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Doctoral Dissertation

A Comparative Historical and Philosophical Study of the Educational Theories of John Amos Comenius (1592-1670), Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852), and Maria Montessori (1870-1952)

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: This dissertation was a comparative study from the perspectives of history and philosophy of the educational theories of John Amos Comenius, Friedrich Froebel, and Maria Montessori. The purpose of this dissertation was: 1 - to determine whether or not there were parallel ideas in the educational theories of Comenius, Froebel, and Montessori; 2 - to show to what extent these ideas were actually similar or divergent; and 3 - to consider the additional question of whether or not Froebel and Montessori recognized their theories as part of a sequence of thought originating with Comenius. Using the extant published works of the three educators, descriptions were given of their educational theories in relation to the following topics: the position and principles of methodology; the role of sense realism and the changes in emphasis each educator made in the use of the sense realist concepts of teaching; the role of the religious point of view; the manner of teaching moral values; the role of intellectual and social influences of their respective historical periods in the formation of their educational theories; and the insights of the three educators which can be considered important in the educational world of the latter half of the twentieth century. These descriptions were followed by comparisons of the similarities and differences of the three educators in relation to the above-mentioned topics. The conclusions of the dissertation were the following: 1 - There were parallel ideas present in the educational theories of the three educators. The Comenian concepts and educational emphases which seemed to find restatement most often in the works of Froebel and Montessori were the belief in the importance and the necessity of the use of the correct method of teaching; the theory that if the correct method were used, anything could be taught to nearly anyone; the basic position of the concepts of sense realism in the teaching methodology; and the supreme importance of a definite religious perspective as the groundwork and frame of reference for the whole educational system. 2 - There appeared to be no recognition of influence of the work of Comenius by Froebel and Montessori. In relation to Froebel's gifts or didactic apparatus and his principle of self-activity, there appeared to be a slight recognition of influence by Montessori in the creation of her didactic material and the formulation of her principle of spontaneous activity in a carefully prepared environment. 3 - Concerning the insights of the three educators which may be considered important for education in this century, Comenius was cited for his outstanding ability to systematize knowledge, his championship of the humanitarian ideal of freedom, and his pansophic ideal of universal knowledge through a universal college system with uniform textbooks in a universal auxiliary language. The study of Froebel's work can provide more insights into the educational possibilities of the preschool age child obtained through self-activity. The study of the work of Montessori provides help in the greater educational use of the period of postnatal infancy, and the greater application of the disciplines of anthropology, physiology, and psychology to education. Montessori's work can also prove to be significant in the search for more effective means of education for the culturally deprived child. All three educators seemed to possess an ability to synthesize - to see things in their whole relationships. Specifically they applied this insight to means of educating all facets of human personality.

Language: English

Published: Denver, Colorado, 1970

Doctoral Dissertation

A Comparative Study of the Philosophies of John Amos Comenius and Maria Montessori on the Education of Children

Available from: Loyola University Chicago

John Amos Comenius - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources

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Language: English

Published: Chicago, Illinois, 1965

Article

“The Ayn Rand School for Tots”: John Dewey, Maria Montessori, and Objectivist Educational Philosophy during the Postwar Years

Available from: Historical Studies in Education (Canada)

Publication: Historical Studies in Education/Revue d'histoire de l'éducation, vol. 25, no. 1

John Dewey - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Objectivism (Philosophy) - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Progressive education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: Objectivism, the libertarian philosophy established by Ayn Rand during the postwar years, has attracted a great deal of attention from philosophers, political scientists, economists, and English professors alike in recent years, but it hasn’t received much notice from historians with an interest in education. This article will address that problem by discussing how Rand and her followers established a philosophy of education during the 1960s and 1970s that was based, in part, on vilifying the so-called collectivist ideas of John Dewey and lionizing the so-called individualist ideas of Maria Montessori. Unfortunately, the narrative that emerged during this time seriously misrepresented the ideas of both Dewey and Montessori, resulting in a somewhat distorted view of both educators.

Language: English

DOI: 10.32316/hse/rhe.v25i1.4285

ISSN: 0843-5057, 1911-9674

Article

O Ensino de Matemática no Pensamento de Comênius, Pestalozzi e Montessori [The Teaching of Mathematics in the Thinking of Comênius, Pestalozzi and Montessori]

Available from: SciELO

Publication: Educar em Revista, vol. 36

Pages: e64213

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Abstract/Notes: Neste artigo, discutimos os fundamentos para o ensino da Matemática na Pedagogia Tradicional e na Pedagogia Nova, marcadamente, a partir das teorias de fronteira de Comenius, Pestalozzi e Montessori. Esta pesquisa é de cunho documental e bibliográfico. Ao final da análise, concluímos que: há uma circulação de ideias entre o pensamento educacional de Comenius, Pestalozzi e Maria Montessori no que diz respeito ao uso de materiais didáticos e que nos métodos por estes pensadores a Matemática está associada às atividades práticas e gradativas. [In this article, we discuss the fundamentals for the teaching of Mathematics in Traditional Pedagogy and New Pedagogy, markedly, based on theories of Comenius, Pestalozzi and Montessori. This research is documental and bibliographic. At the end of the analysis, we conclude that: there is a circulation of ideas between the educational thoughts of Comenius, Pestalozzi and Maria Montessori regarding the use of didactic materials and that in the methods proposed by these thinkers Mathematics is associated with practical and gradual activities.]

Language: Portuguese, English

DOI: 10.1590/0104-4060.64213

ISSN: 0104-4060, 1984-0411

Article

Educazione rivolta a tutti. Comenio, Itard, Séguin e Maria Montessori: il ruolo della pedagogia [Education aimed at all. Comenius, Itard, Séguin and Maria Montessori: the role of pedagogy]

Publication: Handicap e scuola, vol. 31, no. 9-10

Pages: 6-8

Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, Jean Marc Gaspard Itard - Biographic sources, Jean Marc Gaspard Itard - Philosophy, John Amos Comenius - Biographic sources, John Amos Comenius - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, People with disabilities, Édouard Séguin - Biographic sources, Édouard Séguin - Philosophy

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Language: Italian

Article

Reggio Emilia, Maria Montessori, and John Dewey: Dispelling Teachers’ Misconceptions and Understanding Theoretical Foundations

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: Early Childhood Education Journal, vol. 39, no. 4

Pages: 235-237

Comparative education, John Dewey - Biographic sources, John Dewey - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Progressive education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Reggio Emilia approach (Early childhood education)

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Abstract/Notes: During the past century Loris Malaguzzi (1920–1994), a principal figure in the establishment and creation of the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy, was one of the seminal thinkers in early childhood education. The influence of John Dewey, one of the most important American philosophers, is visible in contemporary early childhood classrooms of Reggio Emilia. However, as this editorial contends, in the author’s experience, many pre-service teachers have the misconception that the two programs that originated in Italy—Maria Montessoir and Reggio Emilia—are synonymous. This editorial discusses another connection; namely, the relationship between John Dewey’s philosophy of education and the pedagogy of Reggio Emilia preschools. Pre-service teachers’ understanding of Dewey’s theory and the Reggio Emilia experience makes an important contribution to the development of their personal teaching philosophy and understanding of best practices in the field.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/s10643-011-0451-3

ISSN: 1082-3301, 1573-1707

Article

Jan Arnos Comenius en Montessori

Available from: Stadsarchief Amsterdam (Amsterdam City Archives)

Publication: Montessori Opvoeding, vol. 7, no. 16

Pages: 131-136

Comparative education, John Amos Comenius - Biographic sources, John Amos Comenius - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Language: Dutch

Article

Kaksi pedagogista elämäntyötä: John Dewey e M. Montessori [The life work of two pedagogues: John Dewey and M. Montessori]

Publication: Kasvatus ja koulu (Jyväskylän Yliopisto. Kasvatustieteiden tutkimuslaitos) [Education and school (University of Jyväskylä. Institute of Educational Sciences)], no. 1

Pages: 1-13

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Language: Finnish

ISSN: 0783-1552

Article

Moving Out with Montessori [John P. Blessington, Delores Erby, Barbara Grosch, Pauletta Hansel, Alix Harper, Kit Johnson, Kathryn Carey Jones and Patti Tepper-Rasmussen, Roxanne Rhoades, Sheri Schlongberger, Terre Stout]

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 4, no. 2

Pages: 28–34

⛔ No DOI found

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Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Article

John Dewey y María Montessori [John Dewey and Maria Montessori]

Available from: Biblioteca Digital Casa de la Cultura de Ecuador (CCE)

Publication: Revista Ecuatoriana de Educación, vol. 6, no. 23

Pages: 3-8

Americas, Ecuador, Latin America and the Caribbean, South America

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Language: Spanish

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