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Doctoral Dissertation

A Comparative Historical and Philosophical Study of the Educational Theories of John Amos Comenius (1592-1670), Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852), and Maria Montessori (1870-1952)

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: This dissertation was a comparative study from the perspectives of history and philosophy of the educational theories of John Amos Comenius, Friedrich Froebel, and Maria Montessori. The purpose of this dissertation was: 1 - to determine whether or not there were parallel ideas in the educational theories of Comenius, Froebel, and Montessori; 2 - to show to what extent these ideas were actually similar or divergent; and 3 - to consider the additional question of whether or not Froebel and Montessori recognized their theories as part of a sequence of thought originating with Comenius. Using the extant published works of the three educators, descriptions were given of their educational theories in relation to the following topics: the position and principles of methodology; the role of sense realism and the changes in emphasis each educator made in the use of the sense realist concepts of teaching; the role of the religious point of view; the manner of teaching moral values; the role of intellectual and social influences of their respective historical periods in the formation of their educational theories; and the insights of the three educators which can be considered important in the educational world of the latter half of the twentieth century. These descriptions were followed by comparisons of the similarities and differences of the three educators in relation to the above-mentioned topics. The conclusions of the dissertation were the following: 1 - There were parallel ideas present in the educational theories of the three educators. The Comenian concepts and educational emphases which seemed to find restatement most often in the works of Froebel and Montessori were the belief in the importance and the necessity of the use of the correct method of teaching; the theory that if the correct method were used, anything could be taught to nearly anyone; the basic position of the concepts of sense realism in the teaching methodology; and the supreme importance of a definite religious perspective as the groundwork and frame of reference for the whole educational system. 2 - There appeared to be no recognition of influence of the work of Comenius by Froebel and Montessori. In relation to Froebel's gifts or didactic apparatus and his principle of self-activity, there appeared to be a slight recognition of influence by Montessori in the creation of her didactic material and the formulation of her principle of spontaneous activity in a carefully prepared environment. 3 - Concerning the insights of the three educators which may be considered important for education in this century, Comenius was cited for his outstanding ability to systematize knowledge, his championship of the humanitarian ideal of freedom, and his pansophic ideal of universal knowledge through a universal college system with uniform textbooks in a universal auxiliary language. The study of Froebel's work can provide more insights into the educational possibilities of the preschool age child obtained through self-activity. The study of the work of Montessori provides help in the greater educational use of the period of postnatal infancy, and the greater application of the disciplines of anthropology, physiology, and psychology to education. Montessori's work can also prove to be significant in the search for more effective means of education for the culturally deprived child. All three educators seemed to possess an ability to synthesize - to see things in their whole relationships. Specifically they applied this insight to means of educating all facets of human personality.

Language: English

Published: Denver, Colorado, 1970

Doctoral Dissertation

A Phenomenology of Educational Care: Early Adolescent Descriptions

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: School design and operation are, at times, counter-productive to cultivating academic and personal success in all students. Teachers often lack adequate preparation time, and are pressed by class size and regulatory mandates. Thus, there is seemingly little time to focus on cultivating affective well-being or a supportive educational climate. This lack of support is linked to high drop-out rates, large numbers of academically unsuccessful students, and the disenfranchisement of many minority and English Language learners in our school system. The phenomenon of care, particularly as it relates to education, has been studied only briefly. Few comprehensive, qualitative descriptions regarding how students conceptualize care exist despite significant evidence that when students perceive teachers and schools as caring, they have higher and more sustainable levels of academic motivation. This research project endeavored to give children a voice regarding educational care through a qualitative study on the phenomenon of care from an adolescent perspective. The study employed multiple data collection methods including: interviews, art, and student writing with students ages 11-14 from two school environments. Data collected were analyzed using the vanKamm phenomenological method of analysis. Results indicated that the phenomenon of educational care was a complex set of actions and behaviors from the student vantage point. Five themes emerged including: (1) Relationships are a critical aspect of educational care, (2) Rules in educational settings should be simple and consistent within classrooms and institutions, (3) Students perceive some control of their learning environments as caring, (4) Educational environments and teacher behavior are both critical to care, (5) Basic safety and concern for physical space are necessary for educational care. Each theme is independently necessary but not sufficient when observed alone in educational contexts. Together these themes support Nel Noddings' ideal version of ethical caring, in that they involve motivated behaviors, reciprocal action, receptivity on the part of the students, and a sense of obligation to care in a manner above and beyond noticing the basic well being of the student. The themes indicated by the data demonstrated a multifaceted view of educational care previously undiscovered and provide useful fodder for educators to consider.

Language: English

Published: St. Louis, Missouri, 2010

Article

Yanzheng haishi zhiyi: Meiguo jiaoyu xuejie dui meng tai suo li jiaoyu de pipan / 验证还是质疑:美国教育学界对蒙台梭利教育的批判 [Verification or Questioning: American Educational Circles’ Criticism on Montessori Education]

Publication: Xueqian jiaoyu yanjiu / 学前教育研究 [Studies in Preschool Education], vol. 2019, no. 10

Pages: 24-31

Americas, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., North America, United States of America, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: At the beginning of the 20th century, Montessori’s educational thought and practice disseminated to the United States in a short and concentrated way. This process was always accompanied by the questioning and criticism of Montessori education in the American educational circles. The in-depth analysis and inspiration of the questioning and criticisms are currently lacking in domestic and foreign research. Most of the educational psychologists, progressive education scholars, and Froebelians who dominated the American educational community were critical of Montessori education. American education scholars criticized Montessori education on two levels: fundamentals of philosophy and psychology, curriculum system. They believed that Montessori's education theory lagged behind the times, and the curriculum system ignored young children’s sociality, imagination and freedom. These criticisms reflected the cautious attitude of the American educational scholars who didn’t blindly follow the imported theory, and promoted the Americanization of Montessori education. At present, China’s educational academics are keen to interpret and verify when introducing western educational theories. This situation is not conducive to the creation of original educational theories. In order to change this situation, the Chinese educational scholars should first establish cultural self-confidence, treating western educational theories with an equal mindset and perspective; second discriminate and absorb the foreign educational theories on the basis of reflective criticism; third, root in China’s educational practice. In this way can the scholars better absorb western educational theories’ essence and promote the creation of original educational theories.

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 1007-8169

Article

Design Thinking, Leadership, and the Grammar of Schooling: Implications for Educational Change

Available from: University of Chicago Press

Publication: American Journal of Education, vol. 126, no. 4

Pages: 499-518

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Abstract/Notes: A growing number of schools across the globe have implemented design thinking (DT) as an instructional approach to increase student engagement, motivate creative thinking, and teach students to problem solve. Although offering significant opportunity to students, implementing DT can involve pushing against the traditional “grammar of schooling.” Drawing on in-depth qualitative case study data, we present findings on a previously low-performing, underenrolled middle school that underwent a dramatic shift when becoming a magnet school focused on DT. We explain the intentional leadership actions that facilitated structural and cultural changes, including building a collaborative leadership structure. Interactions between the principal and the teachers led to the emergence of practices that supported innovation schoolwide. At the same time, internal and external challenges rooted in the grammar of schooling arose, requiring educators to respond to sustain the momentum for change. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1086/709510

ISSN: 0195-6744, 1549-6511

Article

Interaction Between Educational Approach and Space: The Case of Montessori

Available from: Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education

Publication: Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, vol. 14, no. 1

Pages: 265-274

Architecture, Design, Learning environments

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Abstract/Notes: This study aims to emphasize that the realization of effective educational approaches depends on the design of spaces suitable for the determined philosophy, and to reveal the design decisions required by the Montessori educational approach. A three-step method was followed in the line of the aim of this study. The first step is to acquire theoretical knowledge about the Montessori educational approach. The second step is to perform a spatial analysis based on the obtained plan schedules and visual materials from the school samples that have adopted the Montessori educational approach and designed by the designers according to this approach and the final step is to bring design decisions to designers and educators in order to create educational environments for the Montessori educational approach, depending on the literature and school analysis. In the study, it is observed in Montessori educational approach that the relationship between interior and exterior spaces is very important, that the circulation spaces and classrooms are designed as flexible multipurpose spaces depending on the basic principles of freedom, socialization, and that child-scale design and natural light are extremely important for all of the areas in question. It is seen that the Montessori approach is influential on educational spaces and the presence of spaces embodying this approach has a correspondence in architecture. In this context, this study, which reveals the relationship between learning environments and learning efficiency, is considered to be a source of data for the schools to be designed in this direction.

Language: English

DOI: 10.12973/ejmste/79799

ISSN: 1305-8215, 1305-8223

Doctoral Dissertation

Educational Ideas and Practices of Rabindranath Tagore and Maria Montessori: A Comparative Analysis

Available from: Shodhganga: Indian Theses

Asia, India, Rabindranath Tagore, South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Rabindranath Tagore and Maria Montessori were two great educationists of the two continents of the world. This study compared the ideals and practices of both these pioneers in the field of education. The objectives of the study were to analyze the similarities and differences in the educational philosophies of Rabindranath Tagore and Maria Montessori, to study the aims, curriculum and methods of education as propounded by them and to find out the relevance of their educational doctrines in the present day education system. Methodology: A philosophical and historical research was conducted by the researcher. The data were collected from the various primary and secondary sources. The collected data were analyzed by ensuring the internal and external criticism of the various sources. Findings of the Study: Tagore and Montessori’s educational thoughts were inspired by the static conditions of the then prevalent traditional educational systems. Their pedagogical approaches stressed on the needs and interests of the child. Rabindranath Tagore’s approach towards evolution of an educational philosophy was his vision as a poet and his institution was an extension of his work of art. Maria Montessori’s educational theory was based on science and her institution was a pedagogical laboratory for her. Rabindranath Tagore’s poetic vision enabled him to devise a unique learning environment at Santiniketan based on the concept of ancient Indian ideals. Rabindranath asserted his mission to promote global peace and universal brotherhood through the creation of Visva-Bharati. Through Sriniketan Tagore tried to address the needs of rural India. Maria Montessori through scientific observation evolved learning materials in a classroom environment that fostered children’s natural desire to learn from ‘Children’s House’. She developed the Montessori Method, which was eventually adopted throughout the world. Living through the years of violent war and political upheaval, also inspired her to espouse the cause of peace education. The conclusion that the researcher could draw from the study was that though the educational practices of both these educators were different, there are many parallel ideas in their educational ideals and thoughts. Their innovative methods of teaching are still relevant in the present day education.

Language: English

Published: Kolkata, India, 2017

Conference Paper

From Pedagogical Principles to the Pedagogical Project: The Experience of San Michele Educational Garden

Available from: IATED Digital Library

15th International Technology, Education and Development Conference

Europe, Italy, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: The paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental research developed as part of the "Mitigation Risk Design" (MiRiDe) Workshop, provided by the School of Architecture, Urban Planning, Construction Engineering of the Politecnico di Milano on the theme of enhancing school spaces starting from participated projects (owner and designer enter into dialogue with users: teachers, children , parents and grandparents, attendants). The resumption of face-to-face teaching activities starting from last September (interrupted in February to activate health measures to contrast the spread of Covid-19) required a rethinking of the psycho-pedagogical dynamics and the training spaces. Starting from the National Guidelines implemented by the Italian Federation of Nursery Schools and following the pedagogical coordination meetings, it became clear the need to promote manipulative activities oriented to the personal experience of each child and to encourage collective and cooperative activities able to guarantee an adequate interpersonal distancing. The work underlines the most important phases of the experimentation started at the "San Michele" Kindergarten in Bellinzago Lombardo (Milan), which developed a participatory project on the theme of "Guarding and Cultivating" through the design of an educational garden. The paper is organized into five sections. The first section presents the San Michele school context, retracing its history and investigating the new needs due to the health emergency. The second section presents the multi-disciplinary research about the pedagogical principles underlying cultivation activities. Starting from the concise presentation of different cultural orientations, the work outlines the training features that characterize the experience of the garden in relation to the growth of the child. The third section explains how, from the identification of "good pedagogical practices", PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES have been defined for the San Michele Garden. The project, inspired by Montessori pedagogy, highlights how the child needs to experience nature and not just study it. Contact with nature, sensory exploration, manual skills, manipulation, imitation of adult life are just some of the experiential activities that lend themselves to an educational space such as the didactic garden. The fourth section summarizes the research that emerged from the comparative analysis with training projects on the theme of cultivating the educational garden. Through maps, summary sheets, and thematic insights, the elements necessary for the construction of a pedagogical project for the educational garden are outlined. The fifth section presents the EDUCATIONAL PROJECT for the San Michele Garden, indicating the educational objectives, the training actions, and the analysis of "pilot experiences" capable of testing the effectiveness of the project. The conclusions underline how the phase of "pedagogical design" constitutes a significant step for the subsequent "architectural design". It will make it possible to modify spaces (starting from the tools of architecture), making them places marked by anthropological experiences for all the people who will inhabit the educational garden.

Language: English

Published: Online Conference: International Academy of Technology, Education and Development (IATED), 2021

Pages: 9222-9232

DOI: 10.21125/inted.2021.1926

ISBN: 978-84-09-27666-0

Doctoral Dissertation

The Educational Theories of Rudolf Steiner: An Exposition of the Concepts Fundamental to Steiner's Theories and an Examination of Their Validity by Means of a Comparison with the Theories of Other Educationalists

Available from: British Librarty - EthOS

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Abstract/Notes: The main thesis deals with the educational theories of Rudolf Steiner. These theories are dealt with in Parts III to VIII of the thesis. Before this, in Part 1, there occurs a brief description of the background and life of Steiner; and, in Part II, a,, philosophical discussion of the basic tenets and assumptions upon which Steiner's educational theories rest. The areas dealt with in Parts III to VIII are divided into three. The first is an exposition of Steiner's ideas; the second is a comparison and appraisal of Steiner's theories with other educationalists; the third is an examination and evaluation of some of the concepts which are fundamental to Steiner's theories. The first of these areas i. e. the exposition of Steiner's ideas, is subdivided into three: his views on the nature of the child and the'way in which the child grows and develops; methodologies of teaching; and content and curriculum. An exposition of Steiner's theories on the nature of the child and its development occurs in Part III. - This is followed, in Part IV, by an evaluation of his theories by comparing them with other educationaliits. In Part V an examination of Steiner's theories on methodologies of teaching, by considering his views of "The Temperaments", occurs; - reference and comparisons to other educationalists are made in the same section. In. Part VI descriptions of the Waldorf curriculum are given and this is followed by an evaluation at the end of the section. The evaluation examines 'a number of concepts upon which the Waldorf curriculum has bpen formulated in the context of modern day curriculum objectives, design and learning experiences. In Part VII a brief historical perspective : is obtained of Steiner's theories by comparing his views with those of Plato, Rousseau and Montessori. This perspective is placed in a modern day context in Part VIII, and is obtained by an examination of many of the concepts fundamental to Steiner's theories. This includes a detailed critique of two of the main assumptions upon which Steiner's theories of education rest; an examination of the relationship of the individual to society in an educational context; and a discussion of the nature and aims of the educational process.

Language: English

Article

Montessori Literature Through the Lens of Leadership

Available from: University of Kansas Libraries

Publication: Journal of Montessori Research, vol. 6, no. 2

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Abstract/Notes: This article reviews the Montessori literature through the lens of leadership, using Maria Montessori’s writings for a perspective on leadership aligned with her principles and practices. Dr. Montessori was a strong leader who argued that adults, as leaders, should take direction from children as the spiritual builders of human beings. Her concept of the prepared environment, including the prepared adult, supports this foundation for leadership and has applications beyond the classroom context. Leadership in the Montessori context has a biological base but incorporates elements of service and morality that guide social reform with a peaceful telos. While there are overlaps with existing models of leadership, this review suggests that a distinct perspective on leadership does begin to emerge from Dr. Montessori’s legacy.

Language: English

DOI: 10.17161/jomr.v6i2.13537

ISSN: 2378-3923

Article

Working Together: Collaborative School Leadership Fosters a Climate of Success

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 17, no. 4

Pages: 38-43

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: In Montessori schools, the best way to strengthen the climate of success by the administrators is called "transformational leadership". Leadership theorist James McGregor Burns identifies transformational leadership as a mutual belief and value system, and a commitment between a principal and teachers to focus on what works best for their school. In addition to the principal and teachers, the whole community (parents, students, staff, and neighborhood locals) is united in pursuit of higher-level goals that are common to all (Sergiovanni, 1990). In this article, the author discusses the importance of collaborative school leadership, which is necessary in dealing with the dynamically complex challenges in schools. He further emphasizes on the four components of collaborative leadership that can help school leaders accomplish what works best for their schools: (1) Helping faculty members grow in their knowledge and experience through collaborative community meetings and team meetings; (2) Putting a system in place to support the professional growth of all teachers according to their needs; (3) Having a strategic plan developed by the entire school community that declares the school's mission and creates an action plan to achieve that mission; and (4) Providing opportunities for teachers and administrators to collaborate to deal with classroom challenges. Consequently, these four opportunities support transformational leadership where leaders and teachers are united in pursuit of higher-level goals. These strategies hold great promise for helping schools improve professional practice and student achievement.

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

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