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Book Section

History and Background of Preschool Intervention Programs and the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies

Book Title: As the Twig is Bent: Lasting Effects of Preschool Programs

Pages: 1-31

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Language: English

Published: Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1983

ISBN: 0-89859-271-2 978-0-89859-271-9

Article

Recent Studies and Practices of the Montessori Educational Method: Ten Years from 1979 on the DIALOG Data-Base

Available from: Semantic Scholar

Publication: Annual Reports from the Faculty of Education, Iwate University, vol. 51, no. 2

Pages: 147-161

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: I review recent practices and studies of the Montessori method from 1979 and intend to discover some tasks for future studies. I researched fourteen files in the DIALOG database, and tried to find papers from 1979 using the key word "MONTESSORI". Sixty-seven titles of books and papers were output from the DIALOG database. I classified them into five large groups. Each large group was further divided into small groups. The following are these large groups, with the numbers of books and papers contained in each large group shown in parenthses. 1. Studies which compared the Montessori method with other methods. (27) 2. Practical examples which developed and applied the Montessori method. (18) 3. Studies about the Montessori method for handicapped children. (12) 4. Philosophical and theoretical studies about the Montessori method. (8) 5. Scientific studies about the Montessori method. (2) The group of "Scientific studies about the Montessori method" had only two papers, the smallest in number of the five groups. The Montessori method was created scientifically by Maria Montessori at the beginning of this century. During the following years the educational and psychological sciences have developed gradually. I think that the Montessori method should be further studied scientifically from the modern educational and psychological points of view. Scientific studies will clarify new aspects of the Montessori method and add new elements to it. The Montessori method will develop and be applied to various fields.

Language: English

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Türkiye’de Montessori Yöntemi ile İlgili Yapılan Çalışmaların İncelenmesi / Investigation of Studies on Montessori Method in Turkey

Available from: DergiPark Akademik

Publication: Yaşam Becerileri Psikoloji Dergisi / Life Skills Journal of Psychology, vol. 5, no. 10

Pages: 101-118

Asia, Literature reviews, Middle East, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori Yöntemi, bir eğitim sistemidir ve Maria Montessori tarafından oluşturulmuştur. Maria Montessori İtalyan bir pedagog ve ülkesinin ilk kadın doktorudur. Montessori sistemi çocuğu merkeze alır ve çocuğa görelik ilkesiyle hareket ederek, çocuğa uygun oluşturulmuş bir çevreye dayanır. Çocuğun ilgi alanları ve yetenekleri dikkate alınarak, bireysel öğrenme hızının olduğunu kabul eder ve bunu temel alan esnek bir eğitim süreci oluşturur. Montessori yöntemi bir sentezdir; çocukların içlerindeki potansiyeli fark edip keşfetmelerini ve karakterlerini oluşturmalarını amaçlar. Ayrıca çocuğun içindeki potansiyele ulaşması için düzenlenmiş bir alana ve özgürlüğe ihtiyacı olduğunu savunur. Ülkemizde Montessori konusu ile ilgili bilimsel çalışmalara önem verildiği ve çalışmalarının son yıllarda arttığı gözlemlenmektedir. Bu araştırmada, ülkemizde Montessori metodu ve uygulamaları ile ilgili, 2010-2021 yılları arasında yazılan tez ve makaleler, belirlenen ölçütlere göre incelenerek, hem bu metodun güvenilirlik ve geçerliliğini görmek hem de yapılacak yeni araştırmalara fikir vermek amaçlanmıştır. Bu çalışma nitel bir araştırma olup, amaçsal öğrenme stratejilerinden ölçüt öğrenme yöntemi ve doküman tarama (analizi) tekniği kullanılmıştır. Google Akademi, Dergipark ve Ulusal Tez Merkezi veri ortamlarından “montessori” kelimeleri ile kaynaklar taranmış ve 48 tez çalışması, 36 makale çalışması olmak üzere toplam da 84 çalışmaya ulaşılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulara bakıldığında; ülkemizde Montessori metoduna yönelik çalışmalarının yoğunluğunun son 5 yıla ait olduğu saptanmıştır. Araştırmaların büyük bir bölümünün okul öncesi kademesinde yapıldığı söylenebilir. Yapılan çalışmaların tamamına yakınının sonuç bölümlerinde, Montessori yöntemi ile eğitim alan çocukların lehine değişim gözlendiği belirtilmiştir. / The Montessori Method is an education system and was created by Maria Montessori. Maria Montessori is an Italian pedagogue and the first female doctor in her country. The Montessori system puts the child in the center and, acting on the principle of relative to the child, is based on an environment created suitable for the child. Considering the interests and abilities of the child, it accepts the individual learning speed and creates a flexible education process based on this. The Montessori method is a synthesis; It aims for children to realize and discover the potential within them and to create their characters. He also argues that the child needs a regulated space and freedom to reach their potential. It is observed that scientific studies on the subject of Montessori are given importance in our country and their studies have increased in recent years. In this study, it is aimed to see the reliability and validity of this method and to give an idea for new researches by examining the theses and articles written between 2010-2021 about the Montessori method and its applications in our country, according to the determined criteria. This study is a qualitative research and criterion learning method and document scanning (analysis) technique, which are purposeful learning strategies, were used. Sources were scanned with the words "montessori" from Google Academy, Dergipark and National Thesis Center data environments, and a total of 84 studies, including 48 thesis studies and 36 article studies, were reached. Considering the findings obtained from the research; It has been determined that the intensity of the studies on the Montessori method in our country belongs to the last 5 years. It can be said that most of the studies were conducted at the preschool level. In the conclusion sections of almost all of the studies, it was stated that a change was observed in favor of the children who received education with the Montessori method.

Language: Turkish

DOI: 10.31461/ybpd.1026936

ISSN: 2587-1536

Article

The NAMTA Center for Montessori Adolescent Studies (NCMAS) Presents Its Annual Professional Development Event: A Montessori Orientation to Adolescent Studies

Publication: NAMTA Bulletin

Pages: 6-13

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Language: English

Article

Effect of Montessori on Children Development: Systematic Review

Available from: Research Gate

Publication: Teikyo Medical Journal / Teikyō Igaku Zasshi, vol. 45, no. 1

Pages: 5729-5741

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autism, Child development, Montessori method of education - Evaluation

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Abstract/Notes: To find the evidence for the effectiveness of Montessori in improving children development. Systematic search was done on the PubMed, Cochrane library, Web of science, PEDro, Scopus and Google Scholar databases till May 2021. Manual search was also done to find relevant studies. Two authors independently assessed retrieved records and studies against the eligibility criteria specified for this review, then extracted data from the included studies and assess studies methodological quality by using the methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINOR) scale for the clinical studies and the national institute of health (NIH) tool for observational designs. Eighteen studies were included; fifteen on normal children and three on children with communication disorders, autism and attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). Quality of 5 clinical studies rated as moderate and 7 was poor, while the quality of 5 observational studies was fair and only 1 was poor. These included studies have different outcomes including gross and fine motor skills, executive function, activity of daily living and cognitive skills. Meta-analysis was not appropriate because of the included studies heterogeneity descriptive analysis indicated that Montessori seems to be effective in improving child development. Based on this review findings the present evidence promise an effective role of Montessori for improving child development. More well-designed primary studies are recommended to find clear evidence.

Language: English

ISSN: 0387-5547

Report

Longitudinal Findings for Early Childhood Programs: Focus on Direct Instruction

Academic achievement, Americas, Comparative education, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Longitudinal studies, Montessori method of education, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This paper reports short- and long-term outcomes of the Direct Instruction Head Start and Follow Through program model. Based on the premise that positive reinforcement is essential to maximum academic success, the Direct Instruction program was developed from an academic preschool model which specified exactly what children needed in order to succeed academically and dictated how teachers should modify children's behavior. The Follow Through program was developed to provide programs for kindergarten through 3rd grade that would help maintain gains made in Head Start or other preschool programs. In 1983 the Follow Through program could be found in 60 American cities and a number of foreign countries. Research suggested that the Direct Instruction/Follow Through program had a positive effect on reading and mathematics achievement. However, third-graders who received direct instruction, more often than comparison children, attributed academic success to external factors and failure to themselves. They also scored lower than children receiving cognitive developmental instruction on a test of nonverbal problem-solving. Longitudinal findings suggested that students receiving direct instruction had lower grade retention and higher attendance and graduation rates. Longitudinal comparison of direct instruction, Montessori, DARCEE, and traditional preschool programs revealed positive outcomes for children who received direct instruction: Follow Through children achieved at grade level when they were in the ninth grade. (RH)

Language: English

Conference Paper

Montessori and Responsive Environment Models: A Longitudinal Study of Two Preschool Programs, Phase Two

Available from: ERIC

Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, New York, April 4-8, 1977)

Academic achievement, Americas, Comparative education, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Longitudinal studies, Montessori method of education, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This study represents a continuation of a longitudinal assessment of the effectiveness of a Montessori and Responsive Environment preschool program sponsored by the Arlington Public Schools. The Metropolitan Readiness Test, the Caldwell Cooperative Preschool Inventory, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test were used to assess the academic achievement and intellectual development of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children with the Montessori or Responsive Environment experiences and those with no preschool experience at the end of the regular kindergarten program. The SRA Achievement Series, Grade 1, was used to assess the achievement of children, with and without the Montessori experience, at the end of first grade. Results indicated that children in the regular 5-year-old kindergarten program with prior Montessori experience scored significantly higher on the Caldwell measure than did children without this experience upon entrance into the program. When all of the children with either type of preschool experience were categorized as one treatment group, results showed that these children scored higher on the Caldwell measure at the beginning and end of the 5-year-old program than those without the experience. Significant differences in favor of the preschool treatment group were also noted on the pretest of the Caldwell subtests: Personal-Social, Associative, Vocabulary, and Concept Activation-Numerical. It was concluded that early educational preschool experiences can be effective in fostering the academic achievement and maintaining the intellectual development of children. (Author/JMB)

Language: English

Pages: 45

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study

Available from: Frontiers in Psychology

Publication: Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8

Pages: Article 1783

Academic achievement, Americas, Cognitive development, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Longitudinal studies, Montessori method of education, North America, Philosophy of mind, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3 to 6), on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children's outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking) significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori preschools is warranted.

Language: English

DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01783

ISSN: 1664-1078

Report

A Longitudinal Investigation of Montessori and Traditional Prekindergarten Training with Inner City Children: A Comparative Assessment of Learning Outcomes – Three Part Study

Available from: ERIC

Americas, Comparative education, Longitudinal studies, United States of America, Urban education

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Abstract/Notes: This research investigates the learning impact of Montessori prekindergarten training as compared to traditional approaches with economically deprived Puerto Rican and Negro children. The three-part, 156-page monograph includes a 22-page introduction to Parts I and II, and a 37-page appendix to Part I. Parts I and II assess training effects of the first year of schooling, focusing on children beginning prekindergarten at approximately 4 to 4 1/2 years of age. The basic research design also includes an evaluation of training for children beginning school at 3 to 3 1/2 years. Part I contains an evaluation of perceptual and cognitive abilities. Part II investigates pupil preference for cognitive styles typifying ego strength in the young child and relevant for autonomous problem-solving strategies. Part III includes a follow-up assessment conducted at the end of kindergarten in order to investigate the cumulative effects of training over a longer period of schooling. The appendix to Part I contains age, sex, and ethnicity trends for the population investigated, a 25-page description of the test battery, a sample teaching log monthly checklist, and a list of sample questions for teacher interviews. The monograph also includes a list of 54 references used for Parts I, II, and III.

Language: English

Published: New York, New York, Sep 1969

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

"Just the Facts, Ma'am": Teaching Social Studies in the Era of Standards and High-Stakes Testing

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: The Social Studies, vol. 98, no. 2

Pages: 54-58

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Abstract/Notes: The authors discuss the impact of standards and testing on curriculum and instruction. They begin with a brief history of the growth and development of academic standards and high-stakes testing. Next, they review relevant research on the impact high-stakes testing has had on curriculum and instruction and discuss ways that high-stakes testing has influenced student-teacher relationships. They also discuss specific problems faced by social studies teachers in the era of academic standards and high-stakes testing.

Language: English

DOI: 10.3200/TSSS.98.2.54-58

ISSN: 0037-7996, 2152-405X

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