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Article

President Wilson's Daughter to Aid Mme. Montessori Show Her System

Available from: Chronicling America (Library of Congress)

Publication: The Sun (New York) (New York City, NY)

Pages: 6

Americas, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The Montessori movement, considered by many a radical departure from traditional educational methods, will receive new emphasis and publicity from the fact that visitors to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition will see during the months of August, September, October and November not only a demonstration of the Montessori system but will see it conducted by the talented woman herself. Associated with her will be Miss Margaret Wilson, daughter of the President, Dr. David Starr Jordan, chancellor of Leland Stanford Junior University, and other well known educators. The Montessori method has been summed up as 'freedom for development of the child under best conditions disturbing as little as possible but helping buy every means this development.' Any estimate of Mme. Montessori's work to be of practical value will involve a comparison between the Montessori method and that of the kindergarten, since the kindergarten is the only system of organizes educational work for young children that has so far received general recognition. In the middle of the last century the sensitive woman soul and philosophic mind of Froebel grasped the fundamental principle of development and say that the first six or seven years are the most important in the life of the individual. After years of study he embodied what he conceived to be the fundamental principles of the education of little children in what is known as the kindergarten, and his ideas of the best means for the application of these principles in his kindergarten program, materials and devices. The discovery of the kindergarten marked a new era in the history of the educational world. Though suppressed for years by government authority in Germany, and received with much suspicion elsewhere, the kindergarten has become an integral part of the public school system of many cities and States in our country. Its introduction into England was championed by Charles Dickens, and in America it found an advocate in the philosopher and educator Dr. William T. Harris. Concerning the kindergarten and the Montessori methods, Dr. P. P. Claxton, United States Commissioner of Education says: 'Though aims and principles are the same for both Froebel and Montessori, their different methods of approach have resulted in difference in emphasis, program and decides. For those who see no further than the form there is apparent conflict. Many cannot understand that the work of both Froebel and Montessori must finally lose each its distinctive characteristics in the larger whole of a more perfect knowledge of the nature of infancy and the means of educating young children.' It must be said of Dr. Montessori that she is first, last and always scientific in her work. Prolonged training in the sciences that relate to human life, vitalized by practical experience in their application to defective children, gave her a method which is the outcome of genius, training and experience. She swung into prominence, against her wish, in the following way: While serving as assistant doctor at the psychiatric clinic of the University of Rome, Italy, she founder herself differing from her colleagues in that she felt, as she says, 'that mental deficiency presented chiefly a pedagogic rather than mainly a medical problem.' The expression of these views in an address brought Dr. Montessori prominently before the Minister of Public Instruction, and her work from this on assumed a public character. Her belief that the methods employed with deficient children 'contained educational principles more rational than those in use and that if applied to normal children they would develop or set free their personality in a marvelous and surprising way,' became her controlling idea, and is the very heart of the Montessori system. The system of Mme. Montessori is indissolubly joined with her famous 'didactic material.' Among this will be found small wooden frames to which are attached pieces of cloth or leather on which are buttons and buttonholes, hooks and eyes, eyelets and lacing cords, and strings to be tied and untied. There are also boxes of cylindrical insets and other simple devices to develop 'man's mystery over nature.' Mme. Montessori is her best interpreter when she says, 'We are inclined to believe that children are like puppets and we wash them and feed them as if they were dolls. We do not stop to think that the child that does not do does not know how to do. Our duty is that of helping him to make a conquest of such useful acts as nature intended he should perform for himself. The mother who feeds her child without making the least effort to teach him to hold the spoon for himself and to try to find his mouth with it is not a wise mother. She treats her son as though he were a doll. We call an individual disciplined when he is master of himself and can regulate his own conduct when it shall be necessary to follow some rule of life. If any educational act is to be efficacious it is necessary rigorously to avoid the arrest of spontaneous movements and the imposition of arbitrary tasks. It is of course understood here that we do not speak of a useless or dangerous act; this must be suppressed, destroyed.' The Montessori doctrine is therefore in substance that the child's inner self or personalit cannot rightfully develop unless free to express itself undirected and unguided by another person. As a consequence Dr. Montessori insists that each child be allowed bodily freedom and have as much unhampered liberty of action as possible in order that he may fully express his inner life in outer activity. The classic illustration by which Dr. Montessori puts in concrete form her doctrine is the following: 'One day the children had gathered in a circle about a basin of water containing some floating toys. A little boy 2 1/2 years old had been left outside the circle. He drew near to the other children and tried to force his way among them, but he was not strong enough to do this. The expression of thought on his face was intensely interesting. His eyes then lighted upon a little chair and he had evidently made up his mind to place it behind the group of children and climb on it. As he began to move toward the chair, his face illuminated with hope, a teacher seized him in her arms, lifted him above the heads of the other children, showed him the basin of water, saying, 'Come poor little one you shall see too.' The child seeing the floating toys did not experience the joy that he was about to feel through conquering the obstacles with his own force. The teacher hindered the child in this case from educating himself. The little fellow was about to feel himself a conqueror, and instead he found himself held within two imprisoning arms impotent.' The now famous 'House of the Children' in Rome, under the patronage of Queen Margherita, faithfully reflects and demonstrates the Montessori principles and methods. It has been described as an old orphan asylum, whose gray outer walls give no idea of the two beautiful and luxuriant courtyards within. These latter are filled with beds of blossoming plans, and the pillars of the inner porch are covered with clinging vines. The schoolroom in which the class for the children is held opens with wide double doors into one of these lovely courtyards, where the children play during hours in which they are not engaged in their Montessori exercises. Miss Elizabeth Harrison, president of the National Kindergarten Union says of this 'House of the Children': 'On my first visit I found the children busy getting out the 'didactic material' with which they were to employ themselves for the next hour and a quarter. Some came forward to shake hands with me; some merely smiled and nodded and did not interrupt their work. All seemed busy, happy and free. I afterward saw as many as eighty visitors in the room where there were only a dozen children, but none of the children were in the least disturbed by or seemingly conscious of the presence of the visitors. Most of the children came from nearby tenement houses, yet even the youngest of them washed their own hands and faces, put on clean, neat calico aprons and looked as fresh and clean as children from well cared for homes.' Comparing the kindergarten and the Montessori systems, the following differences appear: The kindergarten stresses group activities, while the Montessori system emphasized almost exclusively the development of the individual. The kindergartners say that education in coordinating of muscles, the special training of the child's senses and all such phases of individual development are expected to come in the nursery. The Montessori system has no place for stories; the kindergartners are famous for them. Mme. Montessori objects to stories for young children on the theory that all activities of the mind are derived from the outside world and are dependent on sense impressions, and that therefore the child should be kept within the realm of his own personal experience until he is at least 7 or 8 years old. It is not necessary to add that two __ meet at this point of difference. The most remarkable features of the Montessori system, as well as one of its decided points of divergence from the kindergarten, lies in its ___ of definite attitude on religious training. Froebel, trained in an environment where instruction in religion is practically nationwide, says that while the child unconsciously manifests teh divine impuse within him he must follow it with conscious insights persisting in what he knows to do right and must needs have definite training of this kind. Montessori, on the other hand, with nuns as her assistants and attendants in her 'House of the Children,' acknowledges the importance of religious training for little children, 'but confesses that as yet it is an unsolved problem to her.' Miss Harrison, who spent some time in Rome with Mme. Montessori says, 'She [Montessori] seems to feel that a child's spiritual nature will ___ aright if freedom is given ....

Language: English

ISSN: 1940-7831

Article

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A New Education for a New Era: The Contribution of the Conferences of the New Education Fellowship to the Disciplinary Field of Education 1921–1938

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education, vol. 40, no. 5-6

Pages: 733-755

New Education Fellowship, New Education Movement, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Abstract/Notes: This article examines the role played by the conferences of the New Education Fellowship (NEF) in the emerging disciplinary field of the sciences of education between the two world wars. As Fuchs points out in an article in the present issue, the field of education at this time was being internationalized, and, being an international movement, the field impacted on by the NEF was international in scope.1 As will be seen, the ideas and practices of the new education were mediated by national cultural differences and thus their impact on the disciplinary field varied from nation to nation.2 In addition, the development of the field in terms of journals, conferences and its institutionalization within nations was uneven, which presents further difficulties when trying to evaluate the impact of the NEF's conferences. Much of the following discussion focuses on their impact on the disciplinary field in England though, as will be seen, not exclusively so. One of the distinguishing features of the NEF other than its international scope was that it was a movement that connected lay enthusiasts for the educational reforms associated with the new education with major figures in the developing disciplines of psychology and education, such as Carl Gustav Jung, Jean Piaget and John Dewey. The relation between these lay and professional constituencies is examined and conclusions drawn regarding the professionalizing process in the field and the impact of the conferences on educational research and its institutionalization.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/0030923042000293742

ISSN: 0030-9230, 1477-674X

Conference Paper

Positive Socialization in an Educational Inclusion Group of a Montessori Elementary School

Available from: IATED Digital Library

8th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of the present work was to foster positive socialization in a multilevel group of a Montessori elementary school comprised by 20 students between 9 and 12 years old and many students with Special Education Needs. Positive socialization refers to the group of behaviors to aid the more vulnerable and concern for the others (Rudolph, 2000). It is important to nurture these behaviors during the school age since this is the stage where students require them to foster healthy coexistence and cooperation, as well as respect for differences and diversity among peers, which is closely related to educational inclusion, which premise is to make a school for all, for which the creation of spaces where coexistence and differences acceptance are nurtured taking into account the needs of each student (Romera, 2008). The Elementary Education Syllabus in Mexico mentions the inclusion principle, which emphasizes the teaching of values, attitudes and behaviors towards helping the others (Secretary of Public Education, 2011). Under this perspective, a traditional empirical quantitative applied field study was conducted. The design was of only one group, with two pretest-posttest measurings in which also 5 teachers participated in the group activities. The group was assessed in Positive socialization by means of the Socialization Battery BAS-3 by Silva and Martorell (1987) which defines a child’s profile by five factors. The pretest results indicated five subjects obtained a scoring below the mean value in the Concern for the others scale, this meant the subjects had little social sensitivity or concern for others. In addition, the Inclusive Practices in the Classroom Evaluation Guideline in its observation and self-report version by Garcia, Romero and Escalante (2009) was applied, which allowed to measure the levels of educational inclusion in the group. The results determined that four teachers obtained a scoring below the mean value in the planning area scale. Based on the pretest results obtained from both instruments, an intervention program was designed based on the Cooperative play proposal by Garaigordobil (2004), to foster prosocial behaviors, while the decision taking according to the students’ needs were worked with the teachers. At the end of the intervention, a posttest was applied to the group and the results indicated a significant increment in the positive socialization, especially, the behaviors towards helping the others in the students with the lowest scores from the pretest; teachers planning also improved to achieve a more inclusive environment in the group. The results were validated with the non-parametric Wilcoxon test using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

Language: English

Published: Barcelona, Spain: International Academy of Technology, Education and Development (IATED), 2016

Pages: 7934-7941

DOI: 10.21125/edulearn.2016.0741

ISBN: 978-84-608-8860-4

Doctoral Dissertation

A institucionalização do método Montessori no campo educacional brasileiro (1914-1952) [The institutionalization of the Montessori method in the Brazilian educational field (1914-1952)]

Available from: Federal University of Santa Catarina - Institutional Repository

Americas, Brazil, Latin America and the Caribbean, Montessori method of education - History, South America

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori constituiu, em 1907, em Roma, uma escola pública para crianças em situação de risco, a Casa dei Bambini, embasada numa educação integral alicerçada na liberdade, na atividade e na individualidade. Durante aproximadamente quatro décadas, Montessori realizou pesquisas sobre o desenvolvimento infantil, cujos resultados foram difundidos transnacionalmente, configurando práticas e pensamento educacional inovadores fundamentados na relação entre o professor, o aluno e um ambiente de aprendizagem promotor da paz, da autoeducação, da autonomia, do respeito ao outro e do espírito científico e crítico. Com isso, também empreendeu uma didática para professores e a venda em série dos materiais que idealizou. O objeto desta narrativa historiográfica respaldada em Certeau (2014), Chartier (2010) e Magalhães (2004) foi a institucionalização do Método Montessori no Brasil, no âmbito cronológico das cinco primeiras décadas do século passado. Objetivou: reconhecer as formulações teóricas que permitiram identificar a origem do Método Montessori e cotejá-las com os projetos brasileiros desenvolvidos entre 1914-1952 apontando permanências e contribuições à educação brasileira; historicizar o processo de institucionalização da Pedagogia montessoriana no Brasil; problematizar a sua forma de apropriação na Educação Infantil e Ensino Primário, identificando por que o método é relacionado principalmente ao uso de materiais didáticos específicos e de mobiliário adequado ao tamanho das crianças. Foi constatado que a primeira escola montessoriana no Brasil, proveniente da vertente educacional estadunidense, atendeu ao público infantil, em São Paulo, no ano de 1915, num investimento particular de Ciridião Buarque e Mary Buarque. Esta pedagogia se irradiou por intermédio das apropriações realizadas pelos docentes da Escola Normal da Praça, em São Paulo, estado que possuía, desde 1924, legislação que indicava o uso de materiais didáticos de Montessori e de Froebel, mas de forma desarticulada dos princípios pedagógicos. No Paraná, a educação montessoriana foi institucionalizada na legislação educacional da Pré-escola em 1915 e investimentos foram realizados em 1924, quando Lysímaco Costa adquiriu os ?enxovais montessorianos? para quatro Jardins de Infância. Em Curitiba, em 1927, durante a Primeira Conferência Nacional da Associação Brasileira de Educação (ABE) foram apresentadas teses com base montessoriana. Ainda no Paraná, no final da década de 1940, a utilização do método ocorreu no ensino público no Programa da Pré-escola e do Ensino Primário e em 1952 foi inaugurada a Escola Experimental Montessoriana Rural para crianças do Ensino Primário, por iniciativa de Eny Caldeira. Ela e Piper de Lacerda Borges, presidente da Associação Montessori do Brasil, fizeram curso com Montessori, na Itália, em 1951. Já na Bahia, em 1927, efetivaram-se cursos de férias para formação de professores durante os quais foram disseminadas pelos docentes da Escola Normal de Salvador concepções montessorianas e a ressignificação dos materiais, tanto para a Pré-escola como para o Ensino Primário. O teor destes cursos foi divulgado por revistas pedagógicas. No mesmo local, em 1924, Alípio Franca traduziu o Livro Pedagogia Científica. No Rio de Janeiro, materiais e frações do método montessoriano se disseminaram para a Educação Infantil por meio da legislação educacional, em 1921 e em 1929. Evidências da utilização do Método Montessori em perspectiva não restrita ao uso de materiais didáticos foram encontradas nos programas infantis radiofônicos realizados por Mary Buarque, em São Paulo, a partir de 1936; no vínculo do método com a assistência social e teosófica, na década de 1950, disseminado por Piper de Lacerda Borges; no reuso dado ao método pelo lusitano Agostinho da Silva, também nos anos 1950, na criação de algumas universidades. Conclui-se que, entre 1914 e 1952, o processo de institucionalização do método Montessori no Brasil foi capitaneado por diversos sujeitos, em diferentes lugares do país, com apropriações e representações. [Abstract : Montessori established, in 1907, in Rome, a public school to children at risk, The Casa dei Bambini, which since then preserve the Montessori method characteristics, advocating the integral education based on freedom, action and on the individuality. For approximately four decades, Montessori researched about Children development, whose results were spread abroad, defining practices and innovative educational thoughts grounded on the relationship between teacher, the student and the learning environment advancing peace, self-education, self-correction with autonomy in sight, mutual respect, critic and the scientific spirit. The Objective of this study is the Montessori method establishment in Brazil, on the chronologic aspect along the first five decades from the last century. It?s a biographical research and documentary with a historical focus. The analysis is grounded in Certeau (2014), Chartier(2010) e Magalhães(2004). Objective: Recognize the formulation of the Montessori method in projects of its establishment in Brazil between 1914-1952; To Problematize political conditions, social, economical and cultural to set up the Montessori method in Brazil and its Educational applicability, questioning the reductionist mode relating to its use as specific materials and its adequate child-sized furniture. It has been verified that The First Montessori-based in Brazil served the children?s audience, in São Paulo, in the year of 1915, coming from the American strand, in a private enterprise of Ciridião Buarque e Mary Buarque. Such pedagogy irradiated by the mediation of these appropriation and representations made by teachers of the Escola Normal da Praça. São Paulo possessed, since 1924, laws that indicated the use of Montessori and Froebel?s course-ware, mas in a inarticulate way to the pedagogical principles. In Paraná, the Montessori-based education was established in the child education legislation in 1915 and investments were performed in 1924, when Lysímaco Costa acquired the ?montesorri layettes? to 4 Kindergarden. In Curitiba, in 1927, at the First National Conference of The Brazilian Association of Education (ABE), were presented thesis with Montessori bases. Still in Paraná, at the end of 40s, the method utilization occurred in the public education in the Preschool Program and Primary School and in 1952 was opened in Curitiba The Rural Montessori Experimental School to primary school, by the enterprise of Eny Caldeira.Piper Borges de Lacerda and Eny Caldeira speeches, whom realized in 1950 a course with Montessori in Perugia.In 1927, in Bahia, were realized vacation courses to teachers complementary training which were disseminated by the teacher of the Normal School of Salvador the Montessori concepts and the course-ware new meanings to the child education such as primary education. The matters discussed in these courses were spread by pedagogical magazines. In 1924, Alípio Franca translated The Method of Scientific Pedagogy applied to the Child Education at the Boys? House. In Rio de Janeiro, course-wares and parts of Montessori method were spread to Children education by education law, in 1921 and in 1929. Evidences of the Montessori use in perspective non-restricted to materials were found in children radio shows performed by Mary Buarque, in São Paulo, from 1936, whereupon self-education, the independence, the knowledge of child development phases, the singers freedom movement and the minimal intervention of the adult tutor made part of the proposal. In a mystic perspective, there was a link with the method and the social and theosophic assistance, in the 50 decade, disseminating in Rio de Janeiro and Paraná, by Piper Lacerda Borges and his husband. In the reuse given to the Agostinho da Silva method, also in the 1950, were present in the some universities creations, such as the Federal University of Santa Catarina as well from Paraíba and The University of Brasilia. Concluded that between 1914 and 1952, the establishment process of the Montessori method in Brazil was lead by several different individuals, from different parts of the country, with appropriations and personal representations.]

Language: Portuguese

Published: Florianópolis, Brazil, 2017

Book

Towards a New Education: A Record and Synthesis of the Discussions on the New Psychology and the Curriculum at the Fifth World Conference of the New Education Fellowship held at Elsinore, Denmark, in August 1929

Conferences, Denmark, Europe, International Conference of the New Education Fellowship (5th, Helsingør/Elsinore, Denmark, 8-21 August, 1929), International Montessori Congress (1st, Helsingør/Elsinore, Denmark, 8-21 August 1929), New Education Fellowship, Northern Europe, Scandinavia, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Language: English

Published: New York: A. A. Knopf, 1930

Conference Paper

From Pedagogical Principles to the Pedagogical Project: The Experience of San Michele Educational Garden

Available from: IATED Digital Library

15th International Technology, Education and Development Conference

Europe, Italy, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: The paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental research developed as part of the "Mitigation Risk Design" (MiRiDe) Workshop, provided by the School of Architecture, Urban Planning, Construction Engineering of the Politecnico di Milano on the theme of enhancing school spaces starting from participated projects (owner and designer enter into dialogue with users: teachers, children , parents and grandparents, attendants). The resumption of face-to-face teaching activities starting from last September (interrupted in February to activate health measures to contrast the spread of Covid-19) required a rethinking of the psycho-pedagogical dynamics and the training spaces. Starting from the National Guidelines implemented by the Italian Federation of Nursery Schools and following the pedagogical coordination meetings, it became clear the need to promote manipulative activities oriented to the personal experience of each child and to encourage collective and cooperative activities able to guarantee an adequate interpersonal distancing. The work underlines the most important phases of the experimentation started at the "San Michele" Kindergarten in Bellinzago Lombardo (Milan), which developed a participatory project on the theme of "Guarding and Cultivating" through the design of an educational garden. The paper is organized into five sections. The first section presents the San Michele school context, retracing its history and investigating the new needs due to the health emergency. The second section presents the multi-disciplinary research about the pedagogical principles underlying cultivation activities. Starting from the concise presentation of different cultural orientations, the work outlines the training features that characterize the experience of the garden in relation to the growth of the child. The third section explains how, from the identification of "good pedagogical practices", PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES have been defined for the San Michele Garden. The project, inspired by Montessori pedagogy, highlights how the child needs to experience nature and not just study it. Contact with nature, sensory exploration, manual skills, manipulation, imitation of adult life are just some of the experiential activities that lend themselves to an educational space such as the didactic garden. The fourth section summarizes the research that emerged from the comparative analysis with training projects on the theme of cultivating the educational garden. Through maps, summary sheets, and thematic insights, the elements necessary for the construction of a pedagogical project for the educational garden are outlined. The fifth section presents the EDUCATIONAL PROJECT for the San Michele Garden, indicating the educational objectives, the training actions, and the analysis of "pilot experiences" capable of testing the effectiveness of the project. The conclusions underline how the phase of "pedagogical design" constitutes a significant step for the subsequent "architectural design". It will make it possible to modify spaces (starting from the tools of architecture), making them places marked by anthropological experiences for all the people who will inhabit the educational garden.

Language: English

Published: Online Conference: International Academy of Technology, Education and Development (IATED), 2021

Pages: 9222-9232

DOI: 10.21125/inted.2021.1926

ISBN: 978-84-09-27666-0

Doctoral Dissertation

The Educational Theories of Rudolf Steiner: An Exposition of the Concepts Fundamental to Steiner's Theories and an Examination of Their Validity by Means of a Comparison with the Theories of Other Educationalists

Available from: British Librarty - EthOS

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Abstract/Notes: The main thesis deals with the educational theories of Rudolf Steiner. These theories are dealt with in Parts III to VIII of the thesis. Before this, in Part 1, there occurs a brief description of the background and life of Steiner; and, in Part II, a,, philosophical discussion of the basic tenets and assumptions upon which Steiner's educational theories rest. The areas dealt with in Parts III to VIII are divided into three. The first is an exposition of Steiner's ideas; the second is a comparison and appraisal of Steiner's theories with other educationalists; the third is an examination and evaluation of some of the concepts which are fundamental to Steiner's theories. The first of these areas i. e. the exposition of Steiner's ideas, is subdivided into three: his views on the nature of the child and the'way in which the child grows and develops; methodologies of teaching; and content and curriculum. An exposition of Steiner's theories on the nature of the child and its development occurs in Part III. - This is followed, in Part IV, by an evaluation of his theories by comparing them with other educationaliits. In Part V an examination of Steiner's theories on methodologies of teaching, by considering his views of "The Temperaments", occurs; - reference and comparisons to other educationalists are made in the same section. In. Part VI descriptions of the Waldorf curriculum are given and this is followed by an evaluation at the end of the section. The evaluation examines 'a number of concepts upon which the Waldorf curriculum has bpen formulated in the context of modern day curriculum objectives, design and learning experiences. In Part VII a brief historical perspective : is obtained of Steiner's theories by comparing his views with those of Plato, Rousseau and Montessori. This perspective is placed in a modern day context in Part VIII, and is obtained by an examination of many of the concepts fundamental to Steiner's theories. This includes a detailed critique of two of the main assumptions upon which Steiner's theories of education rest; an examination of the relationship of the individual to society in an educational context; and a discussion of the nature and aims of the educational process.

Language: English

Doctoral Dissertation (Ph.D.)

A Comparative Historical and Philosophical Study of the Educational Theories of John Amos Comenius (1592-1670), Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852), and Maria Montessori (1870-1952)

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: This dissertation was a comparative study from the perspectives of history and philosophy of the educational theories of John Amos Comenius, Friedrich Froebel, and Maria Montessori. The purpose of this dissertation was: 1 - to determine whether or not there were parallel ideas in the educational theories of Comenius, Froebel, and Montessori; 2 - to show to what extent these ideas were actually similar or divergent; and 3 - to consider the additional question of whether or not Froebel and Montessori recognized their theories as part of a sequence of thought originating with Comenius. Using the extant published works of the three educators, descriptions were given of their educational theories in relation to the following topics: the position and principles of methodology; the role of sense realism and the changes in emphasis each educator made in the use of the sense realist concepts of teaching; the role of the religious point of view; the manner of teaching moral values; the role of intellectual and social influences of their respective historical periods in the formation of their educational theories; and the insights of the three educators which can be considered important in the educational world of the latter half of the twentieth century. These descriptions were followed by comparisons of the similarities and differences of the three educators in relation to the above-mentioned topics. The conclusions of the dissertation were the following: 1 - There were parallel ideas present in the educational theories of the three educators. The Comenian concepts and educational emphases which seemed to find restatement most often in the works of Froebel and Montessori were the belief in the importance and the necessity of the use of the correct method of teaching; the theory that if the correct method were used, anything could be taught to nearly anyone; the basic position of the concepts of sense realism in the teaching methodology; and the supreme importance of a definite religious perspective as the groundwork and frame of reference for the whole educational system. 2 - There appeared to be no recognition of influence of the work of Comenius by Froebel and Montessori. In relation to Froebel's gifts or didactic apparatus and his principle of self-activity, there appeared to be a slight recognition of influence by Montessori in the creation of her didactic material and the formulation of her principle of spontaneous activity in a carefully prepared environment. 3 - Concerning the insights of the three educators which may be considered important for education in this century, Comenius was cited for his outstanding ability to systematize knowledge, his championship of the humanitarian ideal of freedom, and his pansophic ideal of universal knowledge through a universal college system with uniform textbooks in a universal auxiliary language. The study of Froebel's work can provide more insights into the educational possibilities of the preschool age child obtained through self-activity. The study of the work of Montessori provides help in the greater educational use of the period of postnatal infancy, and the greater application of the disciplines of anthropology, physiology, and psychology to education. Montessori's work can also prove to be significant in the search for more effective means of education for the culturally deprived child. All three educators seemed to possess an ability to synthesize - to see things in their whole relationships. Specifically they applied this insight to means of educating all facets of human personality.

Language: English

Published: Denver, Colorado, 1970

Doctoral Dissertation

The New Education Fellowship and the Reconstruction of Education: 1945 to 1966

Available from: UCL

Educational change, Europe, New Education Fellowship, New Education Movement, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Abstract/Notes: During the 1920s and 1930s, the New Education Fellowship (NEF), founded in 1919, established itself as an important international force for radical education and educational experimentation. Its membership was drawn from many different countries and included some of the most prominent progressive educators of that period. By 1945, however, the movement was experiencing international decline. Membership had fallen and in many countries the new educational network had ceased to exist. This situation was a result not only of the destruction of the new educational network in Europe during the Second World War, but also of the change in the outlook of educationists and reformers who sought new solutions to the problems of the reconstruction of society and education. The purpose of this study is to explore the NEF's importance as a disseminator of educational and political ideals after 1945 and its contribution to debates about the post-war reconstruction of education and society, using the considerable but currently little-researched material held at the Institute of Education, University of London. This thesis examines the NEF's network after 1945 and considers how far the NEF successfully extended its membership amongst school teachers and educationists at teacher training colleges. The NEF also sought to develop an international network. The international activities of the NEF, both through links with other organisations, for example, the United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), and its membership in those countries where the NEF maintained branches are explored in order to gauge the success of the NEF as a movement with internationalist ambitions.

Language: English

Published: London, England, 2009

Doctoral Dissertation

The Growth of the Montessori Movement in the United States, 1909-1970

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Americas, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to examine the growth of the Montessori Movement in the United States during the periods 1909-1921 and 1952-1970. The Montessori system was viewed as an innovation in American education and special attention was directed to the leaders of the movement and the role they played in its growth. The primary sources used for the initial period were the papers of Mabel Bell kept in the Bell Room of the National Geographic Society and the McClure Manuscripts housed in the Lilly Library at Indiana University. For the latter period, the following sources were utilized: American Montessori Society files, files of Whitby School, tape recordings from the American Montessori Society, interviews with Nancy Rambusch, Cleo Monson, John McDermott and correspondence with Mario Montessori and Margaret Stephensen. In addition to visits to the original Casa dei Bambini in Rome and modern Case in Italy, many Montessori schools in the United States were observed. The background of Dr. Montessori was discussed and the influences, principles and contributions of her method were examined. The period from 1909-1921 was analyzed with reference to the leadership of Maria Montessori, S.S. McClure, Mabel Bell, Helen Parkhurst and William Kilpatrick. The social, educational, political, theoretical and communications problems were examined to determine possible reasons for the demise of Montessori education in that era. The renascance [sic] of Montessori education in the United States (1952-1970) was examined with emphasis on the leadership of Mario Montessori, Nancy Rambusch, Margaret Stephenson, Cleo Monson and John McDermott. The areas of social, educational, theoretical and communications were studied for likely reasons for the resurgence of Montessori education in America. A paradigmatic schema was used to compare the role of the leaders in each period: Policy maker- Maria Montessori and Mario Montessori; Promoter- S.S. McClure and Nancy Rambusch; Organizer- Mabel Bell and Cleo Monson; Disciple- Helen Parkhurst and Margaret Stephenson; Professional Educator- William Kilpatrick and John McDermott. The qualities of leadership which led to the original demise of the Montessori Movement were: 1) Mistrust and lack of direct contact with United States educators and Montessori promoters by Maria Montessori; 2) Withdrawal of lecture and film rights from S.S. McClure by Dr. Montessori; 3) Dissolution of Montessori organizations by Mabel Bell and Helen Parkhurst because of lack of confidence in them by Maria Montessori; 5) Strong influence by William Kilpatrick (who did not believe in the Montessori method) on kindergarten teachers. The rebirth of the Montessori Movement was influenced by: 1) Mario Montessori's strong adherence to the original ideas of Maria Montessori; 2) Nancy Rambusch's proper use of leadership and timing and the formation of the American Montessori Society by her; 3) The organized efforts of the American Montessori Society and its teacher-training and public relations function by Cleo Monson; 4) The loyalty and knowledge displayed by Margaret Stephenson in running the Association Montessori Internationale teacher-training course in Washington; 5) the efforts of John McDermott to put Montessori in an American cultural context in teacher-training and professionalization of Montessori education. The writer finds strong indications for the thesis that it was the leadership which effected the growth of the Montessori Movement in the United States and recommends further research into other educational innovations in the United States such as the British Infant School Movement and Headstart with attention to the leadership.

Language: English

Published: New York, 1971

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