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443 results

Doctoral Dissertation

The Potentiality of Play: The Shifting Design Language of Play-Based Learning

Available from: Edinburgh Napier University

Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Play, Student-centered learning

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Abstract/Notes: This thesis, underpinned by cross-cultural design ethnography (DE) and research through design (RtD), re-reads play-based learning constructs as design practice. In doing so, it charts the shifting relationship between design and theories of play-based learning. The work frames the design of play-based learning processes, from their emergence in historical learning environments such as the Montessori method to current pedagogies of STEAM learning. This evolutionary focus will be of interest to a wide range of stakeholders such as pedagogues, designers, and policy makers, each of whom contribute to where, what and how children are taught. This thesis presents the following arguments: Firstly, it frames and re-reads key historical play pedagogues as designers and design thinkers, whose work has shaped and influenced the evolution of play-based learning through the inception of play artefacts, spaces, and structures. This thesis further elucidates that design-thinking has been at the heart of play-based learning, demonstrated through the design of modular and standardised pedagogic objects and spaces of historic learning environments. The design evolution within this framework helps to enlighten the development of tinkering and iterative prototyping as twenty-first century affordances of learning through play. Secondly, this thesis uses observation-based design ethnography of the Montessori method, to argue that Montessori’s restrictive pedagogy can be counterproductive to learning through intuitive processes of exploration and iteration. Thirdly, by adapting the practice-based research method of research through design (RtD), the thesis demonstrates and proposes that twenty-first century design affordances of tinkering and iteration can be suitably integrated to enrich historic play-based learning environments such as the Montessori method. In each of these arguments, the ways in which pedagogic theories of play are interwoven with the language of design thinking are revealed. By bringing into focus the triad of play, pedagogy, and design, an additional educational landscape of twenty-first century cultural learning environments is explored. Cultural learning environments (CLEs) such as museums and public galleries extend the scope of play-based learning beyond formalised spaces of schools and bring into relief, the predominance of design while incepting platforms, ateliers, and activities to initiate learning through play.

Language: English

Published: Edinburgh, Scotland, 2021

Article

What Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers Learn from Play: 12 Ideas

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 18, no. 1

Pages: 16-21

Child development, Children, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Play, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: In this article, the author presents the 12 benefits of playing as a reference and guide for teachers in helping young children develop their cognitive skills, motor ability, socio-emotional, and academic development during play time. The following 12 benefits are described: (1) Play Enhances Bodily Gracefulness; (2) Play Promotes Social Skills; (3) Play Sharpens Cognitive and Language Skills; (4) Play Teaches Gender Roles; (5) Play Develops Understanding of Number and Time Concepts; (6) Play Promotes Spatial Understanding; (7) Play Prompts Causality Reasoning; (8) Sociodramatic Play Clarifies the World of Pretend Versus Real; (9) Play Enriches Sensory and Aesthetic Appreciation; (10) Play Extends Attention Span, Persistence, and Sense of Mastery; (11) Children Express Emotions through Play; and (12) Play Deepens a Child?s Sense of Serenity and Joy.

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Doctoral Dissertation

Math Play: Growing and Developing Mathematics Understanding in an Emergent Play-Based Environment

Available from: University of California eScholarship

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Abstract/Notes: This project explores how mathematics growth and development can be supported, documented and assessed in an emergent play-based early childhood education environment inspired by the practices and principles of Reggio Emilia. Using the California Preschool Learning Foundations as a framework, Math Play includes developmentally appropriate activities and environments that support cognitive development within the mathematics domain. This curriculum documents how a classroom's emergent themes were interwoven into activities and environments that did not oppose the practices and principles of the approach. Math Play successfully documented each child's mathematic understanding as well as areas needing further growth and development. With the California Preschool Learning Foundations as a framework, teachers can use Math Play to establish a child's level of understanding within this domain that plays one of important roles in assessing a child's school readiness. Math Play provides examples of how teachers can use authentic formative portfolios for assessment of growth and development. Math Play provides an alternative for standardized assessment in an emergent play-based environment that authenticates the experiences that preschool children are having while growing and developing in a Reggio Emilia inspired environment. After implementation of Math Play the following two findings were deduced : 1. Children engaged and demonstrated a range of mathematic growth and development that corresponds with the eighteen sub-strands of the California Preschool Learning Foundations. 2. Authentic formative portfolios provided an effective way to discuss individual child mathematic growth and development with assistant teachers and parents. In addition to these findings the children who were involved in this research continued to grow and develop by engaging in activities that furthered their mathematic foundation after Math Play implementation

Language: English

Published: San Diego, California, 2012

Article

Pedagogy of Play

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: Topoi: An International Review of Philosophy, vol. 24, no. 2

Pages: 169-181

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Abstract/Notes: Focuses on the educational value of this field of experience, by claiming that play characterizes the two fundamental guidelines which are at the basis of education; the spontaneous and natural direction on the one side, and the intentional one on the other side. It is commonly assumed that pedagogy of play concerns only the latter of the two above-mentioned aspects of education, that is to say the design and management of playing experiences and materials with clear educational goals; instead, this discipline critically analyzes the whole playing experience, therefore trying to grasp its potentialities, its material conditions, and its overall meanings in the making of the subject. Moving from some considerations about the discovery of play as an emblematic index of the “discovery of childhood” at the beginning of Modern Age (Ariès, 1960), the first part of this essay underlines three aspects: the first concerns the investment on play as an educational device (from Locke to Montessori, up to Children’s Museums), pointing out the shift from the classic principle of ludendo docere to the modern ludendo discere. The second aspect focuses on the retrieval of the natural dimension of play, which finds in Rousseau its main source; the third takes into consideration toys and their identity both as pedagogical devices and as media. In the second part of the essay, the focus is on free play and its educational value, which is here interpreted especially as the first field of experience for children’s “political education”. The final remarks include some speculations the relationship between play and daily life, suggesting the idea that “life-long playing” could be defined as a meaningful aspect of long-life education.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/s11245-005-5053-5

ISSN: 1572-8749

Article

Why Do the Children (Pretend) Play?

Available from: Cell Press (Elsevier)

Publication: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 21, no. 11

Pages: 826-834

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Abstract/Notes: The study of play in both animals and humans is flourishing. The purpose of human pretend play is not known. By analogy to play fighting in animals, evidence is presented suggesting that pretend play might improve sensitivity to social signals and emotion regulation in humans. Pretend play appears to be an evolved behavior because it is universal and appears on a set schedule. However, no specific functions have been determined for pretend play and empirical tests for its functions in humans are elusive. Yet animal play fighting can serve as an analog, as both activities involve as-if, metacommunicative signaling and symbolism. In the rat and some other animals, adaptive functions of play fighting include assisting social behavior and emotion regulation. Research is presented suggesting that pretend play might serve similar functions for humans.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.001

ISSN: 1364-6613, 1879-307X

Book

Play and Creative Drawing in Preschool: A Comparative Study of Montessori and Public Preschools in Kenya

Africa, Comparative education, East Africa, Kenya, Sub-Saharan Africa

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Abstract/Notes: When children enter preschool or kindergarten, they often seem to bring a spirit of wonder, great curiosity, and a spontaneous drive to explore, experiment and manipulate playfully and originally. Learning environments have been perceived to have the dual role of promoting as well as killing creativity. This has been attributed to the fact that as a child progresses through school years, teaching and learning become more dominant as play and self-exploration are stifled. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between play and creative drawing in Kenyan preschool children. A comparative study of the Montessori and the traditional public school system was carried out 48 preschool children between the ages of 4 and 6. Half were enrolled in Montessori while the other half in public schools Kenya. Through a qualitative design by the use of the Test of Creative Thinking Drawing Production (TCT-DP) (Urban & Jellen, 1996), and Rubin’s (2001) Play Observation Scale analyses were carried out. Independent sample t tests, Pearson product moment correlations and stepwise hierarchical multiple regressions were computed to determine whether interactions and differences in social play, cognitive play and creative drawing performance were apparent between Montessori and traditional public preschools. Statistically significant results were obtained indicating that Montessori children engaged in cognitive play more than public preschool children and had higher scores on creativity than public preschool children. In addition, age differences in social play as well as in creativity scores were found. However, no gender differences were apparent in social play, cognitive play or in creativity scores.

Language: English

Published: Munich, Germany: Herbert Utz Verlag, 2013

ISBN: 978-3-8316-4284-7

Doctoral Dissertation

Gender and Interactions of Children During Free Play in a Montessori Preprimary Classroom

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to add to the existing knowledge concerning interactions in preprimary settings, especially Montessori settings, based on gender. It investigated the play behaviors of boys and girls within the Montessori classroom and interactions among children and their playmates and adults during free play. This case study was based on quantitative and descriptive data. Time sampling was used to collect data on the interactions of boys and girls within the Montessori free play context. Note was made of the areas in which children played, the materials they used, and their play behaviors. Running records were used to gather information on the interactions between children and their playmates, and adults in the classroom. The gender groupings of children approached for play and behaviors with chosen playmates were noted. The number of interactions with adults, whether children or adults initiated those interactions and the behaviors of children during interactions with adults were recorded and analyzed. Findings of this study suggest that, within the Montessori classroom observed there were both similarities and differences in the free play behaviors of preprimary girls and boys. However, there were many individual differences among boys and among girls. As a result, it was sometimes impossible to make generalizations concerning the gender typing of behaviors.

Language: English

Published: Flagstaff, Arizona, 1999

Article

Thanks for the Memory: The Lasting Value of True Play

Available from: JSTOR - Pacific Oaks College

Publication: Young Children, vol. 58, no. 3

Pages: 46-50

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Abstract/Notes: Asserts that play is a fundamental human disposition. Reviews well-known theories of play from the adult-functional perspective and examines the value of play from the child-experiential perspective. Considers variations in play and the meaning and value of true play, maintaining that play's personal, experiential value is of equal or greater importance than its developmental value. Urges teachers to resist pressures to transform play into work, and to model playfulness.

Language: English

ISSN: 0044-0728

Article

Playful Learning and Montessori Education

Available from: ERIC

Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 38, no. 2

Pages: 137-174

Angeline Stoll Lillard - Writings, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Educational philosophy, Fantasy in children, Imagination in children, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education, Play

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Abstract/Notes: Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning--pretend play, or fantasy--for young children. In this essay, the author discusses this apparent contradiction: how and why Montessori education includes elements of playful learning while simultaneously eschewing fantasy. She concludes with a discussion of research on the outcomes of Montessori education and on pretend-play research, clarifying how Montessori education relates to playful learning. [Reprinted from the "American Journal of Play" 5,2 (2013, Winter): 157-186 (see EJ1003949).]

Language: English

ISSN: 1522-9734

Article

Advantages of Mixed-age Free Play in Elementary School: Perceptions of Students, Teachers, and Parents

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: International Journal of Play, vol. 10, no. 1

Pages: 75-92

Perceptions

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Abstract/Notes: Mixed-age groups have been shown to be effective in classroom settings, but only a handful of studies have explored mixed-age grouping in play. This research is a case study of one New York public elementary school that places great value on recess and mixed-age groupings. The school has implemented Let Grow Play Club before school one day per week for students in kindergarten through fifth grade. We use child interviews, teacher interviews, and parent surveys to examine the perceptions of mixed-age, outdoor play provided in Play Club and the school more generally. Across the different types of data, stakeholders expressed their support for cross-age interactions in mixed-age groupings. This play was perceived as valuable for helping build friendships and developing social skills, as older children become role models to younger ones. As suggested by Vygotsky’s (1978) theories, children are learning from one another and enhancing their development through unstructured play.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/21594937.2021.1878774

ISSN: 2159-4937

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