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372 results

Article

Rewriting Wundtian Psychology: Luigi Credaro and the Psychology in Rome

Available from: APA PsycNet

Publication: History of Psychology

Europe, Italy, Luigi Credaro - Biographic sources, Luigi Credaro - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Sante de Sanctis - Biographic sources, Sante de Sanctis - Philosophy, Southern Europe, Wilhelm Wundt - Biographic sources, Wilhelm Wundt - Philosophy

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Abstract/Notes: After Rome became the capital of Italy in 1871, prestigious scientists arrived at the University of Rome. One of these scholars was the pedagogical philosopher Luigi Credaro (1860-1939). He was one of the rare Italian students of Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) when he went to Leipzig and attended the Institute for Experimental Psychology in the academic year 1887-1888. There he also followed the pedagogical seminars and considered the usefulness of establishing sections of practical pedagogy in Italian magisterium schools, which were teacher-training institutions. In 1904, he founded in Rome the Scuola Pedagogica (Pedagogical School). Through the school, Credaro proposed the concept of a scientific pedagogy based on the application of the results of experimental sciences in the educational field. We can suppose that this approach influenced the first generation of Italian scholars interested in experimental psychology in Rome, in particular Sante De Sanctis (1862-1935) and Maria Montessori (1870-1952). The article thus considers the hypothesis of the formation of a so-called Roman school of psychology, which created in the field of pedagogy a ground on which to develop its research and applications. It should be noted that Credaro devoted himself to the potential applications of experimental psychology in the context of the modernization of the liberal states of the 20th century. Specifically, scientific pedagogy constituted a field of application and development for Roman psychology. At the end, the foundation of psychology in Rome was influenced by a particular version of the Wundtian psychology promoted by his pupil Credaro.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1037/hop0000219

ISSN: 1939-0610, 1093-4510

Doctoral Dissertation

The Developmental Psychology of Maria Montessori (Italy)

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori is historically recognized for her contributions to early education. Her primary recognition derived from the comprehensive educational program which became known as the Montessori Method. Relatively little attention has focused on her background as physician, psychiatrist, and pedagogical psychologist, from which she developed a body of psychological knowledge which established the foundation of the well-known Method. Her pedagogical psychology was overshadowed by her pedagogical theory despite her secure position in the history of child psychiatry. Also contributing to the non-acceptance of Montessori's psychology was the psychological tenor of the times. In the forefront of the psychological movement in the early 1900's were psychometric testing, Freud's psycho-sexual stages, Thorndike's stimulus-response theory, and the emergence of behaviorism under the leadership of Watson, to name a few. This climate was not hospitable to Montessori's developmental-interactionist theory. In the 1960's through the research findings of psychologists and the availability of Federal funds to compensate the "cumulative deficits" of the disadvantaged child, interest was focused on early childhood education and consequently the Montessori Method. As psychologists embraced Piaget's developmental theory, resemblances in thinking between Piaget and Montessori were noted. While psychologists pointed to Montessori's developmental-interactionist ideas, nobody attempted to elaborate her developmental theory in toto. This study attempts to do so. For Montessori, the development of the child takes place in successive and qualitatively different stages, with each stage providing the foundation for succeeding stages. Within this framework, she clearly delineates cognitive, motor, language, socialization, personality, and character as developing through stages. Cognitive structures develop through the child's interaction with, and actions upon, objects in the environment. A thorough examination of her theory leaves no doubt that Montessori is a cognitive developmentalist. While at times she appears nativistic, and at other times an extreme environmentalist, her position on development is interactionist and constructivist. Montessori is historically recognized for her contributions to early education. Her primary recognition derived from the comprehensive educational program which became known as the Montessori Method. Relatively little attention has focused on her background as physician, psychiatrist, and pedagogical psychologist, from which she developed a body of psychological knowledge which established the foundation of the well-known Method. Her pedagogical psychology was overshadowed by her pedagogical theory despite her secure position in the history of child psychiatry. Also contributing to the non-acceptance of Montessori's psychology was the psychological tenor of the times. In the forefront of the psychological movement in the early 1900's were psychometric testing, Freud's psycho-sexual stages, Thorndike's stimulus-response theory, and the emergence of behaviorism under the leadership of Watson, to name a few. This climate was not hospitable to Montessori's developmental-interactionist theory. In the 1960's through the research findings of psychologists and the availability of Federal funds to compensate the "cumulative deficits" of the disadvantaged child, interest was focused on early childhood education and consequently the Montessori Method. As psychologists embraced Piaget's developmental theory, resemblances in thinking between Piaget and Montessori were noted. While psychologists pointed to Montessori's developmental-interactionist ideas, nobody attempted to elaborate her developmental theory in toto. This study attempts to do so. For Montessori, the development of the child takes place in successive and qualitatively different stages, with each stage providing the foundation for succeeding stages. Within this framework, she clearly delineates cognitive, motor, language, socialization, personality, and character as developing through stages. Cognitive structures develop through the child's interaction with, and actions upon, objects in the environment. A thorough examination of her theory leaves no doubt that Montessori is a cognitive developmentalist. While at times she appears nativistic, and at other times an extreme environmentalist, her position on development is interactionist and constructivist. In contemporary terms her "psychopedagogy" would be considered an action psychology, which basically precludes it from academic "respectibility". Her theory contains both strengths and weaknesses in light of present-day thinking; however, on balance, Montessori's theory is quite contemporary and remarkably ahead of most of the psychological thinking of her time.

Language: English

Published: New York, 1982

Article

Maria Montessori’s Philosophy of Experimental Psychology

Available from: The University of Chicago Press Journals

Publication: HOPOS: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science, vol. 5, no. 2

Pages: 240-268

Maria Montessori - Philosophy

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Abstract/Notes: Through philosophical analysis of Montessori’s critiques of psychology, I aim to show the enduring relevance of those critiques. Maria Montessori sees experimental psychology as fundamental to philosophy and pedagogy, but she objects to the experimental psychology of her day in four ways: as disconnected from practice, as myopic, as based excessively on methods from physical sciences, and—most fundamentally—as offering detailed examinations of human beings (particularly children) under abnormal conditions. In place of these prevailing norms, Montessori suggests a model of the teacher-scientist in a specially prepared environment, who can engage in sustained and impassioned observation of “normalized” children. Drawing from a variety of texts and recently published lectures, this article lays out Montessori’s philosophy of experimental psychology and briefly discusses its relevance today.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1086/682395

ISSN: 2152-5188

Article

European Roots of the First Psychology Clinic in North America

Available from: Hogrefe

Publication: European Psychologist, vol. 1, no. 1

Pages: 44-50

Americas, Lightner Witmer - Biographic sources, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Lightner Witmer (1867-1956) founded the first psychology clinic in Philadelphia 100 years ago, in March 1896. Even though he was an American, he readily acknowledged some European roots of his work. Witmer earned his Ph.D. at the University of Leipzig, Germany, under Wilhelm Wundt. He was encouraged by his Philadelphia mentor, James McKeen Cattell, to focus on individual differences in the tradition of Francis Galton of England. Witmer modeled his clinical interventions after the previous efforts of J.R. Pereira, J.M.G. Itard, and Edouard Seguin of France and Maria Montessori of Italy. The consequences for modern psychology of Witmer's idea that psychologists should use their knowledge to help people individually were noteworthy. Clinical psychology is today the most common psychology specialty in Europe and, indeed, in much of the world. However, Witmer's concept that clinical psychologists should be trained at the doctoral level is as yet far better accepted in North America than it is elsewhere.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1027/1016-9040.1.1.44

ISSN: 1016-9040 1878-531X

Article

Positive Psychology: The Emerging Paradigm

Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 25, no. 2

Pages: 5-25

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi - Writings, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Discusses positive psychology, which focuses on health and well-being utilizing the elements of belief, hope, self-esteem, responsibility, elation, and wisdom as the basis of psychological theory and practice. Describes efforts to change the psychology field, including identifying promising young professionals, establishing monetary prizes, and establishing academic centers. Presents questions and answers regarding the application of positive psychology to education. (KB)

Language: English

ISSN: 1522-9734

Article

Child Guidance, Dynamic Psychology and the Psychopathologisation of Child-Rearing Culture (c. 1920-1940): A Transnational Perspective

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: History of Education, vol. 49, no. 5

Pages: 617-635

Americas, Europe, Holland, Netherlands, North America, United States of America, Western Europe

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Abstract/Notes: The historiography of child guidance has focused primarily on the United States, where it first developed before travelling across the English-speaking world. The rapid expansion of child guidance in the interwar years was enabled by private philanthropy, which provided fellowships to foreign professionals to study in the United States. This article focuses upon the transnational transfer of child guidance, the dynamic psychology on which it was based, and the accompanying psychopathologisation of child-rearing culture to a non-English speaking country, the Netherlands. First, it discusses the development of child guidance and the reception of dynamic psychology in the United States and Britain. Next, it analyses the transfer to the Netherlands. It turns out that the Dutch did not copy the American model, but adapted it to fit their conditions and created a more diverse child guidance landscape, in which educational psychology played a less important role than child psychiatry.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/0046760X.2020.1748727

ISSN: 0046-760X, 1464-5130

Article

Zur Entwicklungs- und Neuropsychologie der sensiblen Phasen [On the developmental and neuropsychology of the sensitive phases]

Publication: Montessori: Zeitschrift für Montessori-Pädagogik, vol. 34, no. 3-4

Pages: 117-128

Developmental psychology, Neuropsychology, Neuroscience, Sensitive Periods

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Language: German

ISSN: 0944-2537

Article

A Montessori Approach to Child Psychology

Publication: Around the Child, vol. 16

Pages: 18-22

Albert Max Joosten - Writings, Child development, Child psychology, Developmental psychology, Montessori method of education, ⛔ No DOI found

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Language: English

ISSN: 0571-1142

Article

Montessori Education, Neuropsychology, and the Child with Special Needs: Referral, Assessment, and Intervention

Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 34, no. 2

Pages: 75–138

Children with disabilities, Developmental psychology, Inclusive education, Neuropsychology, Neuroscience

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Abstract/Notes: discusses specific interventions for learning disorders

Language: English

ISSN: 1522-9734

Book

Psychoarithmetic: Arithmetic Developed Under the Guidelines Outlined by Child Psychology

Maria Montessori - Writings

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Abstract/Notes: Psychoarithmetic by Maria Montessori provides a view of the working of the human mind through the lens of exercises and study of mathematics (arithmetic, geometry, and algebra and their relationships), as well as applied mathematics in the form of measurement. The intention of the book, to forge a link between psychology and mathematics, is obvious from the title. The book demands that the reader attend to each and every detail while at the same time keeping in mind that all the details form part of the whole one is trying to understand. The book also pays homage to the people throughout the ages who have thought and found ways to solve their daily problems of living through mathematics. Yet without developing the mind through exploring mathematics, one cannot utilize these ideas. So the book is intended to be a handbook, for both children and adults, of how to help the mind develop in order to fulfil its potential.

Language: English

Published: Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company, 2016

Series: The Montessori Series , 20

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