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Article

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Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 32, no. 1

Pages: 54-55

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Teacher education programs affiliated by the American Montessori Society provide comprehensive courses of study that prepare the adult learners of today to be the highly skilled, highly qualified Montessori teachers and leaders of tomorrow. ARIZONA ARIZONA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Chandler KHALSA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary II, Elementary I-II Tucson ARKANSAS ARKANSAS CENTER FOR MONTESSORI STUDIES Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Little Rock CALIFORNIA CAPITAL EDUCATION INSTITUTE Early Childhood Claremont COTTAGE MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Fresno Additional Site: Lancaster EAST BAY MONTESSORI TRAINING Early Childhood Fremont FOUNTAINHEAD MONTESSORI ADULT EDUCATION Early Childhood Dublin MONTESSORI CENTER FOR TEACHER EDUCATION Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary II, Elementary I-II San Diego MONTESSORI HILLS ACADEMY TEACHER CERTIFICATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Chula Vista MONTESSORI INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES Early Childhood Castro Valley MONTESSORI TEACHER ACADEMY Early Childhood Dana Point MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER/SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II San Leandro, San Mateo, Sunnyvale Additional Site: West Covina MONTESSORI TRAINING CENTER Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Shingle Springs UNIVERSITY MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM AT UC IRVINE Early Childhood Irvine COLORADO MONTESSORI EDUCATION CENTER OF THE ROCKIES Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II, Administrator Boulder DELAWARE DELAWARE INSTITUTE FOR MONTESSORI EDUCATION Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Hockessin MONTESSORI INSTITUTE FOR TEACHER EDUCATION Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Wilmington FLORIDA BARRY UNIVERSITY MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I-II Miami Shores DUHOVKA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I-II Additional Site: Fernandina Beach MAITLAND MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Maitland MONTESSORI ACADEMY TRAINING INSTITUTE Early Childhood Pembroke Pines MONTESSORI TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTE/MTTI Early Childhood Palmetto Bay ORLANDO MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE Early Childhood Celebration PALM HARBOR MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood Tarpon Springs SUMMIT MONTESSORI TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I Davie GEORGIA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE-ATLANTA Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Atlanta HAWAII CHAMINADE UNIVERSITY OF HONOLULU MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Honolulu ILLINOIS MIDWEST MONTESSORI TEACHER TRAINING CENTER Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Evanston MONTESSORI HEARTLAND TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood Moline SETON MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Administrator Clarendon Hills INDIANA MONTESSORI TEACHER ACADEMY AT EDISON LAKES Early Childhood Mishawaka KENTUCKY GREATER CINCINNATI CENTER FOR MONTESSORI EDUCATION Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Covington MAINE MAINE MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Early Childhood Falmouth MARYLAND INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED MONTESSORI STUDIES Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II, Administrator Silver Spring MARYLAND CENTER FOR MONTESSORI STUDIES Early Childhood Lutherville MONTGOMERY MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Rockville MASSACHUSETTS CAMBRIDGE MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler Cambridge MONTESSORI ELEMENTARY TEACHER TRAINING COLLABORATIVE Elementary I, Elementary II, Elementary I-II Lexington MONTESSORI INSTITUTE - NEW ENGLAND Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Beverly NEW ENGLAND MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood Newton NORTHEAST MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Wenham MICHIGAN ADRIAN DOMINICAN MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE Early Childhood Adrian MICHIGAN MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II, Elementary II Waterford MINNESOTA VIRGINIA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood Additional Site: Excelsior MISSOURI HOPE MONTESSORI EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood St. Louis MONTANA MONTANA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE Early Childhood Kalispell NEBRASKA MID-AMERICA MONTESSORI TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Omaha NEVADA MONTESSORI TRAINING OF SOUTHERN NEVADA Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Las Vegas NEW JERSEY MONTESSORI CENTER FOR TEACHER DEVELOPMENT Early Childhood Morristown MONTESSORI TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTE OF MERCER COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE Early Childhood Robbinsville PRINCETON CENTER TEACHER EDUCATION Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II, Administrator Princeton WEST SIDE MONTESSORI SCHOOL TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Infant & Toddler Additional Site: Whitehouse Station NEW YORK BUFFALO MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Clarence CENTER FOR MONTESSORI EDUCATION I NEW YORK Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Administrator New Rochelle WEST SIDE MONTESSORI SCHOOL TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II, Administrator New York City NORTH CAROLINA CENTER FOR MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION/NORTH CAROLINA Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Huntersville OHIO CINCINNATI MONTESSORI SECONDARY TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Secondary I, Secondary I-II Cincinnati COLUMBUS MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Columbus XAVIER UNIVERSITY MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Cincinnati OKLAHOMA OKLAHOMA CITY UNIVERSITY MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Oklahoma City OREGON MONTESSORI OF ALAMEDA TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Portland PENNSYLVANIA CHESTNUT HILL COLLEGE MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Philadelphia PUERTO RICO INSTITUTO NUEVA ESCUELA Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II, Secondary I Rio Piedras SOUTH CAROLINA GULF COAST MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Elementary I, Elementary I-II Additional Site: Charleston HOUSTON MONTESSORI CENTER Secondary I-II, Administrator Additional Site: Charleston LANDER UNIVERSITY MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary II, Elementary I-II Greenwood NORTHEAST MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Early Childhood Additional Site: Mt. Pleasant SEACOAST CENTER FOR EDUCATION Elementary I, Elementary I-II Charleston TENNESSEE MONTESSORI TRAINING CENTER OF BRENTWOOD Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Brentwood TEXAS DALLAS MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Plano GULF COAST MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Elementary I, Elementary I-II Houston HOUSTON MONTESSORI CENTER Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary II, Elementary I-II, Secondary I, Secondary I-II, Administrator Houston MONTESSORI DEVELOPMENT CENTER OF DFW Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Irving MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE-HOUSTON Early Childhood Houston NORTH TEXAS MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Early Childhood Frisco SHELTON MONTESSORI TRAINING Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Dallas UTAH INSTITUTE FOR MONTESSORI INNOVATION AT WESTMINSTER COLLEGE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary II, Elementary I-II, Administrator Salt Lake City VIRGINIA NORTHERN VIRGINIA MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Early Childhood Ashburn VIRGINIA CENTER FOR MONTESSORI STUDIES Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Richmond VIRGINIA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood Chesapeake WASHINGTON MONTESSORI CENTER FOR TEACHER EDUCATION-WASHINGTON STATE Early Childhood Bellevue MONTESSORI EDUCATION INSTITUTE OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Bothell WISCONSIN UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN- RIVER FALLS MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II River Falls INTERNATIONAL BAISHAN MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Qingdao, CHINA BEIJING HEART & MIND MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Beijing, CHINA Early Childhood Additional Site: Yiwu, CHINA CADALIN GLOBAL EDUCATION Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Hsinchu City, TAIWAN CAPITAL COLLEGE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Richmond, BC, CANADA CAPITAL EDUCATION INSTITUTE Early Childhood Additional Site: Nanning, CHINA CENTRE FOR ADVANCED MONTESSORI STUDIES-VANCOUVER Elementary I, Elementary I-II Vancouver, BC, CANADA CENTRO DE ENSEÑANZA MONTESSORI, A.C. Early Childhood Tijuana, BC, MEXICO CENTRO DE ENTRENAMIENTO MONTESSORI Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Monterrey, NL, MEXICO THE CHILDREN'S HOUSE MONTESSORI EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood Beijing, CHINA DR. JUN INSTITUTE OF MONTESSORI EDUCATION Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Seoul, REPUBLIC OF KOREA DUHOVKA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC ETONKIDS MONTESSORI TEACHER TRAINING ACADEMY Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Beijing, CHINA HOUSTON MONTESSORI CENTER Secondary I, Secondary I-II Additional Site: Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC INFINITY MONTESSORI ACADEMY OF HONG KONG Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, HONG KONG INTERNATIONAL MONTESSORI EDUCATION INSTITUTE Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Taichung City, TAIWAN INTERNATIONAL MONTESSORI TEACHING INSTITUTE Early Childhood Beijing, CHINA KOREAN INSTITUTE FOR MONTESSORI Early Childhood Seoul, REPUBLIC OF KOREA KOREAN MONTESSORI COLLEGE Early Childhood Seoul, REPUBLIC OF KOREA LMS MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Windsor, ON, CANADA MONTESSORI INSTITUTE FOR TEACHER EDUCATION Early Childhood Additional Site: Istanbul, TURKEY MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER/SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Infant & Toddler Additional Site: Taipei City, TAIWAN Early Childhood Additional Site: Kowloon Tong, HONG KONG NORTHEAST MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Additional Site: Chengdu, CHINA OKLAHOMA CITY UNIVERSITY MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Additional Site: Taipei City, TAIWAN PALM HARBOR MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood Additional Site: Beijing, CHINA SHANGHAI MONTESSORI EDUCATION ACADEMY Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Administrator Shanghai, CHINA WEIMING MONTESSORI EDUCATION CENTRE Early Childhood Beijing, CHINA WEST SIDE MONTESSORI SCHOOL TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Infant & Toddler Additional Site: Beijing, CHINA

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Article

Yanzheng haishi zhiyi: Meiguo jiaoyu xuejie dui meng tai suo li jiaoyu de pipan / 验证还是质疑:美国教育学界对蒙台梭利教育的批判 [Verification or Questioning: American Educational Circles’ Criticism on Montessori Education]

Publication: Xueqian jiaoyu yanjiu / 学前教育研究 [Studies in Preschool Education], vol. 2019, no. 10

Pages: 24-31

Americas, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., North America, United States of America, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: At the beginning of the 20th century, Montessori’s educational thought and practice disseminated to the United States in a short and concentrated way. This process was always accompanied by the questioning and criticism of Montessori education in the American educational circles. The in-depth analysis and inspiration of the questioning and criticisms are currently lacking in domestic and foreign research. Most of the educational psychologists, progressive education scholars, and Froebelians who dominated the American educational community were critical of Montessori education. American education scholars criticized Montessori education on two levels: fundamentals of philosophy and psychology, curriculum system. They believed that Montessori's education theory lagged behind the times, and the curriculum system ignored young children’s sociality, imagination and freedom. These criticisms reflected the cautious attitude of the American educational scholars who didn’t blindly follow the imported theory, and promoted the Americanization of Montessori education. At present, China’s educational academics are keen to interpret and verify when introducing western educational theories. This situation is not conducive to the creation of original educational theories. In order to change this situation, the Chinese educational scholars should first establish cultural self-confidence, treating western educational theories with an equal mindset and perspective; second discriminate and absorb the foreign educational theories on the basis of reflective criticism; third, root in China’s educational practice. In this way can the scholars better absorb western educational theories’ essence and promote the creation of original educational theories.

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 1007-8169

Doctoral Dissertation

La Problematique de l'Education a la Paix a la Lumiere de Deux Representants de l'Education Nouvelle: Célestin Freinet et Maria Montessori [The Problematic of Education for Peace in the Light of Two Representatives of New Education: Célestin Freinet and Maria Montessori]

Available from: Université Lyon 2 Theses

Célestin Freinet - Biographic sources, Célestin Freinet - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, New Education Fellowship, Peace education

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Abstract/Notes: L'étude du thème de l'éducation à la paix en regard des options spécifiques, éducatives et pédagogiques - historiquement ancrées - de Célestin Freinet et Maria Montessori, inscrites dans le mouvement de l'Education nouvelle, imposent avant tout d'interroger le concept de paix à la lumière des approches philosophiques. La notion de conflit, comme lieu - d'espace et de temps, moment différé à la violence - où s'articulent les rapports de tensions entre les contraires mis en présence, apparaît dès lors comme l'élément central à prendre en considération dans ce qui caractérise les relations humaines, afin que ces dernières ne dégénèrent pas en violence aveugle. S'il est indéniable que les deux pédagogues ont été animés par un profond désir de voir la paix s'installer dans le monde après deux catastrophes mondiales, il n'en demeure pas moins que leurs approches en ce domaine révèlent, à l'instar de leur attitude vis à vis des conflits armés, un déni de la notion même de conflit au sein des relations entre les hommes et par voie de conséquence de la valeur qui lui est attachée. L'établissement d'une adéquation entre nature et paix, renforcée en cette époque charnière du début du XXe siècle, amène Célestin Freinet et Maria Montessori à asseoir leurs conceptions, pour l'un comme pour l'autre, sur les bases du naturalisme et du vitalisme en prenant, pour Maria Montessori plus particulièrement, le chemin de la religion. C'est en cela que les conceptions et démarches de ces deux pédagogues, s'inscrivant dans le mouvement plus général de l'Education nouvelle, s'appuient sur la nécessité de l'éradication des conflits. Outre le fait que par la voie du pacifisme, la paix ne saurait advenir, l'éducation à la paix demeure un problème parce qu'elle se doit de considérer la composante conflictuelle tant dans les relations inter-individuelles qu'inter-éthniques et inter-étatiques. Il reste au demeurant que non seulement on peut mais que l'on doit éduquer à la paix, au risque de la violence possible, afin d'assurer aux futures générations l'apprentissage de liberté et de l'autonomie. [The probematics of education for peace in light of two representatives of the New education : Célestin Freinet and Maria Montessori The study of education for peace theme from the specific, educational and pedagogical – historically rooted – options of Célestin Freinet and Maria Montessori, registered in the New Education movement, imposes first to question the concept of peace in the light of philosophical approaches. The notion of conflict, as unit – of space and time, moment differred to violence – where tension struggles between opposites, appear from that time as the central element to be considered in what caracterizes human relations, so that these relations do not degenerate in blind violence. If it is undeniable that both pedagogues have been incited by a deep desire to see peace spreading over the world after both world catastrophes, the fact remains that their approaches in this domain reveal, in the manner of their attitude towards armed conflicts, a denial of the very notion of conflict in relations between men and consequently of the value hereto attached. The setting-up of an adequacy between nature and peace, reinforced at this hinge time of the beginning of the 20th century, leads Célestin Freinet and Maria Montessori to ground their conceptions, for both of them, on the basis of naturalism and vitalism, by taking, especially for Maria Montessori, the way of religion. Conceptions and approaches of these both pedagogues, in the scope of the general New Education movement, lean on the necessity to eradicate conflicts. Besides the fact that by the way of pacifism, peace could not come to pass, education to peace remains a problem because it has to consider the conflict element in inter-individual as well as inter-ethnical and inter-state relations. The fact remains that education to peace not only can be but has to be dispensed, at the risk of possible violence, in order to ensure to future generations learning of freedom and autonomy.]

Language: French

Published: Lyon, France, 2004

Doctoral Dissertation

A Comparative Historical and Philosophical Study of the Educational Theories of John Amos Comenius (1592-1670), Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852), and Maria Montessori (1870-1952)

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: This dissertation was a comparative study from the perspectives of history and philosophy of the educational theories of John Amos Comenius, Friedrich Froebel, and Maria Montessori. The purpose of this dissertation was: 1 - to determine whether or not there were parallel ideas in the educational theories of Comenius, Froebel, and Montessori; 2 - to show to what extent these ideas were actually similar or divergent; and 3 - to consider the additional question of whether or not Froebel and Montessori recognized their theories as part of a sequence of thought originating with Comenius. Using the extant published works of the three educators, descriptions were given of their educational theories in relation to the following topics: the position and principles of methodology; the role of sense realism and the changes in emphasis each educator made in the use of the sense realist concepts of teaching; the role of the religious point of view; the manner of teaching moral values; the role of intellectual and social influences of their respective historical periods in the formation of their educational theories; and the insights of the three educators which can be considered important in the educational world of the latter half of the twentieth century. These descriptions were followed by comparisons of the similarities and differences of the three educators in relation to the above-mentioned topics. The conclusions of the dissertation were the following: 1 - There were parallel ideas present in the educational theories of the three educators. The Comenian concepts and educational emphases which seemed to find restatement most often in the works of Froebel and Montessori were the belief in the importance and the necessity of the use of the correct method of teaching; the theory that if the correct method were used, anything could be taught to nearly anyone; the basic position of the concepts of sense realism in the teaching methodology; and the supreme importance of a definite religious perspective as the groundwork and frame of reference for the whole educational system. 2 - There appeared to be no recognition of influence of the work of Comenius by Froebel and Montessori. In relation to Froebel's gifts or didactic apparatus and his principle of self-activity, there appeared to be a slight recognition of influence by Montessori in the creation of her didactic material and the formulation of her principle of spontaneous activity in a carefully prepared environment. 3 - Concerning the insights of the three educators which may be considered important for education in this century, Comenius was cited for his outstanding ability to systematize knowledge, his championship of the humanitarian ideal of freedom, and his pansophic ideal of universal knowledge through a universal college system with uniform textbooks in a universal auxiliary language. The study of Froebel's work can provide more insights into the educational possibilities of the preschool age child obtained through self-activity. The study of the work of Montessori provides help in the greater educational use of the period of postnatal infancy, and the greater application of the disciplines of anthropology, physiology, and psychology to education. Montessori's work can also prove to be significant in the search for more effective means of education for the culturally deprived child. All three educators seemed to possess an ability to synthesize - to see things in their whole relationships. Specifically they applied this insight to means of educating all facets of human personality.

Language: English

Published: Denver, Colorado, 1970

Article

Prospects of Morality-Based Education in the 21st Century

Available from: University of Management and Technology (Pakistan)

Publication: Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, vol. 11, no. 1

Pages: 1-21

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Abstract/Notes: This article proposes to re-focus education towards morality and universal values, which have always been the traditional aim of education. This paper is designed using a qualitative research method applying content analysis to textual and video materials from a historical and contemporary perspectives. The paper demonstrates morality problems of the current mainstream education systems and how alternative systems are better equipped to inculcate values. It is observed that trans-disciplinary, problem-based and religious education helps build stronger ethical foundation in students regardless of their geographical location or income levels. The article proposes for schools and universities to include community engagement programmes in their curricula, support religious communities through special programmes, and promote values education at all levels not through academic subjects but through studies, research and development of real-life application of ethics at local and international levels. The paper adds value to existing research on ethics and values-based education and calls for further research in the field of education. It is also relevant to policy makers and researchers in public policy disciplines.morality-based education, trans-disciplinary approach, holistic education, universal values, ethics, alternative education

Language: English

DOI: 10.32350/jitc.111.01

ISSN: 2520-0313

Book

Kindergärten für Kinder: Waldkindergärten, lebensbezogene Kindergärten, Montessori-Kindergärten, offene Kindergärten

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Language: German

Published: Obberied bei Freiburg: PAIS, 1999

ISBN: 3-931992-08-X

Series: Element

Article

President Wilson's Daughter to Aid Mme. Montessori Show Her System

Available from: Library of Congress

Publication: The Sun (New York) (New York City, NY)

Pages: 6

Americas, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The Montessori movement, considered by many a radical departure from traditional educational methods, will receive new emphasis and publicity from the fact that visitors to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition will see during the months of August, September, October and November not only a demonstration of the Montessori system but will see it conducted by the talented woman herself. Associated with her will be Miss Margaret Wilson, daughter of the President, Dr. David Starr Jordan, chancellor of Leland Stanford Junior University, and other well known educators. The Montessori method has been summed up as 'freedom for development of the child under best conditions disturbing as little as possible but helping buy every means this development.' Any estimate of Mme. Montessori's work to be of practical value will involve a comparison between the Montessori method and that of the kindergarten, since the kindergarten is the only system of organizes educational work for young children that has so far received general recognition. In the middle of the last century the sensitive woman soul and philosophic mind of Froebel grasped the fundamental principle of development and say that the first six or seven years are the most important in the life of the individual. After years of study he embodied what he conceived to be the fundamental principles of the education of little children in what is known as the kindergarten, and his ideas of the best means for the application of these principles in his kindergarten program, materials and devices. The discovery of the kindergarten marked a new era in the history of the educational world. Though suppressed for years by government authority in Germany, and received with much suspicion elsewhere, the kindergarten has become an integral part of the public school system of many cities and States in our country. Its introduction into England was championed by Charles Dickens, and in America it found an advocate in the philosopher and educator Dr. William T. Harris. Concerning the kindergarten and the Montessori methods, Dr. P. P. Claxton, United States Commissioner of Education says: 'Though aims and principles are the same for both Froebel and Montessori, their different methods of approach have resulted in difference in emphasis, program and decides. For those who see no further than the form there is apparent conflict. Many cannot understand that the work of both Froebel and Montessori must finally lose each its distinctive characteristics in the larger whole of a more perfect knowledge of the nature of infancy and the means of educating young children.' It must be said of Dr. Montessori that she is first, last and always scientific in her work. Prolonged training in the sciences that relate to human life, vitalized by practical experience in their application to defective children, gave her a method which is the outcome of genius, training and experience. She swung into prominence, against her wish, in the following way: While serving as assistant doctor at the psychiatric clinic of the University of Rome, Italy, she founder herself differing from her colleagues in that she felt, as she says, 'that mental deficiency presented chiefly a pedagogic rather than mainly a medical problem.' The expression of these views in an address brought Dr. Montessori prominently before the Minister of Public Instruction, and her work from this on assumed a public character. Her belief that the methods employed with deficient children 'contained educational principles more rational than those in use and that if applied to normal children they would develop or set free their personality in a marvelous and surprising way,' became her controlling idea, and is the very heart of the Montessori system. The system of Mme. Montessori is indissolubly joined with her famous 'didactic material.' Among this will be found small wooden frames to which are attached pieces of cloth or leather on which are buttons and buttonholes, hooks and eyes, eyelets and lacing cords, and strings to be tied and untied. There are also boxes of cylindrical insets and other simple devices to develop 'man's mystery over nature.' Mme. Montessori is her best interpreter when she says, 'We are inclined to believe that children are like puppets and we wash them and feed them as if they were dolls. We do not stop to think that the child that does not do does not know how to do. Our duty is that of helping him to make a conquest of such useful acts as nature intended he should perform for himself. The mother who feeds her child without making the least effort to teach him to hold the spoon for himself and to try to find his mouth with it is not a wise mother. She treats her son as though he were a doll. We call an individual disciplined when he is master of himself and can regulate his own conduct when it shall be necessary to follow some rule of life. If any educational act is to be efficacious it is necessary rigorously to avoid the arrest of spontaneous movements and the imposition of arbitrary tasks. It is of course understood here that we do not speak of a useless or dangerous act; this must be suppressed, destroyed.' The Montessori doctrine is therefore in substance that the child's inner self or personalit cannot rightfully develop unless free to express itself undirected and unguided by another person. As a consequence Dr. Montessori insists that each child be allowed bodily freedom and have as much unhampered liberty of action as possible in order that he may fully express his inner life in outer activity. The classic illustration by which Dr. Montessori puts in concrete form her doctrine is the following: 'One day the children had gathered in a circle about a basin of water containing some floating toys. A little boy 2 1/2 years old had been left outside the circle. He drew near to the other children and tried to force his way among them, but he was not strong enough to do this. The expression of thought on his face was intensely interesting. His eyes then lighted upon a little chair and he had evidently made up his mind to place it behind the group of children and climb on it. As he began to move toward the chair, his face illuminated with hope, a teacher seized him in her arms, lifted him above the heads of the other children, showed him the basin of water, saying, 'Come poor little one you shall see too.' The child seeing the floating toys did not experience the joy that he was about to feel through conquering the obstacles with his own force. The teacher hindered the child in this case from educating himself. The little fellow was about to feel himself a conqueror, and instead he found himself held within two imprisoning arms impotent.' The now famous 'House of the Children' in Rome, under the patronage of Queen Margherita, faithfully reflects and demonstrates the Montessori principles and methods. It has been described as an old orphan asylum, whose gray outer walls give no idea of the two beautiful and luxuriant courtyards within. These latter are filled with beds of blossoming plans, and the pillars of the inner porch are covered with clinging vines. The schoolroom in which the class for the children is held opens with wide double doors into one of these lovely courtyards, where the children play during hours in which they are not engaged in their Montessori exercises. Miss Elizabeth Harrison, president of the National Kindergarten Union says of this 'House of the Children': 'On my first visit I found the children busy getting out the 'didactic material' with which they were to employ themselves for the next hour and a quarter. Some came forward to shake hands with me; some merely smiled and nodded and did not interrupt their work. All seemed busy, happy and free. I afterward saw as many as eighty visitors in the room where there were only a dozen children, but none of the children were in the least disturbed by or seemingly conscious of the presence of the visitors. Most of the children came from nearby tenement houses, yet even the youngest of them washed their own hands and faces, put on clean, neat calico aprons and looked as fresh and clean as children from well cared for homes.' Comparing the kindergarten and the Montessori systems, the following differences appear: The kindergarten stresses group activities, while the Montessori system emphasized almost exclusively the development of the individual. The kindergartners say that education in coordinating of muscles, the special training of the child's senses and all such phases of individual development are expected to come in the nursery. The Montessori system has no place for stories; the kindergartners are famous for them. Mme. Montessori objects to stories for young children on the theory that all activities of the mind are derived from the outside world and are dependent on sense impressions, and that therefore the child should be kept within the realm of his own personal experience until he is at least 7 or 8 years old. It is not necessary to add that two __ meet at this point of difference. The most remarkable features of the Montessori system, as well as one of its decided points of divergence from the kindergarten, lies in its ___ of definite attitude on religious training. Froebel, trained in an environment where instruction in religion is practically nationwide, says that while the child unconsciously manifests teh divine impuse within him he must follow it with conscious insights persisting in what he knows to do right and must needs have definite training of this kind. Montessori, on the other hand, with nuns as her assistants and attendants in her 'House of the Children,' acknowledges the importance of religious training for little children, 'but confesses that as yet it is an unsolved problem to her.' Miss Harrison, who spent some time in Rome with Mme. Montessori says, 'She [Montessori] seems to feel that a child's spiritual nature will ___ aright if freedom is given ....

Language: English

Article

The New Curriculum of Education in Kenya: a Linguistic and Education Paradigm Shift

Available from: eRepository at University of Nairobi, Kenya

Publication: International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning, vol. 5, no. 1

Pages: 15-27

Africa, East Africa, Kenya, Sub-Saharan Africa, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: The current system of education in Kenya is the 8-4-4 structure, where children study for eight years of Basic (primary) education, four years of Secondary education and four years of University education. This system was introduced in 1985 to promote man-power capable of performing blue collar jobs, as compared to the former 7-6-3 system that targeted developing a local workforce to replace the British workforce who largely held white collar jobs in the new, independent Kenya. However, over the years, the 8-4-4 curriculum has been widely criticised for a myriad of reasons. The criticisms against this curriculum are that it is too heavily loaded with content, purely examinations-oriented, and generally violating the Rights of the Child by placing undue physical and psychological pressure on learners. In order to address this problem therefore, a new curriculum was hastily crafted and taken through a rushed pilot drive in April 2017 and is expected to replace the current 8-4-4 system by January 2018. Admittedly, this new education system addresses some of the weaknesses of the current 8-4-4 education system, since it is competency-based and focuses more on skills acquisition as opposed to a purely knowledge-based acquisition system. The issues addressed in this paper is how this new and hurriedly crafted curriculum (as well as the introduction of Free Secondary School Education) will be implemented by teachers who are yet to come to terms with the new paradigm shift of teaching and learning. The second issue addressed is whether the crafters of this system took into consideration children’s rights, or whether at all, the system was crafted from a child-centred perspective. The concerns are that apart from the manner in which this syllabus was been crafted and planned for implementation, if not reviewed comprehensively may not only violate the rights of future generations of children, but also enhance negative ethnicity from a linguistic perspective

Language: English

ISSN: 2394-9686

Book Section

Théosophie et éducation en Espagne (1891-1939): espaces de sociabilité et réseaux éducatifs [Theosophy and education in Spain (1891-1939): spaces of sociability and educational networks]

Available from: OpenEdition Books

Book Title: Éduquer dans et hors l’école: Lieux et milieux de formation. XVIIe-XXe siècle

Pages: 87-102

Europe, Southern Europe, Spain, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Abstract/Notes: L’occasion de lancer des recherches sur les liens entre le mouvement théosophique et l’éducation en Espagne et l’intérêt que celles-ci pouvaient présenter surgirent à partir de la lecture du Petit Journal d’Adolphe Ferrière dans les Archives de l’institut J.-J. Rousseau de l’université de Genève. En 1930, de passage à Barcelone sur le chemin de son long voyage vers l’Amérique latine, le pédagogue suisse fut reçu par Maria Solà de Sellarés, Attilio Bruschetti et José Forteza. Cependant ces personnages n’apparaissent pas dans les pages de l’historiographie de l’éducation nouvelle et de la rénovation pédagogique en Catalogne au cours du premier tiers du XXe siècle. Après les recherches qui s’imposaient, nous sûmes qu’ils militèrent dans l’hétérodoxe mouvement théosophique et que, suivant les pas de Béatrice Ensor, ils se rapprochèrent de sa pédagogie par le biais de la Fraternité internationale de l’Éducation. La vocation éducative du mouvement théosophique se manifesta dans l’organisation de cours et de conférences, l’édition de livres et de dépliants à caractère doctrinal et didactique, la création d’espaces de sociabilité et, entre autres initiatives, par la fondation d’un certain nombre d’écoles et de centres éducatifs qui tentèrent de rejoindre les mouvements rénovateurs européens, tout en restant fidèles au spiritualisme oriental. Plus tard et malgré les distances que leur imposèrent dissidences et fractures, un autre courant allait apparaître à l’horizon de l’évolution de ce mouvement: l’anthroposophie de Steiner et la pédagogie Waldorf. Cet article se propose d’analyser, dans les contextes européen et international, la fonction sociale, éducative et socialisatrice de la théosophie et des réseaux socioéducatifs théosophiques, hors et dans l’école, en Espagne au cours du premier tiers du XXe siècle. Cette recherche part de l’analyse de sources orales (membres de familles de théosophes et personnes ayant des liens avec le mouvement théosophique) et de sources écrites (directes et indirectes) consultées et étudiées dans diverses archives : Biblioteca de Cataluña (Barcelone), bibliothèque privée de la Branche Arjuna de Barcelone, Centro nacional de la Memoria histórica de Salamanque (Espagne), archives privées de la famille Jover Dalmau (ancien élève de l’école Damon) et Archives historiques municipales de Sabadell (Catalogne). [The opportunity to launch research on the links between the theosophical movement and education in Spain and the interest that these could present arose from the reading of the Petit Journal d'Adolphe Ferrière in the Archives of the institute J.-J. Rousseau from the University of Geneva. In 1930, passing through Barcelona on the way to his long journey to Latin America, the Swiss teacher was received by Maria Solà de Sellarés, Attilio Bruschetti and José Forteza. However, these characters do not appear in the pages of the historiography of new education and educational renewal in Catalonia during the first third of the twentieth century. After the necessary research, we learned that they were active in the heterodox theosophical movement and that, following in the footsteps of Beatrice Ensor, they approached her pedagogy through the International Fraternity of Education. The educational vocation of the theosophical movement was manifested in the organization of courses and conferences, the publication of books and leaflets of a doctrinal and didactic nature, the creation of spaces for sociability and, among other initiatives, by the foundation of a number of schools and educational centers which tried to join the European renovating movements, while remaining faithful to Eastern spiritualism. Later and despite the distances imposed by dissidence and fractures, another current would appear on the horizon of the evolution of this movement: the anthroposophy of Steiner and the Waldorf pedagogy. This article aims to analyze, in European and international contexts, the social, educational and socializing function of theosophy and theosophical socio-educational networks, outside and in school, in Spain during the first third of the twentieth century. This research starts from the analysis of oral sources (members of families of Theosophists and people with links to the Theosophical movement) and written sources (direct and indirect) consulted and studied in various archives: Biblioteca de Cataluña (Barcelona), library private of the Arjuna Branch of Barcelona, ​​Centro nacional de la Memoria histórica de Salamanca (Spain), private archives of the Jover Dalmau family (former pupil of the Damon school) and Municipal Historical Archives of Sabadell (Catalonia).]

Language: French

Published: Rennes, France: Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2018

ISBN: 978-2-7535-5561-7

Series: Histoire

Article

The Dilemma of Scripted Instruction: Comparing Teacher Autonomy, Fidelity, and Resistance in the Froebelian Kindergarten, Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All

Available from: Teachers College Record

Publication: Teachers College Record, vol. 113, no. 3

Pages: 395-430

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Abstract/Notes: More than a century before modern controversies over scripted instruction, the Froebelian kindergarten--the original kindergarten method designed by Friedrich Froebel--and Maria Montessori's pedagogy were criticized for rigidly prescribing how teachers taught and children learned. Today, scripted methods such as Direct Instruction and Success for All are condemned for limiting teachers' autonomy and narrowing students' learning, especially that of students from low-income backgrounds, for and with whom scripts are often designed and used. Proponents of scripted instruction counter that it is helpful for teachers and effective with students. Comparing historical and modern scripts offers an opportunity to explore teachers' reactions to this hotly debated approach to school reform and to think about some possible implications for teacher education. I examine how teachers reacted to four different models of scripted instruction. I chose to compare the Froebelian kindergarten, Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All because of their longevity, wide use, and the amount of information available about them. I focus on the scripts' theory and research base and teacher training, and on teachers' assessments of the scripts' effectiveness, and ask how these factors might influence teachers' autonomy, fidelity, and resistance when using scripts. Research Design: Using historical methods, I summarize the history of scripted instruction; selectively survey research on teacher autonomy, fidelity, and resistance; and interpret primary and secondary sources on the Froebelian kindergarten, Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All. Teacher autonomy, fidelity, and resistance varied in these four scripts. Froebelian kindergarten and Montessori teachers autonomously chose to receive scripted, lengthy, intensive, pre-service training and professional development in closed professional learning communities. Direct Instruction and Success for All teachers receive scripted, relatively limited pre-service training and ongoing professional development in schools in which teachers often do not autonomously choose to teach. Despite the scripted training, most Froebelian kindergarten teachers, and many Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All teachers modified these scripts at the classroom level; some Froebelian and Montessori teachers made very overt, substantial changes when the social class backgrounds of the students changed. Many Froebelian and most Montessori teachers seemed to believe that these scripts helped their students learn. Direct Instruction and Success for All teachers express more mixed views of these scripts' effectiveness. Some say that the scripts "work "for their students but that as teachers they feel constrained, a situation I see as a professional dilemma. Anecdotally, some new teachers with little pre-service training say that they feel limited by scripts but daunted by the task of creating curricula and instruction on their own. My research raises questions about teachers' reactions to scripts. The examples of Froebelian kindergarten, Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All teachers I studied suggest that there may be unpredictable contradictions in scripted instruction. Scripted, autonomously chosen, intensive training may strengthen teacher fidelity and resistance, by giving teachers a deep repertoire of pedagogical skills that some continue to use and others use to autonomously modify scripts in response to students' perceived needs. Scripted, externally imposed, less extensive training may give some teachers a sense of security but also create tensions between the scripts 'perceived effectiveness and the teachers' desires for autonomy, and, for new teachers, between autonomy and the difficulty of independently designing curricula and methods. I argue that these reactions suggest that educators in traditional pre-service teacher education programs may want to experiment with offering an autonomous choice of distinctly different instructional models, including scripted ones such as Direct Instruction and Success for All, in which teachers in training in professional learning communities may become deeply skilled. I also argue that script developers may want to experiment with giving teachers more explicit autonomy, both in choosing scripts and in modifying them, and more extensive pre-service training. I recommend more comparative research on teachers' reactions to scripts, especially on new teachers. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Language: English

ISSN: 0161-4681

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