Quick Search
For faster results please use our Quick Search engine.

Advanced Search

Search across titles, abstracts, authors, and keywords.
Advanced Search Guide.

1067 results

Article

Montessori Intervention Programme with Mentally Ill Children and Youth

Publication: Montessori Articles (Montessori Australia Foundation)

See More

Language: English

Article

President Wilson's Daughter to Aid Mme. Montessori Show Her System

Available from: Chronicling America (Library of Congress)

Publication: The Sun (New York) (New York City, NY)

Pages: 6

Americas, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, North America, United States of America

See More

Abstract/Notes: The Montessori movement, considered by many a radical departure from traditional educational methods, will receive new emphasis and publicity from the fact that visitors to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition will see during the months of August, September, October and November not only a demonstration of the Montessori system but will see it conducted by the talented woman herself. Associated with her will be Miss Margaret Wilson, daughter of the President, Dr. David Starr Jordan, chancellor of Leland Stanford Junior University, and other well known educators. The Montessori method has been summed up as 'freedom for development of the child under best conditions disturbing as little as possible but helping buy every means this development.' Any estimate of Mme. Montessori's work to be of practical value will involve a comparison between the Montessori method and that of the kindergarten, since the kindergarten is the only system of organizes educational work for young children that has so far received general recognition. In the middle of the last century the sensitive woman soul and philosophic mind of Froebel grasped the fundamental principle of development and say that the first six or seven years are the most important in the life of the individual. After years of study he embodied what he conceived to be the fundamental principles of the education of little children in what is known as the kindergarten, and his ideas of the best means for the application of these principles in his kindergarten program, materials and devices. The discovery of the kindergarten marked a new era in the history of the educational world. Though suppressed for years by government authority in Germany, and received with much suspicion elsewhere, the kindergarten has become an integral part of the public school system of many cities and States in our country. Its introduction into England was championed by Charles Dickens, and in America it found an advocate in the philosopher and educator Dr. William T. Harris. Concerning the kindergarten and the Montessori methods, Dr. P. P. Claxton, United States Commissioner of Education says: 'Though aims and principles are the same for both Froebel and Montessori, their different methods of approach have resulted in difference in emphasis, program and decides. For those who see no further than the form there is apparent conflict. Many cannot understand that the work of both Froebel and Montessori must finally lose each its distinctive characteristics in the larger whole of a more perfect knowledge of the nature of infancy and the means of educating young children.' It must be said of Dr. Montessori that she is first, last and always scientific in her work. Prolonged training in the sciences that relate to human life, vitalized by practical experience in their application to defective children, gave her a method which is the outcome of genius, training and experience. She swung into prominence, against her wish, in the following way: While serving as assistant doctor at the psychiatric clinic of the University of Rome, Italy, she founder herself differing from her colleagues in that she felt, as she says, 'that mental deficiency presented chiefly a pedagogic rather than mainly a medical problem.' The expression of these views in an address brought Dr. Montessori prominently before the Minister of Public Instruction, and her work from this on assumed a public character. Her belief that the methods employed with deficient children 'contained educational principles more rational than those in use and that if applied to normal children they would develop or set free their personality in a marvelous and surprising way,' became her controlling idea, and is the very heart of the Montessori system. The system of Mme. Montessori is indissolubly joined with her famous 'didactic material.' Among this will be found small wooden frames to which are attached pieces of cloth or leather on which are buttons and buttonholes, hooks and eyes, eyelets and lacing cords, and strings to be tied and untied. There are also boxes of cylindrical insets and other simple devices to develop 'man's mystery over nature.' Mme. Montessori is her best interpreter when she says, 'We are inclined to believe that children are like puppets and we wash them and feed them as if they were dolls. We do not stop to think that the child that does not do does not know how to do. Our duty is that of helping him to make a conquest of such useful acts as nature intended he should perform for himself. The mother who feeds her child without making the least effort to teach him to hold the spoon for himself and to try to find his mouth with it is not a wise mother. She treats her son as though he were a doll. We call an individual disciplined when he is master of himself and can regulate his own conduct when it shall be necessary to follow some rule of life. If any educational act is to be efficacious it is necessary rigorously to avoid the arrest of spontaneous movements and the imposition of arbitrary tasks. It is of course understood here that we do not speak of a useless or dangerous act; this must be suppressed, destroyed.' The Montessori doctrine is therefore in substance that the child's inner self or personalit cannot rightfully develop unless free to express itself undirected and unguided by another person. As a consequence Dr. Montessori insists that each child be allowed bodily freedom and have as much unhampered liberty of action as possible in order that he may fully express his inner life in outer activity. The classic illustration by which Dr. Montessori puts in concrete form her doctrine is the following: 'One day the children had gathered in a circle about a basin of water containing some floating toys. A little boy 2 1/2 years old had been left outside the circle. He drew near to the other children and tried to force his way among them, but he was not strong enough to do this. The expression of thought on his face was intensely interesting. His eyes then lighted upon a little chair and he had evidently made up his mind to place it behind the group of children and climb on it. As he began to move toward the chair, his face illuminated with hope, a teacher seized him in her arms, lifted him above the heads of the other children, showed him the basin of water, saying, 'Come poor little one you shall see too.' The child seeing the floating toys did not experience the joy that he was about to feel through conquering the obstacles with his own force. The teacher hindered the child in this case from educating himself. The little fellow was about to feel himself a conqueror, and instead he found himself held within two imprisoning arms impotent.' The now famous 'House of the Children' in Rome, under the patronage of Queen Margherita, faithfully reflects and demonstrates the Montessori principles and methods. It has been described as an old orphan asylum, whose gray outer walls give no idea of the two beautiful and luxuriant courtyards within. These latter are filled with beds of blossoming plans, and the pillars of the inner porch are covered with clinging vines. The schoolroom in which the class for the children is held opens with wide double doors into one of these lovely courtyards, where the children play during hours in which they are not engaged in their Montessori exercises. Miss Elizabeth Harrison, president of the National Kindergarten Union says of this 'House of the Children': 'On my first visit I found the children busy getting out the 'didactic material' with which they were to employ themselves for the next hour and a quarter. Some came forward to shake hands with me; some merely smiled and nodded and did not interrupt their work. All seemed busy, happy and free. I afterward saw as many as eighty visitors in the room where there were only a dozen children, but none of the children were in the least disturbed by or seemingly conscious of the presence of the visitors. Most of the children came from nearby tenement houses, yet even the youngest of them washed their own hands and faces, put on clean, neat calico aprons and looked as fresh and clean as children from well cared for homes.' Comparing the kindergarten and the Montessori systems, the following differences appear: The kindergarten stresses group activities, while the Montessori system emphasized almost exclusively the development of the individual. The kindergartners say that education in coordinating of muscles, the special training of the child's senses and all such phases of individual development are expected to come in the nursery. The Montessori system has no place for stories; the kindergartners are famous for them. Mme. Montessori objects to stories for young children on the theory that all activities of the mind are derived from the outside world and are dependent on sense impressions, and that therefore the child should be kept within the realm of his own personal experience until he is at least 7 or 8 years old. It is not necessary to add that two __ meet at this point of difference. The most remarkable features of the Montessori system, as well as one of its decided points of divergence from the kindergarten, lies in its ___ of definite attitude on religious training. Froebel, trained in an environment where instruction in religion is practically nationwide, says that while the child unconsciously manifests teh divine impuse within him he must follow it with conscious insights persisting in what he knows to do right and must needs have definite training of this kind. Montessori, on the other hand, with nuns as her assistants and attendants in her 'House of the Children,' acknowledges the importance of religious training for little children, 'but confesses that as yet it is an unsolved problem to her.' Miss Harrison, who spent some time in Rome with Mme. Montessori says, 'She [Montessori] seems to feel that a child's spiritual nature will ___ aright if freedom is given ....

Language: English

ISSN: 1940-7831

Report

The Evaluation and Implications of Research with Young Handicapped and Low-Income Children at the Institute for Research on Exceptional Children at the University of Illinois

Available from: ERIC

Americas, Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, North America, Poor children, United States of America

See More

Abstract/Notes: This study to determine effects of preschool training of mentally retarded children from low-income families asks three major questions: 1. Does preschool training displace the rate of development of such children? 2. Does rate of growth continue at an accelerated rate, or does it return to the original rate of development during primary school years? 3. Are the results similar for children living in different environments? Five intervention programs are outlined: 1. Traditional nursery school; 2. Community Integrated program; 3. The Montessori method; 4. Karnes structured cognitive plan; and 5. The Bereiter-Englemann(B-E). As a result of the program, some children in the demonstration center no longer function in the retarded range. Behavior has improved and several have entered a public school or preschool for normal children. It is suggested that mothers of infants might accomplish more at home with guidance, since professional tutoring is not feasibly practical, and children with higher IQ need special early programming to attain their potential. (RG)

Language: English

Published: Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, 1973

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Children’s Preference for Real Activities: Even Stronger in the Montessori Children’s House

Available from: University of Kansas Libraries

Publication: Journal of Montessori Research, vol. 4, no. 2

Pages: 1-9

Americas, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, North America, United States of America

See More

Abstract/Notes: In the United States, children are often given the opportunity to engage in pretend activities; many believe this kind of play benefits children’s development. Recent research has shown, though, that when children ages 4 to 6 are given a choice to do the pretend or the real version of 9 different activities, they would prefer the real one. The reasons children gave for preferring real activities often concerned their appreciation of the functionality; when children did prefer pretend activities, their reasons often cited being afraid of, not allowed to, or unable to do the real activity. Given that children in Montessori classrooms have more experience performing real, functional activities, in this study we asked if this preference for real activities is even stronger among children in Montessori schools. We also asked children to explain their preferences. The data are from 116 3- to 6-year-old children (M = 59.63 months, SD = 12.08 months; 68 female): 62 not in Montessori schools and 54 in Montessori schools. Children explained their preferences for pretendand real versions of 9 different activities. Children in Montessori schools preferred real activities even more than did children in other preschools, but all children explained their choices in similar ways. The implications of these results are discussed with regard to play in preschool classrooms.

Language: English

DOI: 10.17161/jomr.v4i2.7586

ISSN: 2378-3923

Article

Dr. Montessori Aims to Aid Poor: Italian Educator Says Their Children Are More Eager to Learn

Available from: Chronicling America (Library of Congress)

Publication: New York Tribune (New York, New York)

Pages: 6

Americas, Margaret Naumburg - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

See More

Abstract/Notes: "Yesterday the Dottoressa Maria Montessori held the first conference with her pupils in America. It was at the Children's House, 520 East Seventy-seventh Street. The Children's House is one of the thirty Montessori schools which have sprung up in New York during the last three years. The conference was impressive. The great Italian teacher greeted her pupils, her disciples , if you like, with delight and apparent amazement at the development of her work in New York. "This beautiful house of the children!" She cried. "You have so much here; in Italy we cannot give the children all this, we have it not to give, but little is much when children are free." Her work is growing fast in Italy. In the districts which have been devastated by the earthquakes twelve schools have been established. "I have now developed a method of educating children from five to ten years old. By it they learn reading, writing, arithmetic very easily - but especially nature, science, the languages. Then they are ready to enter the high schools, I believe you call it. Two years are saved in the school life of every child. My elementary methods have been put into sixteen schools in Italy. Signorini Maccheroni is training teachers and opening our schools in Spain." Miss Anne E. George, who introduced Dr. Montessori's work into this community, asked how Montessori teachers in the United States could learn the methods for older pupils. "Signorina Fidele might come here and supervise the elementary classes which you form." "But you, Dottoressa," exclaimed Margaret Naumberg, "why won't you stay and help us?" Dr. Montessori didn't say she would, but I noticed particularly that she didn't say she wouldn't. She is now on her way to California, where she will give a four months' course in Montessori methods in Los Angeles and San Diego. Her latest book, describing her work with older children, will be published in the fall. "Now, that is all my news, and I want to hear what you are doing. I want always to keep in close touch with you and with your work. Tell me what you are doing." Mrs. A. Reno Margulies, of 534 West 187th Street, told of her work with deaf and backward children. Miss George spoke of hers. "Ah," said Dr. Montessori, "but are you not working with the children of the well-to-do? Tell me what you are doing for the children of the poor." Miss Zoé Bateman, secretary of the Montessori Association, explained that the Children's House in which the conference was held was a free school, supported by contributions. "It is very hard to get the work taken up by the public schools," said Margaret Naumberg. "We have just secured permission to establish a class in Public School 4. It was only possible because of the enthusiasm of the principal, Simon Hirsdansky, for Dr. Montessori's work. "Until the work is developed by the Board of Education it cannot be carried very far among the poor, for teachers must live as well as teach." "It is easier to teach the children of the poor," said Dr. Montessori. "They are more eager to learn." "Oh, no" cried her pupils in chorus, "The children who have better homes, better food and better care learn much faster than the poorer children." "I had a group of poor children last winter, and a group of well-to-do children this winter," said Margaret Naumberg, "and the latter learned in six weeks more than the former learned in a year.""

Language: English

ISSN: 1941-0646

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Comparison of Sudoku Solving Skills of Preschool Children Enrolled in the Montessori Approach and the National Education Programs

Available from: Red Fame

Publication: Journal of Education and Training Studies, vol. 8, no. 3

Pages: 32-47

Asia, Comparative education, Middle East, Turkey, Turkey, Western Asia

See More

Abstract/Notes: According to Johnson-Laird (2010), sudoku, a mind game, is based on a pure deduction and reasoning processes. This study analyzed sudoku solving skills of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of Education preschool education program and the Montessori approach. Sudoku skills of children were analyzed by gender, age, duration of preschool attendance, mother’s and father’s education level and previous experience of playing sudoku using a 12-question Sudoku Skills Measurement Tool developed for this research study. The study sample of the study consisted of 118 children (57 girls, 61 boys) aged between 54-77 months. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in sudoku skills by gender. However, sudoku skills varied with age (54-65 months and 66-77 months) in favor of older groups. Children's sudoku skills were more developed with an increase in education level of either parent. Children who had been in preschool for longer had higher sudoku scores. A previous experience of playing sudoku did not impact sudoku scores. Sudoku skills of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to Ministry of National Education program.According to Johnson-Laird (2010), sudoku, a mind game, is based on a pure deduction and reasoning processes. This study analyzed sudoku solving skills of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of Education preschool education program and the Montessori approach. Sudoku skills of children were analyzed by gender, age, duration of preschool attendance, mother’s and father’s education level and previous experience of playing sudoku using a 12-question Sudoku Skills Measurement Tool developed for this research study. The study sample of the study consisted of 118 children (57 girls, 61 boys) aged between 54-77 months. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in sudoku skills by gender. However, sudoku skills varied with age (54-65 months and 66-77 months) in favor of older groups. Children's sudoku skills were more developed with an increase in education level of either parent. Children who had been in preschool for longer had higher sudoku scores. A previous experience of playing sudoku did not impact sudoku scores. Sudoku skills of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to Ministry of National Education program.

Language: English

DOI: 10.11114/jets.v8i3.4620

ISSN: 2324-8068

Article

La Dr. Montessori per L'Italia: L'Illustre Signora Scrivera' Una Serie di Articoli per Questo Giornale [Dr. Montessori for L'Italia: The Illustrious Lady will Write a Series of Articles for this Newspaper]

Available from: Chronicling America (Library of Congress)

Publication: L'Italia (San Francisco, California)

Pages: 4

Americas, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, North America, United States of America

See More

Abstract/Notes: "Siamo lieti di annunciare, ed i nostri lettori saranno certamente lietissimi di apprendere, che la illustre educatrice italiana Dottoressa Maria Montessori, ospite della nostra città e dell'Esposizione per rilevare agli insegnanti americani il di lei nuovo e genialissimo metodo d'educazione ed istruzione per i bambini ha cortesemente accettato l'invito da noi fattole di scrivere una serie di articoletti per il giornale L'ITALIA, nei quali l'eminente signora spiegherà ai profani detto metodo di educazione, che ha suscitato l'ammirazione di tutto il mondo civile. Gli articoli della Signora Montessori, scritti in italiano, saranno contemporaneamente pubblicati dal confratello americano "The Call," tradotti in inglese dal nostro Direttore Ing. Ettore Patrizi. Il primo di detti articoli apparirà sull'ITALIA e sul "Call" di sabato prossimo." / "We are pleased to announce, and our readers will certainly be delighted to learn, that the illustrious Italian educator Dr. Maria Montessori, a guest of our city and of the Exposition to reveal to American teachers her new and brilliant method of education and instruction for children. She kindly accepted the invitation we sent her to write a series of articles for the newspaper L'ITALIA, in which the eminent lady will explain to the layman this method of education, which has aroused the admiration of the whole civil world . The articles of Mrs. Montessori, written in Italian, will be simultaneously published by the American brother "The Call," translated into English by our Director Eng. Ettore Patrizi. The first of these articles will appear in ITALY and in the "Call" next Saturday."

Language: Italian

ISSN: 2637-5400

Article

Famous Dr. Montessori Begins to Teach L. A. Children Next Monday

Available from: Newspapers.com

Publication: Los Angeles Record (Los Angeles, California)

Pages: 4

Americas, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, North America, United States of America

See More

Abstract/Notes: "Dr. Maria Montessori, the noted Italian educator, who has won such renown throughout the world for her discovery of new methods of teaching little children, will begin her third international demonstration classes at Boyle Heights intermediate school Monday. These sun-kissed, happy, healthy little children, pupils of the Montessori class, established by Miss Katherine Moore of this city at East Seventh st. school will constitute one of the three groups to be taught during the demonstration. EDUCATORS COME HERE. Notable educators from all parts of the United States are arriving daily to attend the instruction course which Dr. Montessori will give during her stay. The course will continue two months. This will be the first time the famed teacher of little children has ever conducted a demonstration class outside of Rome, Italy. Though invited to give this third international class at many notable points in this country, she has chosen Los Angeles. There are probably three reasons for this. The first, perhaps, is the fact that Miss Katherine Moore, teacher of the local Montessori classes, was a favorite student and a member of the first class graduated by Dr. Montessori in Rome. FORMS FIRST CLASS. The second, probably, is the fact that Miss Moore established the Montessori system in Los Angeles, making it the first place in this country to follow the specific teachings of the Italian educator. The third is the fact that scores of invitations have been issued by various educational organizations in this city. SHOWER BATH. Preparations for the gala event are already in order at the East Seventh st. school. Each day of demonstration classes, the 30 youngsters representing seven or eight nationalities, none Americans, will be taken from their school to the Boyle Heights Intermediate school on the car. Though the children don't understand just what it is all about, they know they are to have a treat of some sort. The idea of a car ride is a joy in itself for them. The board of education has granted Principal Larkey of the East Seventh st. school sufficient funds to pay for transportation. The first thing on the program each morning for these 30 expectant youngsters will be a shower bath apiece. Then each will be dressed in clean little aprons and the trip started. There are three Montessori schools in this divinity, all started by Miss Moore. The other two are at St. Catherine's school on West Adams st. and in the Hotel Maryland at Pasadena. Dr. Montessori will go from here to San Diego, where the exposition committee has appropriated $1000 for equipment and a building in which she can hold her classes. Later she goes to San Francisco."

Language: English

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The 'Cosmic' Task of the Youngest Children – Direct, Anticipate or Respect? Experiences Working with Small Children

Available from: Journal of Montessori Research and Education

Publication: Journal of Montessori Research and Education, vol. 2, no. 1

Pages: 1–12

See More

Abstract/Notes: The article derived from Grazia Honegger Fresco’s years in close cooperation with Maria Montessori and Adele Costa Gnocchi. The author illustrates how small children from the moment they start using their hands and are standing unassisted on their own legs must act in their own way. The teacher must observe before acting and intervene as little as possible. Honegger Fresco follows the work of Montessori and Costa Gnocchi and she compares the findings with different fields of science, such as ethnology and neurology. As a result of her observations and experiences she points toward the relationship between a good childhood, and in the long term, human responsibility on Earth, using the concept “the Cosmic Task”. The method in this article is based on autoethnography, as the author shares her personal experience and reflections, both as a teacher and as an educator. The aim is to shed light on aspects regarding the needs of small children and to point at the essential role of adults, educators as well as parents. As Schiedi explains, autoethnography “extends its narrative horizon to a social, professional, organizational dimension of the self” (2016). During Honegger Fresco’s career, she was primarily inspired by Maria Montessori’s research about child development and children’s needs and rights, and she had continuously deepened her understanding by studying other researchers in this field. Thus, the article will share her conviction that by serving the creative spirit of the youngest children we will build a better future for our planet.

Language: English

DOI: 10.16993/jmre.10

ISSN: 2002-3375

Report

Ancona Montessori Research Project for Culturally Disadvantaged Children. September 1, 1968 to August 31, 1969. Final Report

Available from: ERIC

Academic achievement, Americas, Cognitive development, Comparative education, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Elementary education, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

See More

Abstract/Notes: This paper, part of a long term study, reports the effect of a modified Montessori preschool experience on cognitive development, school-related behaviors, and social interactions and perceptions of disadvantaged children. Each of thirty-five disadvantaged Negro children (31 in nursery classes and 4 in elementary classes) was pair-matched with a middle class child. In the disadvantaged group, 17 children were attending nursery classes for the first time. Pre- and posttests were made of cognitive ability, on the Stanford-Binet, Piaget tests of length conservation, and sociometric features. Also, children were rated by testers on performance and by teachers rated classroom behaviors. Data from previous years on some of the children were used in reference to long term change. Part I (nursery school) test results show that neither first nor second-year children significantly increased their I.Q. scores. Both disadvantaged and middle class children scored similarly on task orientation. Middle class children showed more friendship choices forming across social-class lines. Part II (elementary school) results present limited support for the theory that children who continue in Montessori, rather than public, school will show better school achievement. Data included school records of more than 30 children. A future study will investigate diffusion effects on mothers and younger siblings, and testing with measures more directly relevant to Montessori curriculum. (NH)

Language: English

Published: Washington, D.C., Aug 31, 1969

Advanced Search