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Doctoral Dissertation

Educational Ideas and Practices of Rabindranath Tagore and Maria Montessori: A Comparative Analysis

Available from: Shodhganga: Indian Theses

Asia, India, Rabindranath Tagore, South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Rabindranath Tagore and Maria Montessori were two great educationists of the two continents of the world. This study compared the ideals and practices of both these pioneers in the field of education. The objectives of the study were to analyze the similarities and differences in the educational philosophies of Rabindranath Tagore and Maria Montessori, to study the aims, curriculum and methods of education as propounded by them and to find out the relevance of their educational doctrines in the present day education system. Methodology: A philosophical and historical research was conducted by the researcher. The data were collected from the various primary and secondary sources. The collected data were analyzed by ensuring the internal and external criticism of the various sources. Findings of the Study: Tagore and Montessori’s educational thoughts were inspired by the static conditions of the then prevalent traditional educational systems. Their pedagogical approaches stressed on the needs and interests of the child. Rabindranath Tagore’s approach towards evolution of an educational philosophy was his vision as a poet and his institution was an extension of his work of art. Maria Montessori’s educational theory was based on science and her institution was a pedagogical laboratory for her. Rabindranath Tagore’s poetic vision enabled him to devise a unique learning environment at Santiniketan based on the concept of ancient Indian ideals. Rabindranath asserted his mission to promote global peace and universal brotherhood through the creation of Visva-Bharati. Through Sriniketan Tagore tried to address the needs of rural India. Maria Montessori through scientific observation evolved learning materials in a classroom environment that fostered children’s natural desire to learn from ‘Children’s House’. She developed the Montessori Method, which was eventually adopted throughout the world. Living through the years of violent war and political upheaval, also inspired her to espouse the cause of peace education. The conclusion that the researcher could draw from the study was that though the educational practices of both these educators were different, there are many parallel ideas in their educational ideals and thoughts. Their innovative methods of teaching are still relevant in the present day education.

Language: English

Published: Kolkata, India, 2017

Book Section

Rabindranath Tagore und Maria Montessori [Rabindranath Tagore and Maria Montessori]

Book Title: Montessori-Pädagogik in Deutschland: Rückblick - Aktualität - Zukunftsperspektiven ; 40 Jahre Montessori-Vereinigung e.V. [Montessori Pedagogy in Germany: Review - Current Issues - Future Perspectives 40 years of the Montessori Association]

Pages: 287-302

Asia, India, Rabindranath Tagore, South Asia

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Language: German

Published: Münster, Germany: Lit, 2002

ISBN: 978-3-8258-5746-2

Series: Impulse der Reformpädagogik , 7


L'École de Rabindranath Tagore à Santiniketan [Rabindranath Tagore School in Santiniketan]

Available from: Université Caen Normandie

Publication: Pour l'ère nouvelle: revue internationale d'èducation nouvelle, vol. 7, no. 38

Pages: 99-100

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Language: French


Education for Tomorrow: The Vision of Rabindranath Tagore

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Asian Studies Review, vol. 40, no. 1

Pages: 1-16

Asia, India, Rabindranath Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore - Biographic sources, Santiniketan (India), South Asia, Sriniketan (India), Viśva Bhāratī

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Abstract/Notes: This article investigates Rabindranath Tagore’s educational vision, which underpinned the three institutions he set up in India – Santiniketan (1901), Visva-Bharati (1921) and Sriniketan (1922). It argues that this vision is still relevant for the world of today and tomorrow, and that it should be taken into account in designing any educational model for the future. Tagore rejected the modern mechanical learning that focuses merely on cultivation of the individual’s mind, in favour of learning that encourages the creativity, imagination and moral awareness of students. He believed that education should be not for mere “success” or “progress” but for “illumination of heart” and for inculcation of a spirit of sympathy, service and self-sacrifice in the individual, so that s/he could rise above egocentrism and ethnocentrism to a state of global consciousness or worldcentrism. In pursuing this argument, I refer to Tagore’s letters, lectures, interviews and essays, both in Bengali and in English, a body of his short stories, his novel The Home and the World and his allegorical poem “Two Birds”. I also explain his awareness of the educational movements of his time in the West, and draw brief parallels with selected Western luminaries in the field, such as Plato, Montaigne, Rousseau and John Dewey. My contention is that although some may dismiss Tagore’s educational principles as “rickety sentimentalism” in a world that is palpable and real, his ideas of human fellowship, unity and creativity, and kinship for nature seem irrefutable with the rise of multiculturalism and the looming ecological crisis threatening world peace.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/10357823.2015.1125441

ISSN: 1035-7823


La enseñanza Montessori en la India - Escuela de Rajghat en Benares (fundada por la Sociedad Teosófica de la India, inaugurada por Rabindranath Tagore)

Available from: ARCA. Arxiu de Revistes Catalanes Antigues

Publication: Montessori: Revista Mensual Ilustrada, vol. 1, no. 3

Pages: 8-9

Asia, India, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Rabindranath Tagore - Biographic sources, South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: This article is preceded by a photograph of Rabindranath Tagore with a dedication note by Tagore referencing his meeting with Maria Montessori. The article is accompanied by photographs of children involved in Montessori activities.

Language: Spanish


Rabindranath Tagore: Adventure of Ideas and Innovative Practices in Education

Available from: Springer Link

Asia, India, Rabindranath Tagore - Biographic sources, South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Tagore started a school in 1901 and in 1918 he wrote, ‘…the Santiniketan School should form a link between India and the world…the epoch of narrow nationalism is coming to an end…. The first flag of victory of Universal Man shall be planted there’. This was the beginning of Visva-Bharati that finally encapsulated the school and university with its many programmes and courses under one unique integrated system. The university was a logical progression in his philosophy of education. The central idea of the university was for the east to offer to the west the best of its wealth and take from the west its knowledge. This was indeed a novel idea as the country was yet to have its own full-fledged universities. Tagore envisioned the university as the seat for research that would generate and also dispense knowledge. Tagore established the university in Santiniketan where he had founded his school. He wanted the university to offer education that was enmeshed with the Indian way of life so that knowledge grew out of the culture, society, history, literature, geography, economy, science and flora and fauna of the country. From this sense of nationalism, we see Tagore evolving into an internationalist based on equal terms of fellowship and amity between the east and the west. He shared his quest for such a centre of learning with the ideas of several noted international pedagogues. Tagore saw world problems and national interests as interrelated, and he felt that internationalism was the inner spirit of the modern age.

Language: English

Published: Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2014

ISBN: 978-3-319-00837-0

Series: SpringerBriefs in Education


Editorial [Montessori and Rabindranath Tagore]

Publication: Around the Child, vol. 6

Pages: ii-iv

Asia, India, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Rabindranath Tagore - Biographic sources, South Asia

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Language: English

ISSN: 0571-1142


Managing the Use of Resources in Multi-Grade Classrooms

Available from: African Journals Online

Publication: South African Journal of Education, vol. 39, no. 3

Africa, Classroom environment, Montessori materials, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Nongraded schools, Prepared environment, South Africa, Southern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa

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Abstract/Notes: This study examined how teachers in multi-grade classrooms manage and use available resources in their classrooms. The study focused on multi-grade classrooms in farm schools in the Free State province of South Africa that cover Grades 1 to 9. The concepts “multi-grade classrooms” and “resources” are explained below. The availability and utilisation of resources in multi-grade classrooms is discussed in some depth. A qualitative research design was used to collect data. Interviews were conducted with 9 teachers who worked in multi-grade classrooms. The data reveals that the availability of resources has improved somewhat in the multi-grade classrooms surveyed; however, textbooks specifically meant for multi-grade classrooms are still lacking. The data also points to several other trends. For example, most multi-grade schools in the sample have insufficient resources. Where available, the resources are either under-utilised or used improperly. Furthermore, it is usually the case that learners are required to share resources across various grades. Moreover, teachers often use their personal resources to get their work done, and in this regard, smartphones play an important part. Finally, the study also reveals that teachers do try to use various types of resources to cater for different learning styles.Keywords: activity centres; classroom organisation; Montessori educational theory; multi-grade classrooms; resource corners; resources

Language: English

DOI: 10.15700/saje.v39n3a1599

ISSN: 2076-3433


Dr. Montessori Will Lecture for Adults

Available from: NewsBank - San Diego Evening Tribune Historical

Publication: San Diego Evening Tribune (San Diego, California)

Pages: 8

Adelia Pyle - Biographic sources, Americas, Anna Fedeli - Biographic sources, Edith Little - Biographic sources, Helen Little - Biographic sources, Helen Parkhurst - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Mario M. Montessori - Biographic sources, North America, Panama-California Exposition (1915, San Diego, California), United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Includes a list of individuals assisting Montessori with her work in San Diego. Also, reports on a 10-lecture series Montessori provided: "For the benefit of mothers, teachers and all others interested, Dr. Montessori has decided to offer a short course of ten lectures and two demonstrations of the use of the didactic appareatus, to begin Wednesday, July 7th, at 3:30 p.m. in the lecture room, at the normal school. Those interested in this course should make personal application on Monday and Tuesday, between the hours of 2 and 3, in the afternoon, in Dr. Montessori's office at the normal school, where they may learn the nature of the work and the requirements for admission. This short course has been arranged in response to the many requests that have been made for it by persons unable to take the advanced course which was begun in Los Angeles and will be continued in San Diego and, later, in San Francisco, for about four months. The first public address by Dr. Montessori will be given at the exposition on the afternoon of July 12, which has been set aside by the exposition management as 'Education Day.'"

Language: English


Homage to Dr. Rabindranath Tagore

Available from: International Association for the Preservation of Spiritualist and Occult Periodicals (IAPSOP)

Publication: The Theosophist, vol. 63, no. 1

Pages: 11-16

Asia, Curuppumullage Jinarajadasa - Writings, India, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., South Asia, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Language: English

ISSN: 0972-1851

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