in Germany, and received with much suspicion elsewhere, the kindergarten has become an integral part of the public school system of many cities and States in our country. Its introduction into England was championed by Charles Dickens, and in America it found an advocate in the philosopher and educator Dr. William T. Harris. Concerning the kindergarten and the Montessori methods, Dr. P. P. Claxton, United States Commissioner of Education says: 'Though aims and principles are the same for both Froebel and Montessori, their different methods of approach have resulted in difference in emphasis, program and decides. For those who see no further than the form there is apparent conflict. Many cannot understand that the work of both Froebel and Montessori must finally lose each its distinctive characteristics in the larger whole of a more perfect knowledge of the nature of infancy and the means of educating young children.' It must be said of Dr. Montessori that she is first, last and always scientific in her work. Prolonged training in the sciences that relate to human life, vitalized by practical experience in their application to defective children, gave her a method which is the outcome of genius, training and experience. She swung into prominence, against her wish, in the following way: While serving as assistant doctor at the psychiatric clinic of the University of Rome, Italy, she founder herself differing from her colleagues in that she felt, as she says, 'that mental deficiency presented chiefly a pedagogic rather than mainly a medical problem.' The expression of these views in an address brought Dr. Montessori prominently before the Minister of Public Instruction, and her work from this on assumed a public character. Her belief that the methods employed with deficient children 'contained educational principles more rational than those in use and that if applied to normal children they would develop or set free their personality in a marvelous and surprising way,' became her controlling idea, and is the very heart of the Montessori system. The system of Mme. Montessori is indissolubly joined with her famous 'didactic material.' Among this will be found small wooden frames to which are attached pieces of cloth or leather on which are buttons and buttonholes, hooks and eyes, eyelets and lacing cords, and strings to be tied and untied. There are also boxes of cylindrical insets and other simple devices to develop 'man's mystery over nature.' Mme. Montessori is her best interpreter when she says, 'We are inclined to believe that children are like puppets and we wash them and feed them as if they were dolls. We do not stop to think that the child that does not do does not know how to do. Our duty is that of helping him to make a conquest of such useful acts as nature intended he should perform for himself. The mother who feeds her child without making the least effort to teach him to hold the spoon for himself and to try to find his mouth with it is not a wise mother. She treats her son as though he were a doll. We call an individual disciplined when he is master of himself and can regulate his own conduct when it shall be necessary to follow some rule of life. If any educational act is to be efficacious it is necessary rigorously to avoid the arrest of spontaneous movements and the imposition of arbitrary tasks. It is of course understood here that we do not speak of a useless or dangerous act; this must be suppressed, destroyed.' The Montessori doctrine is therefore in substance that the child's inner self or personalit cannot rightfully develop unless free to express itself undirected and unguided by another person. As a consequence Dr. Montessori insists that each child be allowed bodily freedom and have as much unhampered liberty of action as possible in order that he may fully express his inner life in outer activity. The classic illustration by which Dr. Montessori puts in concrete form her doctrine is the following: 'One day the children had gathered in a circle about a basin of water containing some floating toys. A little boy 2 1/2 years old had been left outside the circle. He drew near to the other children and tried to force his way among them, but he was not strong enough to do this. The expression of thought on his face was intensely interesting. His eyes then lighted upon a little chair and he had evidently made up his mind to place it behind the group of children and climb on it. As he began to move toward the chair, his face illuminated with hope, a teacher seized him in her arms, lifted him above the heads of the other children, showed him the basin of water, saying, 'Come poor little one you shall see too.' The child seeing the floating toys did not experience the joy that he was about to feel through conquering the obstacles with his own force. The teacher hindered the child in this case from educating himself. The little fellow was about to feel himself a conqueror, and instead he found himself held within two imprisoning arms impotent.' The now famous 'House of the Children' in Rome, under the patronage of Queen Margherita, faithfully reflects and demonstrates the Montessori principles and methods. It has been described as an old orphan asylum, whose gray outer walls give no idea of the two beautiful and luxuriant courtyards within. These latter are filled with beds of blossoming plans, and the pillars of the inner porch are covered with clinging vines. The schoolroom in which the class for the children is held opens with wide double doors into one of these lovely courtyards, where the children play during hours in which they are not engaged in their Montessori exercises. Miss Elizabeth Harrison, president of the National Kindergarten Union says of this 'House of the Children': 'On my first visit I found the children busy getting out the 'didactic material' with which they were to employ themselves for the next hour and a quarter. Some came forward to shake hands with me; some merely smiled and nodded and did not interrupt their work. All seemed busy, happy and free. I afterward saw as many as eighty visitors in the room where there were only a dozen children, but none of the children were in the least disturbed by or seemingly conscious of the presence of the visitors. Most of the children came from nearby tenement houses, yet even the youngest of them washed their own hands and faces, put on clean, neat calico aprons and looked as fresh and clean as children from well cared for homes.' Comparing the kindergarten and the Montessori systems, the following differences appear: The kindergarten stresses group activities, while the Montessori system emphasized almost exclusively the development of the individual. The kindergartners say that education in coordinating of muscles, the special training of the child's senses and all such phases of individual development are expected to come in the nursery. The Montessori system has no place for stories; the kindergartners are famous for them. Mme. Montessori objects to stories for young children on the theory that all activities of the mind are derived from the outside world and are dependent on sense impressions, and that therefore the child should be kept within the realm of his own personal experience until he is at least 7 or 8 years old. It is not necessary to add that two __ meet at this point of difference. The most remarkable features of the Montessori system, as well as one of its decided points of divergence from the kindergarten, lies in its ___ of definite attitude on religious training. Froebel, trained in an environment where instruction in religion is practically nationwide, says that while the child unconsciously manifests teh divine impuse within him he must follow it with conscious insights persisting in what he knows to do right and must needs have definite training of this kind. Montessori, on the other hand, with nuns as her assistants and attendants in her 'House of the Children,' acknowledges the importance of religious training for little children, 'but confesses that as yet it is an unsolved problem to her.' Miss Harrison, who spent some time in Rome with Mme. Montessori says, 'She [Montessori] seems to feel that a child's spiritual nature will ___ aright if freedom is given ....

Language: English

Article

'The Behavior Part Is the Hardest': Montessori Teachers and Young Children with Challenging Behaviors

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 10, no. 4

Pages: 24–25

Behavior disorders in children, Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, Montessori method of education - Teachers, ⛔ No DOI found

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Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

Modeling Grace and Courtesy in a Montessori Classroom and Its Influence on Children’s Social Behavior

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, Grace and courtesy, Lower elementary

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Abstract/Notes: It has long been known that teachers have a large influence on students, however, little is known about the effect that teachers may have on students’ ability to develop positive social behaviors. Accordingly, there is a need to collect data regarding the effect that a teacher modeling grace and courtesy may have on how students interact with their peers and teachers. Therefore, the purpose of this action research is to analyze the effects of intentional teacher role modeling of grace and courtesy on children’s social behaviors. A classroom of 24 lower elementary, mixed age children from five to eight years old were observed for six weeks in the mornings of every school day to see if demonstrating and modeling grace and courtesy would affect children’s interactions with peers and teachers. An observation log for frequency-count was used to record negative instances of behaviors related to grace and courtesy. Results indicated a positive relationship between children’s social behaviors and teachers modeling grace and courtesy in the classroom. The two conclusions are that children were not sensitive regarding improvements in their social behaviors, and children can be influenced to exhibit positive social behaviors by teachers. Implications of this action research paper show that for children to learn positive social behaviors, teachers should be patient and consistent when modeling, reinforcing, and encouraging children to behave with grace and courtesy.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2019

Article

Dr. Montessori Aims to Aid Poor: Italian Educator Says Their Children Are More Eager to Learn

Available from: Library of Congress

Publication: New York Tribune (New York City, NY)

Pages: 6

Americas, Margaret Naumburg - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: "Yesterday the Dottoressa Maria Montessori held the first conference with her pupils in America. It was at the Children's House, 520 East Seventy-seventh Street. The Children's House is one of the thirty Montessori schools which have sprung up in New York during the last three years. The conference was impressive. The great Italian teacher greeted her pupils, her disciples , if you like, with delight and apparent amazement at the development of her work in New York. "This beautiful house of the children!" She cried. "You have so much here; in Italy we cannot give the children all this, we have it not to give, but little is much when children are free." Her work is growing fast in Italy. In the districts which have been devastated by the earthquakes twelve schools have been established. "I have now developed a method of educating children from five to ten years old. By it they learn reading, writing, arithmetic very easily - but especially nature, science, the languages. Then they are ready to enter the high schools, I believe you call it. Two years are saved in the school life of every child. My elementary methods have been put into sixteen schools in Italy. Signorini Maccheroni is training teachers and opening our schools in Spain." Miss Anne E. George, who introduced Dr. Montessori's work into this community, asked how Montessori teachers in the United States could learn the methods for older pupils. "Signorina Fidele might come here and supervise the elementary classes which you form." "But you, Dottoressa," exclaimed Margaret Naumberg, "why won't you stay and help us?" Dr. Montessori didn't say she would, but I noticed particularly that she didn't say she wouldn't. She is now on her way to California, where she will give a four months' course in Montessori methods in Los Angeles and San Diego. Her latest book, describing her work with older children, will be published in the fall. "Now, that is all my news, and I want to hear what you are doing. I want always to keep in close touch with you and with your work. Tell me what you are doing." Mrs. A. Reno Margulies, of 534 West 187th Street, told of her work with deaf and backward children. Miss George spoke of hers. "Ah," said Dr. Montessori, "but are you not working with the children of the well-to-do? Tell me what you are doing for the children of the poor." Miss Zoé Bateman, secretary of the Montessori Association, explained that the Children's House in which the conference was held was a free school, supported by contributions. "It is very hard to get the work taken up by the public schools," said Margaret Naumberg. "We have just secured permission to establish a class in Public School 4. It was only possible because of the enthusiasm of the principal, Simon Hirsdansky, for Dr. Montessori's work. "Until the work is developed by the Board of Education it cannot be carried very far among the poor, for teachers must live as well as teach." "It is easier to teach the children of the poor," said Dr. Montessori. "They are more eager to learn." "Oh, no" cried her pupils in chorus, "The children who have better homes, better food and better care learn much faster than the poorer children." "I had a group of poor children last winter, and a group of well-to-do children this winter," said Margaret Naumberg, "and the latter learned in six weeks more than the former learned in a year.""

Language: English

ISSN: 1941-0646

Article

Comparison of Sudoku Solving Skills of Preschool Children Enrolled in the Montessori Approach and the National Education Programs

Available from: Red Fame

Publication: Journal of Education and Training Studies, vol. 8, no. 3

Pages: 32-47

Asia, Comparative education, Middle East, Turkey, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: According to Johnson-Laird (2010), sudoku, a mind game, is based on a pure deduction and reasoning processes. This study analyzed sudoku solving skills of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of Education preschool education program and the Montessori approach. Sudoku skills of children were analyzed by gender, age, duration of preschool attendance, mother’s and father’s education level and previous experience of playing sudoku using a 12-question Sudoku Skills Measurement Tool developed for this research study. The study sample of the study consisted of 118 children (57 girls, 61 boys) aged between 54-77 months. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in sudoku skills by gender. However, sudoku skills varied with age (54-65 months and 66-77 months) in favor of older groups. Children's sudoku skills were more developed with an increase in education level of either parent. Children who had been in preschool for longer had higher sudoku scores. A previous experience of playing sudoku did not impact sudoku scores. Sudoku skills of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to Ministry of National Education program.According to Johnson-Laird (2010), sudoku, a mind game, is based on a pure deduction and reasoning processes. This study analyzed sudoku solving skills of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of Education preschool education program and the Montessori approach. Sudoku skills of children were analyzed by gender, age, duration of preschool attendance, mother’s and father’s education level and previous experience of playing sudoku using a 12-question Sudoku Skills Measurement Tool developed for this research study. The study sample of the study consisted of 118 children (57 girls, 61 boys) aged between 54-77 months. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in sudoku skills by gender. However, sudoku skills varied with age (54-65 months and 66-77 months) in favor of older groups. Children's sudoku skills were more developed with an increase in education level of either parent. Children who had been in preschool for longer had higher sudoku scores. A previous experience of playing sudoku did not impact sudoku scores. Sudoku skills of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to Ministry of National Education program.

Language: English

DOI: 10.11114/jets.v8i3.4620

ISSN: 2324-8068

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