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Doctoral Dissertation

The Potentiality of Play: The Shifting Design Language of Play-Based Learning

Available from: Edinburgh Napier University

Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Play, Student-centered learning

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Abstract/Notes: This thesis, underpinned by cross-cultural design ethnography (DE) and research through design (RtD), re-reads play-based learning constructs as design practice. In doing so, it charts the shifting relationship between design and theories of play-based learning. The work frames the design of play-based learning processes, from their emergence in historical learning environments such as the Montessori method to current pedagogies of STEAM learning. This evolutionary focus will be of interest to a wide range of stakeholders such as pedagogues, designers, and policy makers, each of whom contribute to where, what and how children are taught. This thesis presents the following arguments: Firstly, it frames and re-reads key historical play pedagogues as designers and design thinkers, whose work has shaped and influenced the evolution of play-based learning through the inception of play artefacts, spaces, and structures. This thesis further elucidates that design-thinking has been at the heart of play-based learning, demonstrated through the design of modular and standardised pedagogic objects and spaces of historic learning environments. The design evolution within this framework helps to enlighten the development of tinkering and iterative prototyping as twenty-first century affordances of learning through play. Secondly, this thesis uses observation-based design ethnography of the Montessori method, to argue that Montessori’s restrictive pedagogy can be counterproductive to learning through intuitive processes of exploration and iteration. Thirdly, by adapting the practice-based research method of research through design (RtD), the thesis demonstrates and proposes that twenty-first century design affordances of tinkering and iteration can be suitably integrated to enrich historic play-based learning environments such as the Montessori method. In each of these arguments, the ways in which pedagogic theories of play are interwoven with the language of design thinking are revealed. By bringing into focus the triad of play, pedagogy, and design, an additional educational landscape of twenty-first century cultural learning environments is explored. Cultural learning environments (CLEs) such as museums and public galleries extend the scope of play-based learning beyond formalised spaces of schools and bring into relief, the predominance of design while incepting platforms, ateliers, and activities to initiate learning through play.

Language: English

Published: Edinburgh, Scotland, 2021

Book Section

Inclusive Product Design: Applicating the Montessori Methodology into the Design Conception of Children’s Products

Available from: Springer Link

Book Title: Perspectives on Design II: Research, Education and Practice

Pages: 367-383

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Abstract/Notes: This article presents the results of an ongoing scientific initiation research, as well as the contributions attained from a Research Internships Abroad Program (BEPE/FAPESP) which sought to expand the theoretical framework on design processes regarding sensory products in the European Market. The study focuses on toys for children with blindness or low vision, including its design process, all the way though its physical prototyping. Here follows the adopted structure of analysis: (a) Theoretical review on the design of sensory products and the contribution of the Montessori method; (b) Application of synchronous analysis amid similar children’s toys from the European market, specifically those commercialized in Portugal; (c) Project development with generation and selection of alternatives; (d) Experimental execution of the physical prototype at the Prototype Laboratory. Thus, this research aims to contribute to the development of sensory products through the Montessori method, as well as stimulating further research in the areas of Product Design and Inclusive Design.

Language: English

Published: Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2022

ISBN: 978-3-030-79879-6

Series: Springer Series in Design and Innovation , 16

Article

Design and Validation of Learning Sequences of PGSD Sanata Dharma University Student to Teach the Fraction Concept for Primary Student Using Montessori Manipulatives

Available from: Institute of Physics

Publication: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1470

Pages: 012083

Asia, Australasia, Efficacy, Indonesia, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Fraction concept is one of the learning problems that often occurs in elementary students. Elementary student’s misconceptions can be caused by teacher’s misconceptions. PGSD students are teacher candidates, so they must have the correct concept then they can teach the concept of fractions correctly too. Learning must be an inspiration for students when they become teachers later. One medium that can be used to teach fraction concepts is media based on Montessori. Local culture can support the use of Montessori media. This study aims to design and validate the learning sequence of PGSD Students in using Montessori media, to develop design principles to teach fraction concepts in elementary school students. The approach in this research is design research which includes three phases, namely design, trial and assessment. In the design phase, researchers formulate students’ prior knowledge and learning objectives. This is used as the basis for the sequence of learning. This stage of learning is evaluated in a repeat trial phases, the hypothesis design principle is developed and from which the learning stages are redesigned. The results of the assessment phase, together with the experience of the previous cycle and research review, are used to perfect the design principles of the student’s learning sequences so they can teach the concept of fractions correctly. From: The 7th South East Asia Design Research International Conference (SEADRIC 2019) 25-27 July 2019, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Language: English

DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1470/1/012083

ISSN: 1742-6596

Article

The Effect of Iteration on the Design Performance of Primary School Children

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: International Journal of Technology and Design Education, vol. 25, no. 1

Pages: 1-23

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Abstract/Notes: Iteration during the design process is an essential element. Engineers optimize their design by iteration. Research on iteration in Primary Design Education is however scarce; possibly teachers believe they do not have enough time for iteration in daily classroom practices. Spontaneous playing behavior of children indicates that iteration fits in a natural way of learning. To demonstrate the importance of iteration for the design performance and understand what occurs in an optimized situation a study was conducted in a Dutch Montessori school. Four conditions were chosen to shape the design assignment; iteration, freedom of choice, collaboration and presentation. The choice for these conditions was inspired by the work of Montessori, and because of the positive effects on design performance during previous design and technology projects. This led to a concrete assignment, suitable for 6–8 years old, “Fold a piece of aluminum foil so it can hold the weight of marbles when it lies on the water. The more marbles it can hold the better.” Self correction was possible as the challenge lays in the ease to improve countable results. Clear results of iteration could be determined; an increasing sense of control and detailed insight in what to do for maximum results were found amongst the pupils. Additional literature about capability development and metacognition confirmed the value of the four conditions in relation to the observed results.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/s10798-014-9271-2

ISSN: 1573-1804

Article

Assessment of Interior Design Requirements of Classes within Pre-K Educational Models

Available from: The Journal of International Social Research

Publication: The Journal of International Social Research [Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi], vol. 12, no. 68

Pages: 615-627

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Abstract/Notes: This study aims to analyze the interior design of a learning space based on three alternative teaching models applied nowadays. The study gathers the overall information of interior space design, alternative teaching models, children’s needs and analyzes the interaction of the three selected teaching models with classroom design, besides it suggests what educational institutions can do at a general level to contribute to the improvement of early education. The study is designed using descriptive research model, scientific observation and to collect factual data 72 teachers from Ankara (Turkey) were surveyed. Three different schools were analyzed by means of teaching model application within interior space design, a survey was administered in order to determine how classroom design supports the teaching-learning process and follows the principles of the teaching models. Research findings suggest that special attention should be given to classroom interior design since young children’s behavior and social interactions with their peers and teachers are influenced by the spatial arrangement in classrooms. Likewise if the interior design of the classroom is based on teaching models’ learning outcomes, the capacity and attitude of both teacher and student in the educational process are improved, while appropriate conditions are created for a pedagogical practice in the classroom.

Language: English

DOI: 10.17719/jisr.2019.3853

ISSN: 1307-9581

Book Section

Il design per l'infanzia, quando il 'design' in Italia non esisteva ancora

Book Title: Maria Montessori e il sodalizio con l'Umanitaria: dalla Casa dei bambini di via Solari ai corsi per insegnanti (1908-2008)

Pages: 34-35

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Language: Italian

Published: Milano: Raccolto, 2008

ISBN: 978-88-87724-27-1

Book Section

Passive Solar Design of a Montessori Primary School

Available from: ScienceDirect

Book Title: Energy Conservation in Buildings

Pages: 78-84

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Abstract/Notes: Halcrow Gilbert Associates were requested to provide energy design advice at the post outline planning stage for a new Montessori School in Berkshire, England. The paper describes the design changes which were adopted in order to achieve both important energy savings and a dramatic improvement in the school's internal environment. The main passive solar features incorporated into the design for the school were a double storey atrium communal area, rooflights to enhance the daylighting of the classrooms and a ridge ventilator driven natural ventilation scheme. The objective was to realise well daylit classrooms whilst keeping heating costs low and minimising the risks of summertime overheating. Measures to prevent overheating included eave overhangs, blinds under the south-facing roof glazing and nighttime ventilation. The paper shows how a range of design tools were used to identify the impact of each design change on energy consumptions and environmental conditions. The paper demonstrates the benefits of sophisticated, yet flexible and fast-response, design tools which enable their users to meet the very short deadlines of a real building project. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-08-037215-0.50020-1

Language: English

Published: Oxford, England: Pergamon, 1991

ISBN: 978-0-08-037215-0

Article

Designing Digital Objects for Learning: Lessons from Froebel and Montessori

Available from: InderScience Publishers

Publication: International Journal of Arts and Technology, vol. 3, no. 1

Pages: 124-135

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Abstract/Notes: Designers of interactive toys face many challenges when integrating digital technologies into the educational manipulatives they design. Drawing on the distinctive approaches of Friedrich Froebel and Maria Montessori – philosophers of education and pioneering toy designers – this paper proposes to qualify and distinguish between their unique design principles as manifested in traditional as well as digital learning objects and educational manipulatives. Application of these core design principles will enable modern day toy designers, particularly those operating in the interactive domain, to meet their educational objectives and maximise the learning potential in children|s interactive learning experiences.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1504/IJART.2010.030497

ISSN: 1754-8853, 1754-8861

Article

How Focus Creates Engagement in Primary Design and Technology Education: The Effect of Well-Defined Tasks and Joint Presentations on a Class of Nine to Twelve Years Old Pupils

Available from: Design and Technology Education

Publication: Design and Technology Education: an International Journal, vol. 25, no. 2

Pages: 10-28

Europe, Holland, Montessori schools, Netherlands, Western Europe, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: During a Design and Technology class, engagement is both required to start creative hands-on work and a sign of pupil’s creative thinking. To find ways to achieve engagement, we can look to the Montessori tradition. Due to the fact that learning is regarded as feeding insight through experimenting, tasks have to offer pupils the opportunity to gain knowledge about isolated details of the learning situation. This is realised by brief, simple and objective tasks combined with liberty to approach the hands-on work in one’s own way. Applied to Design and Technology, we can define brief, simple and objective tasks with a focus on a technique as an isolated detail of the learning situation. Offering liberty during hands-on work enables creative thinking. The deployment of well-defined tasks with a focus on a technique is possible by dividing a complex assignment into a collection of brief tasks with single problems and working towards single objectives in the topic, making use of a single technique. Such a collection is a format that has the potential to enable ongoing engagement. This case-study researches the actual effect of a stepwise organised collection of tasks on the design performance of pupils of nine to twelve years old. The results show that the tasks turned out to be useful in initiating engagement. In combination with joint presentations, ongoing engagement was achieved resulting in well-considered designs and products. In addition, dialogue with disengaged pupils delivered solutions towards engagement. As a side-effect of dialogue the teacher-pupil relationships and the pupil-pupil relationships improved.

Language: English

ISSN: 1360-1431

Doctoral Dissertation

Transformation in a Constructivist Montessori Teacher Education Program Using a Blended Course Design

Available from: SSRN

Educational change

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Abstract/Notes: This applied dissertation was designed to understand the experience of participants as they engaged in a process of transforming attitudes about teaching and learning through participation in a Montessori teacher-training program with a blended design. Participants were surveyed regarding their previous experiences in education as both student and educator, previous experiences in Montessori education, and previous experiences with distance education programs. Research questions guiding the study:Particular aspects such as self-directed learning, facilitating relationships, and learning in social contexts have been known to be considered best practice in constructivist program design, but what is the phenomenological experience of adult participants as they grapple with transforming best practice in teaching and learning with their own pre-kindergarten to eighth-grade students? 2. How do individual participants perceive the blended program influenced a personal transformation of teaching and learning? How does the perceptual transformation compare to others? 3. How do administrators perceive the blended program influenced changes to the overall school culture as a result of faculty participation in the program? 4. How consistent are standards of best practice in constructivist settings with individual perceptual transformations and perceptions of changes to school culture as well as to interactions with students?A comparative design was carried out for the study. Participant and administrator questionnaires were analyzed for patterns and insights regarding descriptions of change experienced during a blended distance education (DE) course using constructivist methodology. A final analysis of the data revealed that participants had various experiences with traditional education as students and as educational professionals. Most participants reported a lack of confidence teaching within the traditional system and subsequent relief when learning the constructivist, Montessori pedagogy and methodology. One surprising finding was that some educators were predisposed to using constructivist principles in teaching before any formal training. Another significant finding was that adults were able to guide school-age students in becoming self-directed and autonomous as learners. A third finding was that there were specific advantages of a blended DE training program design that were not present in other models of DE or face-to-face teacher training.

Language: English

Published: Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 2013

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