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Article

Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Preschool Children: Comparison Between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

Available from: BioMed Central

Publication: The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 10, no. 2

Pages: Article 2

Americas, Comparative education, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - Evaluation, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as <200 counts/15-second. The accelerometry data were summarized into the average minutes per hour spent in sedentary behavior during the in-school, the after-school, and the total-day period. Mixed linear regression models were used to determine differences in the average time spent in sedentary behavior between children attending traditional and Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-2

ISSN: 1479-5868

Article

Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison Between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

Available from: Wiley Online Library

Publication: Journal of School Health, vol. 84, no. 11

Pages: 716-721

Americas, Comparative education, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, North America, Physical education, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry on weekdays during preschool (In-School), non-school (Non-School), and all day (All Day). Minutes/hour of light, moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA), and total PA (light + MVPA) were calculated. Children attending Montessori preschools accumulated more In-School light (7.7 vs. 6.5 minute/hour), MVPA (7.7 versus 6.5 minute/hour), and total PA (15.4 versus 13.0 minute/hour) than children attending traditional preschools, after adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parent education and neighborhood poverty index. For Non-School (8.5 versus 6.2 minute/hour) and All Day (8.5 versus 7.6 minute/hour), children in Montessori preschools accumulated more MVPA than children in traditional preschools. In-School PA was higher for children in private Montessori than public Montessori preschools (8.1 versus 7.0 minute/hour; 8.1 versus 6.7 minute/hour; 16.1 versus 13.6 minute/hour, for light, MVPA, and total PA, respectively). Children attending Montessori preschools were more active than children attending traditional preschools. Adopting the Montessori system may be an important strategy for promoting PA in children.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1111/josh.12207

ISSN: 1746-1561

Article

Comparison of Sudoku Solving Skills of Preschool Children Enrolled in the Montessori Approach and the National Education Programs

Available from: Red Fame

Publication: Journal of Education and Training Studies, vol. 8, no. 3

Pages: 32-47

Asia, Comparative education, Middle East, Turkey, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: According to Johnson-Laird (2010), sudoku, a mind game, is based on a pure deduction and reasoning processes. This study analyzed sudoku solving skills of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of Education preschool education program and the Montessori approach. Sudoku skills of children were analyzed by gender, age, duration of preschool attendance, mother’s and father’s education level and previous experience of playing sudoku using a 12-question Sudoku Skills Measurement Tool developed for this research study. The study sample of the study consisted of 118 children (57 girls, 61 boys) aged between 54-77 months. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in sudoku skills by gender. However, sudoku skills varied with age (54-65 months and 66-77 months) in favor of older groups. Children's sudoku skills were more developed with an increase in education level of either parent. Children who had been in preschool for longer had higher sudoku scores. A previous experience of playing sudoku did not impact sudoku scores. Sudoku skills of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to Ministry of National Education program.According to Johnson-Laird (2010), sudoku, a mind game, is based on a pure deduction and reasoning processes. This study analyzed sudoku solving skills of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of Education preschool education program and the Montessori approach. Sudoku skills of children were analyzed by gender, age, duration of preschool attendance, mother’s and father’s education level and previous experience of playing sudoku using a 12-question Sudoku Skills Measurement Tool developed for this research study. The study sample of the study consisted of 118 children (57 girls, 61 boys) aged between 54-77 months. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in sudoku skills by gender. However, sudoku skills varied with age (54-65 months and 66-77 months) in favor of older groups. Children's sudoku skills were more developed with an increase in education level of either parent. Children who had been in preschool for longer had higher sudoku scores. A previous experience of playing sudoku did not impact sudoku scores. Sudoku skills of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to Ministry of National Education program.

Language: English

DOI: 10.11114/jets.v8i3.4620

ISSN: 2324-8068

Bachelor's Thesis

Perbedaan tingkat kemandirian anak Prasekolah di sekolah Montessori dengan sekolah non Montessori [Differences in the level of independence of preschool children in Montessori schools and non-Montessori schools]

Available from: CORE

Asia, Australasia, Comparative education, Indonesia, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Kemandirian adalah kemampuan seseorang untuk melakukan segala sesuatunya sendiri sesuai dengan tugas perkembangannya yang didasari oleh inisiatif, keinginan, kontrol diri dan kepercayaan pada kemampuannya sendiri. Anak perlu dilatih kemandiriannya sejak usia dini supaya tugas perkembangan dapat berkembang secara optimal. Sekolah memiliki peran penting untuk meningkatkan kemandirian anak. Menurut Santrock (2002:242), lingkungan bermain sangat penting dalam optimalisasi perkembangan anak. Salah satu sekolah dengan pendekatan seperti di atas adalah sekolah Montessori. Pendekatan Montessori menerapkan agar anak belajar mandiri dan tidak bertanya kepada guru atau menunggu jawaban (Hainstock 2008:38-40). Anak yang dididik dengan pendekatan Montessori diberi kesempatan untuk bekerja sendiri dengan material-material yang ada di lingkungannya, mengungkapkan keinginannya untuk memilih aktivitas, mengembangkan disiplin, dan anak perlu mengetahui apa yang baik dan buruk. Apabila hal-hal ini telah dipenuhi, maka kemandirian anak akan terbentuk (Modern Montessori International n.d.:40-41). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui secara empiris ada tidaknya perbedaan tingkat kemandirian anak prasekolah di sekolah Montessori dengan sekolah non Montessori. Subjek penelitian (N=28) adalah anak prasekolah berusia 3-4 tahun yang bersekolah di sekolah Montessori “X” dan sekolah non Montessori “Y” Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan seluruh populasi playgroup 2. Pengambilan data menggunakan rating scale terhadap kemandirian anak di sekolah Montessori maupun di sekolah non Montessori. Data dianalisis dengan teknik Uji t (t-test). Nilai t = 0.364, dengan p = 0.720 (p > 0.05) yang berarti hipotesis penelitian ditolak. Hal ini berarti tidak ada perbedaan signifikan tingkat kemandirian anak prasekolah di sekolah Montessori “X” dengan sekolah non Montessori “Y”. [Independence is a person's ability to do things on their own in accordance with their developmental tasks based on initiative, desire, self-control and belief in their own abilities. Children need to be trained to be independent from an early age so that developmental tasks can develop optimally. Schools have an important role in increasing children's independence. According to Santrock (2002: 242), the play environment is very important in optimizing children's development. One of the schools with such an approach is the Montessori school. The Montessori approach applies so that children learn independently and do not ask the teacher or wait for answers (Hainstock 2008:38-40). Children who are educated with the Montessori approach are given the opportunity to work alone with materials in their environment, express their desire to choose activities, develop discipline, and children need to know what is good and bad. If these things have been fulfilled, then the child's independence will be formed (Modern Montessori International n.d.: 40-41). This study aims to determine empirically whether there are differences in the level of independence of preschool children in Montessori schools and non-Montessori schools. The research subjects (N=28) were preschoolers aged 3-4 years who attended Montessori schools "X" and non-Montessori schools "Y" The sampling technique used the entire playgroup population 2. Data collection used a rating scale on the independence of children in Montessori schools. as well as in non-Montessori schools. The data were analyzed by using the t-test technique (t-test). The value of t = 0.364, with p = 0.720 (p > 0.05) which means the research hypothesis is rejected. This means that there is no significant difference in the level of independence of preschool children in Montessori schools "X" with non-Montessori schools "Y"]

Language: Indonesian

Published: Surabaya, Indonesia, 2009

Article

Development of Social, Personal and Cognitive Skills of Preschool Children in Montessori and Traditional Preschool Programs

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Early Child Development and Care, vol. 72, no. 1

Pages: 117-124

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Abstract/Notes: The relationship between time in Montessori and Traditional Preschool programs and the preschool child's develoment of [1] personal skills, [2] relationship with teachers, [3] peer relations, [4] behavioral control, and [5] cognitive skills with age controlled was used to compare the relative effectiveness of the programs. This design was necessary since it is likely that parents who select the Montessori program for their child are different from parents selecting traditional preschool programs for their children. Three Montessori programs [n = 108] and three traditional programs [n = 116] provided the subjects for the study. The Pre Kindergarten Scale [PKS], a multiple choice behavioral rating scale was completed by the programs’ teachers on each child. The results revealed that the only variable significant in predicting time in program for the traditional program, relationship with teacher, was the only variable insignificant in predicting length of time in program for the Montessori program. The strongest relationship was for length of time in the Montessori program and relationship with peers [18 percent of variance] with age controlled.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/0300443910720111

ISSN: 0300-4430, 1476-8275

Article

Examination of the Effects of the Montessori Method on Preschool Children's Readiness to Primary Education

Available from: ERIC

Publication: Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, vol. 11, no. 4

Pages: 2104-2109

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: This study examined the effects of the Montessori Method on preschool children's readiness to primary education. The research group is composed of five-six year olds attending SU MEF Ihsan Dogramaci Application Nursery School in 2009-2010 school year in Selcuklu county of Konya. The participants composed of five-six year olds were unbiasedly chosen. A total of 50 children were included in the study, 25 being in the experimental group and 25 being in the control group. In the study, Metropolitan Readiness Test was used to determine preschool school children's school readiness levels, B form of PKBS Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scale was used to determine preschool children's social skills, FTF-K attention gathering skills test for five-year old children was used to determine preschool children's attention gathering skills. The tests were administered to children before and after experimentation, and it was applied to experimental group again six weeks later. Mann Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to analyze the data. The general conclusion of the results obtained is that The Montessori Method makes positive contribution to preschool children's readiness to primary school and is more efficient than current preschool education program.

Language: English

ISSN: 1303-0485

Conference Paper

A Comparison of Preschool Children in Observation Tasks From Two Programs: Montessori and Science - A Process Approach

Available from: ERIC

National Association for Research in Science Teaching (47th, Chicago, Illinois, April 15-18, 1974)

Conferences, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, National Association for Research in Science Teaching (47th, Chicago, Illinois, April 15-18, 1974)

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to compare preschool children from classes using the Montessori method and Science-A Process Approach (S-APA) in the process skill of observation. The first stage of the study compared the programs with respect to (1) the sequential presentation, (2) the use of materials to provide sensory training, (3) practice acquired through activities, and (4) the role of the teacher. Conclusions were that because S-APA and Montessori seemed to have common elements and because both had taught the process of observation, there was a reasonable justification to compare student competence in observation. The second part of the study compared the competence on observational tasks of three groups of 25 children, ages 5 and 6. The first group received Montessori training for two years in preschool, the second group used S-APA for one year with background of another type of preschool that excluded Montessori, and the third group which served as a control had neither Montessori nor S-APA training in their two-year preschool experience. Students were tested on a set of observational tasks from the text, the Science Process Instrument. Findings showed no significant differences between the Montessori and the S-APA preschool students in regard to competence in observation. Both the Montessori and the S-APA groups scored higher than the control group. This work is based on the authors doctoral dissertation research.

Language: English

Published: Chicago, Illinois, Apr 1974

Article

Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

Available from: American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)

Publication: Pediatrics, vol. 129, no. 2

Pages: 265-274

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Abstract/Notes: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1542/peds.2011-2102

ISSN: 0031-4005, 1098-4275

Article

Montessori-Based Activities as a Transgenerational Interface for Persons With Dementia and Preschool Children

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, vol. 9, no. 4

Pages: 366-373

Alzheimer's disease, Dementia, Gerontology, Montessori therapy, Montessori-based interventions (MBI)

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori-based activities for persons with dementia have been used to successfully provide opportunities for programming between older adults and preschool children in shared site intergenerational care programs. Such intergenerational programming allows older adults with dementia to fulfill roles of teacher or mentor to younger children or as collaborative workmates for persons with more advanced dementia while providing children with positive one-on-one interactions with older adults. We review several studies using this approach; describe characteristics of the programs, participants, and results obtained; and provide recommendations for those interested in extending this line of work.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/15350770.2011.618374

ISSN: 1535-0770

Article

IES Arrow-Dot Longitudinal Study of Personality Development in Preschool Children

Available from: SAGE Journals

Publication: Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol. 40, no. 1

Pages: 209-210

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Abstract/Notes: Preschool children were administered the IES Arrow-Dot at the beginning and end of the school year and scores compared with those based on a prior study in a Montessori preschool. Developmental trends of declining Impulsivity and rising Ego scores were corroborated. Superego development remained almost stable in contrast to a significant rise for the Montessori sample. Results support effective use of the test with preschoolers to assess baselines and developmental patterns of personality integration.

Language: English

DOI: 10.2466/pms.1975.40.1.209

ISSN: 1558-688X, 0031-5125

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