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424 results

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

From Inspired Teaching to Effective Knowledge Work and Back Again: A Report on Peter Drucker's Schoolmistress and What She Can Teach Us About the Management and Education of Knowledge Workers

Available from: Emerald Insight

Publication: Management Decision, vol. 48, no. 4

Pages: 475-484

Eugenie Schwarzwald - Biographic sources, Knowledge management, Leadership, Maria Montessori - Influence, Peter Drucker - Philosophy, Schwarzwald School (Vienna)

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Abstract/Notes: The emerging knowledge societies will – besides many other dramatic changes – see a teaching revolution. This paper seeks to propose quality standards for this new type of teaching. The paper argues that Peter Drucker experienced much of what he later came to call the principles of self management and effective knowledge work as a boy aged nine or ten at the Schwarzwald School – an utterly exceptional, progressive elementary school in Vienna. Given these astonishing similarities, this school's avant‐garde approach to teaching might just provide some insights into what effective teaching for a future knowledge society should be like. The paper is based to a large extent on accounts by and about the almost forgotten school's owner‐manager Eugenie Schwarzwald, some of which were made available only recently in the course of several biographical research projects dealing with this revolutionary pedagogue and social entrepreneur. Firstly, the paper identifies similarities between the teaching practice at Eugenie Schwarzwald's schools, her approach to leadership on the one hand, and Drucker's principles of effective management and knowledge work on the other. Secondly, it concludes that in a knowledge society both effective management and teaching need to be extensively individualised services – much more than in an industrial mass society. Combined, Schwarzwald's practice and Drucker's teachings challenge some seemingly up‐to‐date practices in both higher education and corporate personnel development, and helps in understanding what actually produces effective personal learning for the rapidly changing knowledge economies of the twenty‐first century. The paper introduces selective aspects of progressive education to the field of management.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1108/00251741011041292

ISSN: 0025-1747

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Pedagogical Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics in Montessori Schools

Available from: International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education

Publication: International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, vol. 16, no. 3

Pages: Article em0646

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Abstract/Notes: Teacher knowledge needed for teaching is widely studied to characterize its key categories. We report findings from a study on teachers’ knowledge for mathematics in the Montessori schools. In Montessori accredited schools, teachers learn to teach mathematics in ways different from the teachers themselves experienced in non-Montessori schools. We ask: What knowledge do teachers learn? and how do they continue to refine this knowledge in teaching in classrooms? We draw from a teacher knowledge framework based on cross-national studies to interpret mixed data from a case study. We aim to inform research on teacher characteristics needed for consistent implementation of instructional reform. Major findings from this study are that for K-6 Montessori teachers to thrive in teaching mathematics in Montessori classrooms, they need teacher knowledge on Montessori materials, on lesson and the presentation of content according to Montessori’s philosophy and pedagogy; as well as on the process of independently understanding concepts to be presented. The findings contribute to further theorizing on teacher knowledge which has implications is designed to teacher training opportunities in three subcategories; namely teaching, learning, and professional competence knowledge.

Language: English

DOI: 10.29333/iejme/11005

ISSN: 1306-3030

Doctoral Dissertation

Birth to Three Language Acquisition: Influences of Ambient Language in the Montessori Setting

Available from: Long Island University - Institutional Repository

Language development, Montessori method of education - Evaluation

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Abstract/Notes: There is an expanse of literature looking at various topics supporting Montessori education, especially in preschool; however, there is a lack of research in infant and toddler Montessori classrooms. Most of the empirical data regarding language acquisition has focused on the child’s acquisition of vocabulary through direct instruction, rather than the learning capability from overhearing a third party in a naturalistic setting. The purpose of this intervention study was to add to the limited empirical research on language acquisition in infant and toddler Montessori environments. More specifically, the intervention assessed if infants and toddlers could indirectly acquire new vocabulary through the Absorbent Mind from teachers and peers’ ambient dialogue during the Montessori three-period lesson. The research utilized a descriptive, correlational pre-and-post quasi-experimental design to assess and analyze vocabulary and ambient language. Data collection occurred in three Association Montessori Internationale (AMI) and American Montessori Society (AMS) infant and toddler mixed-aged environments throughout New York State and Maryland. The Language Environmental Analysis (LENA) system was used to analyze audio recordings. Transcriptions of audio recordings quantified vocabulary acquisition and ambient language. Paired t-tests and ANCOVA were used to analyze children’s acquired vocabulary. A fidelity scale analyzed the extent to which Montessori trained teachers adhered to the three-period lesson intervention. The findings provide opportunities to improve infant and toddler teachers' classroom practice related to language acquisition. Suggestions were offered for early childhood teacher preparation programs.

Language: English

Published: Brookville, New York, 2021

Doctoral Dissertation

Knowledge and attitudes of Montessori teachers of young children as a context for guiding normalization and self-construction process

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was (1) to investigate the degree of agreement between AMI trained Montessori teachers' knowledge and attitudes and Montessori's recommendations for guiding the process of normalization among young children and (2) to discover the reasons for differences from those recommendations. Normalization is the central process in the Montessori method. Except for a study by this investigator (Zener, 1993) guiding the process of normalization had not been researched since Montessori's work some forty-five to eighty-five years ago. Therefore, this investigation also provided current teacher experiences of guiding the process of normalization. One hundred sixty five Montessori teachers attending various regional and national conferences were surveyed with knowledge and attitude scales. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10% of the participants. Mean scale scores from 4.0 to 5.0 on a five degree Likert scale and a SD less than 1.0 were projected as satisfactory levels of agreement with Montessori's recommendations. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the scales, and content analysis was used to analyze the interviews. T-tests and ANOVAS indicated that demographic variables were not significant to the results. The study concluded that AMI trained Montessori teachers reflected a satisfactory degree of agreement with the recommended knowledge and attitudes (M = 4.25, SD =.31 and M = 4.50, SD =.34 respectively). Knowledge and attitude correlated (p $<$.01). Reasons for differences among teachers' knowledge and attitudes about guiding the process included using other aspects of Montessori theory, disagreement with Montessori, difficulty in carrying out the theory in practice, misinterpretations of scale items, and misunderstandings about Montessori's recommendations for guiding the process of normalization. Implications for children, teachers, parents, school administration, and teacher education included validation of teachers for the high level of consistency in their reflections on guiding the process of normalization. Recommendations for future research included developing a more complete theoretical understanding of the process of normalization, particularly the importance of respecting children's spans of concentration.

Language: English

Published: College Park, Maryland, 1994

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Embedding Aboriginal Perspectives and Knowledge in the Biology Curriculum: The Little Porky

Available from: Cambridge University Press

Publication: The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, vol. 47, no. 2

Pages: 158-170

Action research, Australasia, Australia, Australia and New Zealand, Biology education, Indigenous communities, Indigenous peoples, Oceania

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Abstract/Notes: This paper reports on an Action Research project that investigated the integration of Aboriginal and Western knowledge into science learning in a Montessori classroom in regional Queensland, Australia. Drawing on the local knowledge of fauna of community members, the study explored the teaching of science to 12-year 8–9 students in an Aboriginal independent high school in Queensland. The overall study covered 83 lessons that included an initial Short-beaked echidna study. It applied thematic analysis to data to explore the effect of this integrated approach on students’ pride in heritage, cultural knowledge, learning and the Linnaean zoology taxonomy. Results revealed that the contextualisation of Aboriginal and Western science knowledge strengthened students’ Aboriginal personal identity as well as identities as science learners and status of local Aboriginal knowledge.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1017/jie.2017.12

ISSN: 1326-0111, 2049-7784

Master's Thesis

Mississippi River Program: A Mixed-Method Examination of the Effects of a Place-Based Curriculum on the Environmental Knowledge and Awareness of Montessori Adolescents

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Comparative education, Mississippi River Program, Sustainability

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Abstract/Notes: The Mississippi River Program was an interdisciplinary environmental education curriculum implemented in La Crosse, Wisconsin. The program integrated theory and practice of experiential, environmental, adventure, and place-based education, and was designed, implemented and assessed by the researcher. Effects of the Mississippi River Program on the environmental knowledge and awareness of middle school adolescents were unknown at the onset of this study. This was a quasi-experimental design involving non-random sampling of a charter Montessori Middle School as the experimental group (n=17), and a sample of public middle school students as the comparison group (n=18). A mixed-methods approach entailed quantitative assessment of mean pretest and posttest scores on the Environmental Knowledge and Beliefs Questionnaire, and a qualitative analysis of reflective papers written by the Montessori group. The research instrument was drawn directly from the state standards for environmental education for middle school adolescents, published by the Wisconsin Department of Instruction (1998). Results of ANOVA indicated a significant improvement in mean scores from pretest to posttest for the experimental group, with no significant difference in scores for the comparison group (p=.0002). Quantitative results revealed that Item Six of the survey instrument contributed significantly to the increase in scores (p=.0000). This Item required knowledge of environmental agencies, which the experimental group gained during “Outdoor Careers Day.” Student reflective papers written about experiences during this event were qualitatively assessed using an emergent open coding method, which revealed five environmental learning themes. Qualitative findings reinforced the quantitative results, indicating that the program participants improved significantly in knowledge of environmental content areas; and awareness of a personal relationship with, and responsibility to, the environment. Further investigations are needed to increase the research base for programs that incorporate multiple outdoor education models. Innovative educational approaches would also benefit from research on the long term effects of participation in these programs.

Language: English

Published: Mankato, Minnesota, 2006

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Application of Knowledge Based Systems for Child Performance Analysis in an Online Montessori Management System

Available from: Insight Society

Publication: International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 2, no. 6

Pages: 25-31

Asia, Malaysia, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: This paper focuses on the application of knowledge based systems for child performance analysis in an online Montessori module. Using knowledge based techniques, the system generates an automatic analysis based on the teacher's answers to a variety of questions about a child's performance of a specific Montessori activity. The questions were created through a study of the criteria used to assess the level of a child's performance and achievement. This prototype is designed as a proof-of-concept, to show how the knowledge base technique could be applied. To design the prototype, we conducted literature reviews on the delivery of Montessori methods and the knowledge base technique, and compared rule -based and case -based reasoning. We selected rule-based reasoning for the concept prototype since it is suitable for Montessori activities which are well defined and easy to acquire.

Language: English

DOI: 10.18517/ijaseit.2.6.240

ISSN: 2088-5334

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

Improving Letter Name Knowledge in Primary Montessori

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research

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Abstract/Notes: This action research investigated letter name knowledge gain from integrating a selection of Orton-Gillingham methods into a private Montessori Primary classroom. The methods incorporated included letter name and sound drill, three-letter word practice, vowel game, and sand writing. Eight students, four and five years of age, were included in the study. Sources of data collection include student artifact, teacher assessment, student attitude inquiry, and teacher observational data. Students displayed an overall increase in attitude toward learning letter name and six out of eight students showed an increase in letter name knowledge for both uppercase and lowercase letters. Because of the students increase in enthusiasm for learning letter names and their knowledge gain, I will continue to use the Orton-Gillingham methods. I will also introduce the remaining methods to reach the students who did not show an increase in knowledge of letter names.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2015

Book Section

Utopia della conoscenza. Un’utopia forte per saperi deboli? [Utopia of knowledge: A strong utopia for weak knowledge?]

Book Title: L'Utopia Montessoriana: Pace, Diritti, Libertà, Ambiente [Montessorian Utopia: Peace, Rights, Freedom, Environment]

Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Peace education

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Language: Italian

Published: Trento, Italy: Erickson, 2019

ISBN: 978-88-590-2042-4 88-590-2042-5

Article

Language Acquisition

Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 26, no. 2

Pages: 1-7

Early childhood education, Infants, Language acquisition, Montessori method of education, Parent and child, Second language acquisition, Silvana Quattrocchi Montanaro - Writings

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Abstract/Notes: Discusses pre-linguistic and linguistic stages of language acquisition that are part of a continuum of receptivity and communication every child experiences in the first 3 years of life. Suggests parents assist language development by being sympathetic to each developmental turning point, providing the right emotional climate for expression, and providing the infant's brain with rich linguistic experiences. (TJQ)

Language: English

ISSN: 1522-9734

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