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Doctoral Dissertation

The Growth of the Montessori Movement in the United States, 1909-1970

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Americas, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to examine the growth of the Montessori Movement in the United States during the periods 1909-1921 and 1952-1970. The Montessori system was viewed as an innovation in American education and special attention was directed to the leaders of the movement and the role they played in its growth. The primary sources used for the initial period were the papers of Mabel Bell kept in the Bell Room of the National Geographic Society and the McClure Manuscripts housed in the Lilly Library at Indiana University. For the latter period, the following sources were utilized: American Montessori Society files, files of Whitby School, tape recordings from the American Montessori Society, interviews with Nancy Rambusch, Cleo Monson, John McDermott and correspondence with Mario Montessori and Margaret Stephensen. In addition to visits to the original Casa dei Bambini in Rome and modern Case in Italy, many Montessori schools in the United States were observed. The background of Dr. Montessori was discussed and the influences, principles and contributions of her method were examined. The period from 1909-1921 was analyzed with reference to the leadership of Maria Montessori, S.S. McClure, Mabel Bell, Helen Parkhurst and William Kilpatrick. The social, educational, political, theoretical and communications problems were examined to determine possible reasons for the demise of Montessori education in that era. The renascance [sic] of Montessori education in the United States (1952-1970) was examined with emphasis on the leadership of Mario Montessori, Nancy Rambusch, Margaret Stephenson, Cleo Monson and John McDermott. The areas of social, educational, theoretical and communications were studied for likely reasons for the resurgence of Montessori education in America. A paradigmatic schema was used to compare the role of the leaders in each period: Policy maker- Maria Montessori and Mario Montessori; Promoter- S.S. McClure and Nancy Rambusch; Organizer- Mabel Bell and Cleo Monson; Disciple- Helen Parkhurst and Margaret Stephenson; Professional Educator- William Kilpatrick and John McDermott. The qualities of leadership which led to the original demise of the Montessori Movement were: 1) Mistrust and lack of direct contact with United States educators and Montessori promoters by Maria Montessori; 2) Withdrawal of lecture and film rights from S.S. McClure by Dr. Montessori; 3) Dissolution of Montessori organizations by Mabel Bell and Helen Parkhurst because of lack of confidence in them by Maria Montessori; 5) Strong influence by William Kilpatrick (who did not believe in the Montessori method) on kindergarten teachers. The rebirth of the Montessori Movement was influenced by: 1) Mario Montessori's strong adherence to the original ideas of Maria Montessori; 2) Nancy Rambusch's proper use of leadership and timing and the formation of the American Montessori Society by her; 3) The organized efforts of the American Montessori Society and its teacher-training and public relations function by Cleo Monson; 4) The loyalty and knowledge displayed by Margaret Stephenson in running the Association Montessori Internationale teacher-training course in Washington; 5) the efforts of John McDermott to put Montessori in an American cultural context in teacher-training and professionalization of Montessori education. The writer finds strong indications for the thesis that it was the leadership which effected the growth of the Montessori Movement in the United States and recommends further research into other educational innovations in the United States such as the British Infant School Movement and Headstart with attention to the leadership.

Language: English

Published: New York, 1971

Article

La persistenza del movimento montessoriano / La persistencia del movimiento Montessori / The Persistence of the Montessori Movement

Available from: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

Publication: RELAdEI (Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Infantil), vol. 3, no. 3

Pages: 35-48

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Abstract/Notes: La storia del movimento montessoriano comincia in Italia con l’apertura della prima “Casa dei bambini” nel quartiere popolare di San Lorenzo a Roma. Maria Montessori ha raccontato la storia delle prime scuole che applicarono il suo metodo nei libri che hanno reso celebre il nome Montessori in molti paesi del mondo. Molto resta ancora da studiare nella storia del movimento montessoriano successiva alla morte della sua fondatrice. Anche le prime case dei bambini di Roma furono trasformate negli anni del regime fascista, chiuse e riaperte dopo la fine del regime. La vita stessa di Maria Montessori è stata ampiamente studiata, ma alcuni periodi della sua vita possono essere ancora approfonditi. La proposta educativa sulla quale il metodo Montessori è basato è stata arricchita nel corso del tempo; oggi le ricerche di Angeline S. Lillard hanno aggiornato la teoria dell’educazione montessoriana con importanti riferimenti alla psicologia dell’età evolutiva contemporanea. Lo studio della pedagogia Montessori richiede oggi una conoscenza approfondita del contesto storico di un secolo fa e della vita di Maria Montessori. La conoscenza adeguata della psicologia del bambino è fondamentale per l’uso efficace del metodo e dei materiali. Ciascun bambino è diverso e ha bisogno di insegnanti che conoscano adeguatamente i principi e i valori che orientano l’attività delle case dei bambini; l’applicazione del metodo deve essere legata allo stile educativo democratico e aperto che Maria Montessori ha posto alla base della sua teoria dell’educazione. / evolutiva contemporanea. Lo studio della pedagogia Montessori richiede oggi una conoscenza approfondita del contesto storico di un secolo fa e della vita di Maria Montessori. La conoscenza adeguata della psicologia del bambino è fondamentale per l’uso efficace del metodo e dei materiali. Ciascun bambino è diverso e ha bisogno di insegnanti che conoscano adeguatamente i principi e i valori che orientano l’attività delle case dei bambini; l’applicazione del metodo deve essere legata allo stile educativo democratico e aperto che Maria Montessori ha posto alla base della sua teoria dell’educazione. Montessori con importantes referencias a la psicología evolutiva contemporánea. El estudio actual de la pedagogía Montessori requiere de un profundo conocimiento del contexto histórico de hace un siglo y de la vida de María Montessori. El conocimiento adecuado de la psicología infantil es fundamental para el uso eficaz del método y los materiales. Cada niño es diferente y necesita de maestros que conozcan adecuadamente los principios y valores que orientan la actividaded de las “Casa dei Bambini”; la aplicación del método debe estar asociada con el estilo educativo democrático y abierto que Maria Montessori puso en la base de su teoría de la educación. / The history of the Montessori Movement began in Italy with the opening of the first children’s home in the popular area of San Lorenzo in Rome. Maria Montessori told the story of the first schools which applied her method in the books that have made famous her name in many countries around the world. Much remains to be studied in the history of the Montessori Movement after the death of its founder. Even the first houses of the children in Rome ceased their activities during the years of the fascist regime and reopened after the end of the regime. The life of Maria Montessori has been extensively studied, but some periods of her life may be further studied. The educational proposal on which the Montessori method is based has been enriched in the course of time; today, Angeline S. Lillard’s researches have updated the Montessori educational theory with important references to contemporary developmental psychology. The study of Montessori pedagogy today would require a thorough understanding of the historical context of a century ago and of the life of Maria Montessori herself. Adequate knowledge of child psychology is fundamental to the effective use of the method and materials; each child is different and needs teachers who know adequately the principles and values that guide the activities of the children’s homes; the application of the method must be linked to the democratic and open educational style that Maria Montessori made the basis of her theory of education.

Language: Italian

ISSN: 2255-0666

Book

Montessoris pedagogiska imperium: Kulturkritik och politik i mellankrigstidens Montessorirörelse [Montessori's educational empire: Cultural criticism and politics in the Montessori movement of the interwar period]

Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - History

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Abstract/Notes: Under 1900-talets första decennier vann den italienska läkaren Maria Montessori berömmelse som pedagogisk förnyare. Den frihetliga andan och mönstergilla disciplinen i hennes förskolor och skolor slog omvärlden med häpnad. Men Montessori skulle inte bara lansera en ny pedagogik. Under mellankrigstiden, när hennes metod fick stort genomslag internationellt, påtog hon sig rollen som kulturkritisk rörelseledare. Med paroller om barnets frigörelse och samhällets rekonstruktion värvade rörelsen många entusiastiska anhängare. I dåtida press talades det om montessorism i liknande ordalag som man talade om feminism, freudianism och marxism. Förväntningarna på vad montessorismen skulle kunna åstadkomma också utanför skolportarna var höga. I Montessoris pedagogiska imperium belyser Christine Quarfood, utifrån ett omfattande historiskt källmaterial, Montessorirörelsen som kulturkritisk och opinionsbildande strömning. Boken lyfter fram det mångfasetterade i rörelsens budskap, utöver den psykopedagogiska tematiken också den politiskt och socialt laddade problematik kring makt- och auktoritetsfrågor, krig och fred som adresseras i rörelsens skrifter. Huvudfokus ligger på mottagandet i de länder där rörelsen fick störst genomslag, USA vid tiden kring första världskriget, England under 1920-talet, samt Mussolinis Italien, där Montessorirörelsen fick fascistregimens stöd från 1926 till 1934. / During the first decades of the 20th century, the Italian physician Maria Montessori gained fame as an educational innovator. The liberal spirit and exemplary discipline of her preschools and schools amazed the outside world. But Montessori would not just launch a new pedagogy. During the interwar period, when her method had a major impact internationally, she took on the role of culturally critical movement leader. With slogans about the child's liberation and the reconstruction of society, the movement recruited many enthusiastic supporters. In the press of that time, Montessori was spoken of in similar terms as feminism, Freudianism, and Marxism. Expectations of what Montessori could achieve outside the school gates were high. In Montessori's educational empire, Christine Quarfood, based on extensive historical source material, highlights the Montessori movement as a culturally critical and opinion-forming current. The book highlights the multifaceted in the movement's message, in addition to the psychopedagogical theme also the politically and socially charged issues around power and authority issues, war and peace that are addressed in the movement's writings. The main focus is on reception in the countries where the movement had the greatest impact, the United States during the First World War, England in the 1920s, and Mussolini's Italy, where the Montessori movement received the support of the fascist regime from 1926 to 1934.

Language: Swedish

Published: Göteborg, Sweden: Daidalos, 2017

ISBN: 978-91-7173-512-6

Book Section

Die Montessori-Bewegung im Kanton Wallis [The Montessori Movement in the Canton of Valais]

Book Title: Hundert Jahre Montessori-Pädagogik, 1907-2007: Eine Chronik der Montessori-Pädagogik in der Schweiz [One Hundred Years of Montessori Education, 1907-2007: A Chronicle of Montessori Education in Switzerland]

Pages: 135-140

Europe, Marianne Oggier - Biographic sources, Marthe Martin - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori movement, Montessori schools, Sister Marie-René Rouiller - Biographic sources, Switzerland, Western Europe

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Language: German

Published: Bern, Switzerland: Haupt Verlag, 2007

Edition: 1st edition

ISBN: 978-3-258-07092-6

Book Section

Die Montessori-Bewegung im Kanton Waadt [The Montessori Movement in the Canton of Vaud]

Book Title: Hundert Jahre Montessori-Pädagogik, 1907-2007: Eine Chronik der Montessori-Pädagogik in der Schweiz [One Hundred Years of Montessori Education, 1907-2007: A Chronicle of Montessori Education in Switzerland]

Pages: 107-110

Europe, Gilberte Lowis - Biographic sources, Isabelle Chuat - Biographic sources, Louise Briod - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori movement, Switzerland, Western Europe

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Language: German

Published: Bern, Switzerland: Haupt Verlag, 2007

Edition: 1st edition

ISBN: 978-3-258-07092-6

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Die Montessoribewegung in Berlin während der Weimarer Republik und der Konflikt zwischen Clara Grunwald und Maria Montessori [The Montessori movement in Berlin during the Weimar Republic and the conflict between Clara Grunwald and Maria Montessori]

Book Title: Montessori-Pädagogik

Pages: 98-111

Clara Grunwald - Biographic sources, Europe, Germany, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori movement, Western Europe

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Language: German

Published: Baltmannsweiler, Germany: Schneider-Verlag Hohengehren, 2005

Edition: 2nd corrected and revised ed.

ISBN: 3-89676-949-9 978-3-89676-949-7

Series: Reformpädagogische Schulkonzepte , 4

Book Section

Die Montessori Bewegung in Japan [The Montessori Movement in Japan]

Book Title: Die Montessori-Pädagogik und das behinderte Kind: Referate und Ergebnisse des 18. Internationalen Montessori Kongresses (München, 4-8 Juli 1977) [Montessori Pedagogy and the Handicapped Child: Papers and Results of the 18th International Montessori Congress (Munich, July 4-8, 1977)]

Pages: 377-383

Asia, Conferences, East Asia, International Montessori Congress (18th, Munich, Germany, 4-8 July 1977), Japan

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Language: German

Published: München: Kindler, 1978

ISBN: 3-463-00716-9

Book Section

Dr. Maria Montessori and the Montessori Movement: A General Bibliography of Materials in the English Language, 1909-1961

Available from: Books to Borrow @ Internet Archive

Book Title: Learning How to Learn: An American Approach to Montessori

Pages: 139-175

Bibliographies, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori movement

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Language: English

Published: Baltimore, Maryland: Helicon Press, 1962

Book Section

Sviluppo storico del movimento Montessori [Historical development of the Montessori movement]

Book Title: Maria Montessori cittadina del mondo [Maria Montessori, citizen of the world]

Pages: 250-256

Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - History

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Abstract/Notes: Traduzione italiana dell'articolo di E. Mortimer Standing , pubblicato nella rivista inglese Blackfriars di Londra nel novembre 1956 e uscita sul n. 5, maggio 1958 della rivista "Vita dell'Infanzia", Roma, anno VIII. [Italian translation of the article by E. Mortimer Standing, published in the English magazine Blackfriars in London in November 1956 and published in no. 5, May 1958 of the magazine "Vita dell'Infanzia", Rome, Anno VIII.]

Language: Italian

Published: Roma: Comitato italiano dell'OMEP, 1967

Article

Die Montessori-Bewegung in Deutschland [The Montessori Movement in Germany]

Publication: Montessori: Blätter der Internationalen Montessori-Gesellschaft, no. 1

Pages: 43-47

Germany, Maria Montessori - Writings, Montessori method of education - History

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Language: German

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Montessori in Indigenous Communities
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Montessori and African Americans
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Montessori in India
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