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Doctoral Dissertation

Academic Achievement: Montessori and Non-Montessori Private School Settings

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which sixth grade elementary school students in Montessori school settings and sixth grade elementary school students in non-Montessori school settings differ with regard to academic achievement as measured by the Ninth Edition of the Stanford Achievement Test. Schools that are certified as "Montessori" must meet stringent requirements and although the Montessori philosophy has been implemented in the United States for a number of years, little research has documented its effectiveness, at least as based on students' scores on standardized tests. In the Rio Grande Valley, few Montessori schools are in place and even fewer administer such assessments. A causal-comparative research design with matched pairs was used to describe the difference in academic achievement of sixth grade elementary school students in Montessori school settings with sixth grade elementary school students in non-Montessori school settings. Archival data were analyzed using five separate t-tests for paired samples in which the raw scores for reading, mathematics, language arts, science, and social studies were the dependent variables for achievement for both sixth grade elementary school students in Montessori school settings and sixth grade elementary school students in non-Montessori school settings as measured by the ninth edition of the Stanford Achievement Test. The results indicate that the academic achievement in reading and mathematics of sixth grade elementary school students who have attended Montessori school settings is statistically significantly higher than the academic achievement in reading and mathematics of sixth grade elementary school students who have attended non-Montessori school settings. The knowledge gained from this study might assist educators and parents in search of the most effective education to offer children. It will also extend knowledge of Montessori and the effects that it has on the academic achievement of children.

Language: English

Published: Houston, Texas, 2008

Doctoral Dissertation

The Impact of Montessori Teaching on Academic Achievement of Elementary School Students in a Central Texas School District: A Causal-Comparative Inquiry

Available from: Texas A&M University

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Abstract/Notes: Providing a meaningful and experiential learning environment for all students has long created a concern for alternate ways to teach students who are reportedly demonstrating non-mastery on state standardized assessments. As the benchmark for showing successful academic achievement increases, so does the need for discovering effective ways for students to learn. The Montessori teaching method has been in existence since the early 1900s when Dr. Montessori made her discovery of the student learning process. Dr. Montessori connected to the laws of nature and the environment for creating students who are problem-solvers with critical-thinking skills. The Montessori Method is designed to promote independent learning and support normal development in children. A Montessori lesson is defined as any interaction between an adult and a child; it incorporates techniques that are defined to serve as guidance for the adult personality in working with the child. The study investigated the impact of Montessori Method on the academic achievement of 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade students. The State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR) was used to measure academic achievement in reading and mathematics. An ex post facto, causal-comparative design was employed. The characteristic-present samples consisted of 47 3rd, 40 4th, and 44 5th graders. There were 71 3rd, 60 4th, and 49 5th graders in the comparison samples. Due to non-probability nature of the sampling technique, external validity was limited to study participants. Due to non-experimental nature of the study, no causal inferences were drawn. A series of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the students who received the Montessori Method of instruction and those who did not on the basis of the outcome measures of academic achievement in reading and mathematics. The mean difference effect sizes, which were used to examine the practical significance of the findings, ranged from negligible to small. Although the results of the study did not support the hypothesis, it must be pointed out that the Montessori Method of teaching facilitates self-paced learning that promotes a child's independence and encourages decision-making which are instrumental in becoming successful learners. Additionally, Montessori advocates experiences that are "real-world" and allow children to build intrinsic motivational opportunities; therefore, creating independent thinkers that will be competitive problem-solvers in the global economy of the 21st century. The limited studies on the Montessori Method of teaching offer opportunities for further investigation at all grade levels. For example, it is recommended to conduct a study to compare students who receive Montessori education during the early years of their academic life with those who receive Montessori education from pre-k to high school graduation. Because the Montessori name does not have a trademark, there are opportunities for investigating Montessori teacher preparation and comparing the preparation of the teachers to the standardized assessment results. There are also opportunities for investigating the method and curriculum used at schools that carry the name Montessori for comparison purposes amongst Montessori schools as well as in comparison to the results of the standardized assessments at these schools.

Language: English

Published: Corpus Christi, Texas, 2013

Doctoral Dissertation

A Comparison of Academic Achievement of Students Taught by the Montessori Method and by Traditional Methods of Instruction in the Elementary Grades

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: The problem of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference between the academic achievement scores of students in grades 2 through 5 who are taught with the Montessori method of instruction and those students who are taught with traditional methods of instruction in the Helena Public Schools. Analyses used a two-way ANOVA; method and gender as well as method and aptitude were examined. The level of significance was set at alpha =.05. A matching technique was used to match Montessori students with students from traditional classrooms by the independent variables of grade, aptitude, gender, socioeconomic conditions, and handicapping conditions. The study also examined if there was a significant difference between the aptitude of all students in Montessori classrooms and all students in traditional classrooms. The population studied was second, third, fourth, and fifth grade students during the spring of 1996. A total of 120 students was used in the study of academic achievement. There were 145 F-tests conducted in this study. At the second grade level, students from traditional classrooms scored significantly higher than students in Montessori classrooms in mathematics computation and mathematics concepts and applications. Also at the second grade, when aptitude was taken into consideration, Montessori low aptitude students scored significantly higher in vocabulary than low aptitude students in traditional classrooms. There were no significant findings in any of the subtests at the third and fourth grade levels. At the fifth grade level, Montessori students scored significantly higher in language expression and social studies. Interaction was found with aptitude in language expression and with gender in science. A comparison of the aptitude of all Montessori students to all students from traditional classrooms revealed that Montessori students scored significantly higher. The overall results of this study show that the Montessori method of instruction and the traditional method of instruction provide students with comparable achievement test scores. A longitudinal study is recommended to examine the long-term effects of academic achievement of those students taught by the Montessori method of instruction.

Language: English

Published: Bozeman, Montana, 1997

Doctoral Dissertation

Longitudinal Academic Achievement Outcomes: Modeling the Growth Trajectories of Montessori Public Elementary School Students

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: Elementary education has theoretical underpinnings based on cognitive psychology. Ideas from cognitive psychologists such as James, Dewey, Piaget, and Vygotsky coalesce to form constructivism (Cooper, 1993; Yager, 2000; Yilmaz, 2011). Among others, the Montessori Method (1912/1964) is an exemplar of constructivism. Currently, public education in the United States is heavily impacted by the No Child Left Behind legislation (Paige, 2006) which emphasizes high stakes academic achievement testing. Absent from the literature is an examination of the academic achievement of Montessori students in public education. This study explores the academic achievement outcomes of public school students who completed varying numbers of years in Montessori elementary education. Singer and Willett's (2003) multilevel model of change serves as the statistical tool utilized to explore the academic achievement outcomes of a first grade cohort through their elementary and secondary school careers. Accrued years in Montessori did not account for significant variance amongst the trajectories, and gender and ethnicity, when considered without the interactions with accrued years, had minimal impact. Socioeconomic status, when the variable of accrued years in Montessori was removed from the equation, was a significant predictor of reading and math achievement.

Language: English

Published: Commerce, Texas, 2014

Doctoral Dissertation

An Exploratory Study on the Effectiveness of Montessori Constructs and Traditional Teaching Methodology as Change Agents to Increase Academic Achievement of Elementary Black Students

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Academic achievement, African American children, African American community, Americas, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Black students consistently underachieve academically in comparison to White students. To minimize the achievement gap between Black students and White students, some experts advocate the use of differentiated instruction as an alternative methodology to teach underachieving students. Differentiated instruction is predicated on teaching students based on their learning abilities and/or learning preferences. The differentiated instructional model examined in this study combined traditional teaching methodology with specific Montessori stage two and stage three constructs. This exploratory qualitative study examined the impact that Montessori constructs combined with traditional teaching methods had on academic achievement of Black students in grades four and five in an inner city school in Dallas County, Texas. The study further explored the sample’s perceptions of and preferences for the combined teaching methodology. The sample group had been exposed to the differentiated teaching model evaluated in the study. Disaggregated 2007 and 2008 TAKS results from the Texas Education Agency were obtained to compare the school’s fourth and fifth grade Black students’ achievement to their cohort groups in the district and in the state. The TAKS data comparisons found variability in performance among the groups in each of the subject areas assessed by TAKS. Qualitative data from a Likert Scale, multiple choice questions, questionnaires, written essay, and interviews were obtained from the participants to examine the students’ perceptions of and preferences for the combined teaching methodology. Data responses were analyzed and themes were developed to determine black students’ preferences for teaching, learning, and factors that contribute to learning. The findings of this study imply that future use of a differentiated instructional model that combines traditional teaching methodology and specific Montessori constructs and principles might be effective in improving Black student achievement.

Language: English

Published: Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2009

Doctoral Dissertation

The Impact of Multi-Age Instruction on Academic Performance in Mathematics and Reading

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Academic achievement, Americas, Elementary education, Mathematics education, Nongraded schools, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Teachers and administrators are faced with a basic question when planning for a school year: how should the students be grouped when coming to school? Should students of similar age be together or should students be assigned to multi-age classrooms at the elementary school level? If the multi-age method is chosen, how will academic progress be affected by this instructional strategy? And, in the end, will the students in a multi-age setting perform similar to students who are in traditional group setting on standardized tests? The question of multi-age grouping and academic performance was the focus of this study. The purpose of this study was to compare the academic performance in reading and mathematics of third- and fifth-grade students who have completed three years of multi-age instruction with the academic performance of students in third and fifth grade who have been instructed in the similar-aged traditional classroom. The study compared test scores of students in third and fifth grades using the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessment exams. This study determined that there was no significant difference in the scholastic performance between the groups of students who were instructed in the multi-age instructional settings compared to the traditional same age setting. The multi-age setting does allow for positive social settings particularly the opportunity for students to take leadership roles with fellow classmates.

Language: English

Published: Vermillion, South Dakota, 2010

Article

Convergence and Divergence of Ethnomathematics (D’Ambrosio) and Mathematics (Montessori): An Ethnomathematics Program

Publication: Montessori Australia eArticle, vol. 2021, no. 4

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Language: English

Doctoral Dissertation

A Comparison of Student Achievement, Student Self-Concept, and Parental Attitude Toward Traditional and Montessori Programs in a Public School Setting

Available from: University of North Texas Digital Library

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Abstract/Notes: This study investigates differences in academic achievement and self-concept of students enrolled in a traditional public school program and a public school Montessori program. The attitudes of parents of students are also compared. The population includes 182 experimental and control kindergarten, first-, second-, and third-grade students in a Texas metropolitan school district. Academic pretest and posttest data include scores on the Bilingual Syntax Measure, Metropolitan Readiness Tests, California Achievement Tests, and the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. The McDaniel-Piers Young Children's Self Concept Scale and the Parent Opinion Survey were also administered. A two-way analysis of covariance was used to analyze pretest and posttest academic achievement and self-concept scores, and to test for possible interaction between the programs and the sex variable. The pretest score was used as the covariate. The means of both parent groups were analyzed using the t test for two independent samples. The .05 level of significance was used to test each hypothesis. First-grade traditional students had significantly higher academic achievement scores than first-grade Montessori students. A significant interaction effect at the first-grade level revealed that traditional males had the highest adjusted mean score for academic achievement and Montessori males had the lowest adjusted mean score. Second-grade traditional students showed a significant increase over second-grade Montessori students in self-concept. No significant difference was found in the attitude of parents of students enrolled in both programs. Conclusions based on this investigation are that more similarities than differences are evident between the two programs, differences in academic achievement and interaction effects and sex appeared at only one grade level, differences in self-concept appeared at only one grade level, and parent attitudes are similar. Recommendations include continuation of the Montessori program evaluation and replication using a larger population, different grade levels, and different socioeconomic levels.

Language: English

Published: Denton, Texas, 1982

Report

Effectiveness of Direct Verbal Instruction on IQ Performance and Achievement in Reading and Arithmetic [Academic Preschool, Champaign, Illinois]

Available from: ERIC

Academic achievement, Americas, Arithmetic, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Literacy, Mathematics education, North America, Reading, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This experiment was based on the assumption that the academic failure of the disadvantaged or middle class child is due to a failure of instruction and that if above-normal learning schedules were maintained, the second year of an enrichment program would not show the customary drop in gains from the first year. The subjects of this study were 43 disadvantaged Negro and white 4-year-olds of high, middle, and low intelligence. Fifteen of the children were placed in an experimental group (I) and 28 in a control group (II). A 2-year program involving a group (III) of middle class 4-year-olds was also conducted, with a control group (IV) consisting of middle class 4-year-olds in a Montessori preschool. Groups I and III received a 2-year experimental program in which rapid attainment of basic academic concepts was emphasized. Group II received a 2-year traditional preschool education. Group I achieved significantly greater Stanford-Binet IQ gains than Group II and maintained them over the 2-year program. Group III children also benefited measureably from the program and demonstrated greater achievement in many areas than Group IV.

Language: English

Published: Washington, D.C., 1966

Master's Thesis

"What are the Effects of Goal-Setting on Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Fourth Grade Classroom?"

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this action research was to study the effects of goal-setting as a strategy on student motivation and academic achievement in a fourth-grade classroom. The study was performed at a rural public elementary school in South Carolina, consisting of eighteen students in a general education classroom. This study used a preassessment/post-assessment set-up in order to collect data for math achievement and reading comprehension. An attitude survey was used to collect data on student’s motivation towards academic work. The data shows that the goal-setting strategy had a positive effect on math achievement and motivation towards academic work and may have an effect on reading comprehension.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2019

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