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Undergraduate Thesis

PUYU: Juguete educativo para desarrollar habilidades cognitivas pre-operacionales de funciones ejecutivas para niños en etapa preescolar de la comunidad rural de Chillaco, Lima [PUYU: Educational toy to develop pre-operational cognitive skills of executive functions for preschool children from the rural community of Chillaco, Lima]

Available from: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú

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Abstract/Notes: A large percentage of the population in Peru is located in rural areas, such as the community of Chillaco, in the Lurín river basin, in Lima. The closest school to the town is far away for children, especially preschoolers; consequently, many of the local families have to educate their children at home or during their farm work. These children do not know the educational experience of an optimal cognitive learning, because they skip the kindergarten studies, the age where cognitive abilities of the pre-operational stage are developed; Executive functions are one of these essential skills for human beings to learn to learn. Taking as a reference the Reggio Emilia and Montessori educational methods, based on the autonomy of the kid during learning together with playful tools with the same purpose, the innovation gap focuses on the little attention for the cognitive learning of children in vulnerable contexts and without adult guardianship. From here we pose the following research question: How through the design of an educational toy the pre operational cognitive development of executive functions of children between 3 and 5 years of preschool age in the rural community of Chillaco in Lima is favored? Finding the opportunity to merge methodologies, tools, games and design in a favorable result for children's cognitive learning, Puyu was designed, a portable, friendly and accessible educational toy focused on learning executive functions while their parents work on the farm. DCH, etnographic methods, telephone records and literature review were used as methodology. Interviews were conducted with users, farmers and experts in pedagogical, sociological and psychological fields. The results showed that the children accepted the design proposal, showing interaction and curiosity to discover different and new ways of using it. The parents confirmed their approval and desire to experiment with at home and in the farm. In conclusion, the pertinence and relevance of an educational toy in rural contexts for cognitive development is reaffirmed, the same levels of enthusiasm are expected in the presentation of the final product. / Un gran porcentaje de la población peruana se ubica en zonas rurales, como la comunidad rural de Chillaco, ubicada en la cuenca del río Lurín, en Lima. La escuela más cercana al pueblo es lejana para los niños, sobre todo preescolares; en consecuencia, muchas de las familias del lugar educan a sus hijos en sus casas o durante sus labores en la chacra. Estos niños no conocen la experiencia educativa de un óptimo aprendizaje cognitivo al no cursar el preescolar, edad donde se desarrollan habilidades cognitivas de la etapa pre-operacional. Las funciones ejecutivas son una de estas habilidades indispensables para que el ser humano pueda aprender a aprender. Contemplando métodos educativos basados en la autonomía del niño durante el aprendizaje, como Reggio Emilia y Montessori, la brecha de investigación se enfoca en la poca atención para el aprendizaje cognitivo de los niños en contextos vulnerables y sin tutela adulta. Desde aquí se plantea ¿Cómo a través del diseño de un juguete educativo se favorece el desarrollo cognitivo pre operacional de funciones ejecutivas de niños de 3 a 5 años de edad en etapa pre escolar de la comunidad rural de Chillaco en Lima? Como respuesta, se diseñó Puyu, un juguete educativo portátil, amigable y accesible enfocado en el aprendizaje de funciones ejecutivas de los niños mientras los padres laboran en la chacra. Se usó la metodología Diseño Centrado en el Humano (DCH), métodos etnográficos, registros audiovisuales y revisión de literatura; se entrevistó a usuarios, campesinos y expertos en campos pedagógicos, sociológicos y psicológicos. Como resultado, los niños y padres aceptaron la propuesta de diseño demostrando interacción y curiosidad por el acto de descubrir, junto a nuevas formas de uso; además, de experimentar en casa y la chacra. En conclusión, se reafirma la pertinencia y relevancia de la implementación de un juguete educativo en contextos rurales para el desarrollo cognitivo, Puyu demostró elevar las respuestas cognitivas de los niños frente a situaciones básicas, las cuales se replican indefinidamente en la vida diaria, dando paso a un incremento positivo en el aprendizaje cognitivo de los usuarios.

Language: Spanish

Published: Lima, Peru, 2022

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Aportes de la pedagogía Montessori en el aprendizaje del léxico de niños no lectores de preescolar [Contributions of Montessori method in the learning of vocabulary by non-reader children at preschool]

Available from: Universidad de Costa Rica - Portal de Revistas Académicas

Publication: Revista Lenguas Modernas [Modern Language Review], no. 33

Pages: 9-23

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Abstract/Notes: Incluso si el método Montessori no fue concebido originalmente para la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras, consideramos que sus principios universales de formación de los niños y las niñas pueden ser aplicados igualmente para la clase de francés como lengua extranjera. El objetivo de la investigación fue iniciar a los niños y las niñas no lectores de dos grupos de preescolar de la Escuela Saint Benedict en la comprensión del cuento “Petit chat perdu” a través de los principios montessorianos. En cuanto a la metodología, se optó por una perspectiva cualitativa. Se utilizaron dos instrumentos: la entrevista y las observaciones de participantes y no participantes. Para la recolección de los datos se emplearon una tabla de observación y un diario de campo. El punto de partida consistió en extraer aportes útiles de la teoría Montessori para la clase de francés. Posteriormente, se puso en práctica una secuencia pedagógica que favorece la comprensión oral con actividades variadas inspiradas en la pedagogía respetando al mismo tiempo los principios de la teoría. Por último, se analizaron las ventajas e inconvenientes de dicha adaptación para iniciar a niñas y niños no lectores en el aprendizaje del francés como lengua extranjera. [Even if the Montessori method was not originally conceived for the teaching of foreign languages, we consider that its universal principles of training boys and girls can be applied equally to French as a foreign language class. The objective of the research was to initiate the non-readers of two preschool groups of the Saint Benedict School in the understanding of the story “Petit chat perdu” through the Montessorian principles. Regarding the methodology, a qualitative perspective was chosen. Two instruments were used: the interview and the observations of participants and non-participants. For data collection, an observation table and a field diary were used. The starting point was to extract useful contributions from Montessori theory for the French class. Subsequently, a pedagogical sequence that favors oral comprehension was put into practice with varied activities inspired by pedagogy while respecting the principles of theory. Lastly, the advantages and disadvantages of this adaptation were analyzed to initiate non-reader girls and boys in learning French as a foreign language.]

Language: Spanish

DOI: 10.15517/rlm.v0i33.38307

ISSN: 2215-5643, 1659-1933

Article

Tejiendo saberes y acciones a través de una espiral El diseño de ambientes para el juego: una posibilidad para relexionar la prática docente en Educación Inicial

Available from: Fondazione Montessori

Publication: MoMo (Mondo Montessori), no. 4

Pages: 213-223

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Abstract/Notes: Part of the special issue: Maria Montessori nel XXI secolo - Interventi Dal Congresso Internazionale: Maria Montessori e la scuola dell'infanzia a nuovo indirizzo (20-24 Febbraio 2015, Pontifica Università Lateranense, Roma.

Language: Spanish

ISSN: 2421-440X, 2723-9004

Doctoral Dissertation

A Study of Pre-School Education in the Republic of Ireland with Particular Reference to Those Pre-Schools Which are Listed by the Irish Pre-School Playgroups Association in Cork City and County

Available from: British Library - EthOS

Comparative education, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Europe, Ireland, Montessori method of education, Northern Europe, Preschool education

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Abstract/Notes: This study was undertaken in order to investigate the activities which took place in Irish pre-schools other than those within the formal school system. The principle focus of the research concerned the degree to which the pre-school children were being 'cognitively stretched' by the curriculum in which they were engaged. The social, linguistic, physical and creative development of these children was also considered.An historical review of the theory of play and recent research in this area was undertaken.Twenty-three pre-schools were taken at random from the membership list in Cork city and county of the Irish Pre- School Playgroups Association. One pre-school which was not a member was added. Prior to embarking upon the study, a history of the I.P.P.A. was given.The ethnographic research strategy was found to be the most suitable method of assessing empirically the nature and frequency of play in the pre-school. This study, which took place between 1986 and 1990, was therefore eclectic in nature, employing a multi-faceted approach encompassing a target child observational schedule, interviews, a study of classrooms, a questionnaire and an interaction analysis system.Briefly, the results showed that the 157 children engaged in this study were being cognitively stretched for approximately one quarter of the time if they were in a playgroup and approximately one half of the time if they were in a Montessori setting. Social and linguistic behaviour was limited by the actions of the pre-school leaders and physically or creatively challenging behaviour was rarely observed. The fact that the children played alone for half of the total time spent in the pre-school was most striking.The most important finding to emerge from the study of language in the twenty-four pre-schools was the fact that the children rarely communicated verbally. Dialogue was almost non-existent and children's questions were very sparse. In order to place the above in a National context, a questionnaire was sent in 1990 to a random sample of one hundred I.P.P.A. members in the 26 counties of the Republic of Ireland. Unfortunately, only 39 responded. However, of note was that approximately 25% of playgroup leaders had degrees and four-fifths of them were mothers in their mid-thirties. They strongly disagreed with the teaching of the 3Rs and felt that much more government money should be devoted to playgroups and in-service training for their personnel.

Language: English

Published: Hull, England, 1993

Conference Paper

Is There a Need for Handicraft in Preschool? Attitudes of Preschool Teachers and Parents on Including Handicraft Activities in the Regular Preschool Program

Available from: IATED Digital Library

INTED2020 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference

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Abstract/Notes: Alternative educational concepts evolved in response to classical educational methods in which children are placed in a passive position and the transfer of knowledge is cultivated as a form of teaching. Models of alternative pedagogy (Montessori, Waldorf, Reggio, Agazzi) advocate developmentally appropriate practices which Bredekamp (1993) describes as a presence of different strategies, i.e., child-oriented behaviours of teachers and responding to the child's individual needs. In order to help each child to grow into a universal and competent individual from preschool age, it is necessary to encourage their imagination and creativity, as well as to acquire habits of cooperation and coexistence with other children. One of the activities which promote these desirable characteristics in children is handicraft. Many studies and findings in the area of neuroscience, multiple intelligences theories, and the aforementioned alternative pedagogical concepts emphasize the importance of handicraft and point out its benefits not only for children but for the entire community. However, such an approach to children's learning and activity is poorly represented in educational institutions. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the views of preschool teachers and parents on handicraft activities and its more frequent use in regular preschool programs. The survey was conducted by an anonymous questionnaire on a sample of 316 respondents, preschool teachers (N=141) and parents (N=175). The results of the study show that both preschool teachers and parents agree that certain elements of alternative concepts such as handicraft have a positive impact on the overall development of the child and that they are useful and practical life skills. They also agree that handicraft activities should be used in educational institutions to a greater extent. [Conference Name: 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference; ISBN: 9788409179398; Place: Valencia, Spain]

Language: English

Published: Valencia, Spain: International Academy of Technology, Education and Development (IATED), 2020

Pages: 1511-1519

DOI: 10.21125/inted.2020.0499

ISBN: 978-84-09-17939-8

Article

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The IEA preprimary project in Ireland [IEA 'preprimary project' en Irlande / IEA 'preprimary project' en Irlanda]

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: International Journal of Early Years Education, vol. 5, no. 1

Pages: 47-56

Europe, Ireland, Northern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: Despite great changes in the level and type of early childhood services in Ireland over the last decade, relatively little research has been carried out on this topic. We know little about the types of services used, the reason for particular choices, the numbers of children attending different settings and the experiences such children are having. In an effort to broaden the research base and learn more about the lives of our young children the authors undertook to take part in an international comparative study investigating the early experiences of children—the IEA Preprimary Project. This article provides an account of the recent developments in early education in Ireland, addresses the question of quality in service provision and describes Ireland's participation in the research project. [En dépit des grands changements qui ont eu lieu depuis une dizaine d'années le niveau et type d'assistance offerte a la petite enfance, tres peu de recherche a été faite dans ce domaine. Nous savons très peu de choses sur les types de services utilisés, les raisons pour les choix qui sont faits, le nombre d'enfants répartis par groupes de niveaux ainsi que les experiences vécues par ces enfants. Dans le but d'élargir la base de la recherche et aussi d'étudier la vie de nos jeunes enfants, les auteurs se sont engages a participer a une etude comparative Internationale qui examine les premieres experiences de jeunes enfants dans le cadre du ‘IEA Preprimary Project’. Cet article expose les récents développements dans l'enseignement des jeunes enfants en Irlande. Il addresse aussi la question de la qualité des services fournis et décrit la participation de l'Irlande dans ce projet de recherche. / A pesar de grandes cambios en la calidad y tipo de servicios de primera infancia acontecidos en Irlanda en la ultima década, relativamente escasa investigation ha sido desarrollada en este tema. Sabemos poco de los tipos de servicios empleados, el motivo de determinadas elecciones, el número de ninos que acudieron a los diferentes entornos y las experiencias que tales ninos han tenido. En un esfuerzo por ampliar la base investigadora y aprender más sobre las vidas de nuestros pequeños, los autores decidieron indagar en las primeras experiencias de los niños, tomando parte en un estudio comparativo international — IEA Preprimary Project. Este artículo ofrece un informe sobre los útimos progresos en la cuestión de primera education en Irlanda se pronuncia on el tema de la calidad en las prestaciones de cara al futuro y describe la participación de Irlanda en el proyecto de investigación.]

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/0966976970050105

ISSN: 0966-9760

Article

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The Real Thing: Preschoolers Prefer Actual Activities to Pretend Ones

Available from: Wiley Online Library

Publication: Developmental Science, vol. 21, no. 3

Pages: e12582

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Abstract/Notes: Pretend play is a quintessential activity of early childhood, and adults supply children with many toys to encourage it. Do young children actually prefer to pretend, or do they do it because they are unable to engage in some activities for real? Here we examined, for nine different activities, American middle-class preschoolers' preferences for pretend and real activities. The 100 children we tested (M = 58.5 months, range 36 to 82 months) overwhelmingly preferred real activities to pretend ones, and this preference increased from age 3 to age 4, then remained steady through age 6. Children provided cogent justifications for their preferences. The results are discussed with reference to other domains in which children show reality preferences and with respect to the content of preschool curricula.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1111/desc.12582

ISSN: 1467-7687

Article

Le cerimonie di Bergamo e di Napoli: le giornate internazionali dell'OMEP [The ceremonies of Bergamo and Naples: the international days of OMEP]

Publication: Vita dell'Infanzia (Opera Nazionale Montessori), vol. 17, no. 3

Pages: 3-6

Europe, Italy, Marziola Pignatari - Writings, Organisation mondiale pour l'éducation préscolaire (OMEP), Organización Mundial para la Educación Pre-Escolar (OMEP), Southern Europe, World Organization for Early Childhood Education (OMEP)

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Language: Italian

ISSN: 0042-7241

Book

Sistemas de educación preescolar: Maria Montessori

Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Language: Spanish

Published: Valencia, Spain: Nau Llibres, 1985

ISBN: 84-85630-91-2 978-84-85630-91-2

Series: Sistemas de educación preescolar

Article

La Educación Prescolar en el Ecuador [Preschool Education in Ecuador]

Available from: Biblioteca Digital Casa de la Cultura de Ecuador (CCE)

Publication: Revista Ecuatoriana de Educación, vol. 7, no. 33

Pages: 6-7

Americas, Ecuador, Latin America and the Caribbean, Montessori method of education, South America

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Language: Spanish

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