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Doctoral Dissertation

Academic Achievement: Montessori and Non-Montessori Private School Settings

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which sixth grade elementary school students in Montessori school settings and sixth grade elementary school students in non-Montessori school settings differ with regard to academic achievement as measured by the Ninth Edition of the Stanford Achievement Test. Schools that are certified as "Montessori" must meet stringent requirements and although the Montessori philosophy has been implemented in the United States for a number of years, little research has documented its effectiveness, at least as based on students' scores on standardized tests. In the Rio Grande Valley, few Montessori schools are in place and even fewer administer such assessments. A causal-comparative research design with matched pairs was used to describe the difference in academic achievement of sixth grade elementary school students in Montessori school settings with sixth grade elementary school students in non-Montessori school settings. Archival data were analyzed using five separate t-tests for paired samples in which the raw scores for reading, mathematics, language arts, science, and social studies were the dependent variables for achievement for both sixth grade elementary school students in Montessori school settings and sixth grade elementary school students in non-Montessori school settings as measured by the ninth edition of the Stanford Achievement Test. The results indicate that the academic achievement in reading and mathematics of sixth grade elementary school students who have attended Montessori school settings is statistically significantly higher than the academic achievement in reading and mathematics of sixth grade elementary school students who have attended non-Montessori school settings. The knowledge gained from this study might assist educators and parents in search of the most effective education to offer children. It will also extend knowledge of Montessori and the effects that it has on the academic achievement of children.

Language: English

Published: Houston, Texas, 2008

Doctoral Dissertation

The Impact of Montessori Teaching on Academic Achievement of Elementary School Students in a Central Texas School District: A Causal-Comparative Inquiry

Available from: Texas A&M University

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Abstract/Notes: Providing a meaningful and experiential learning environment for all students has long created a concern for alternate ways to teach students who are reportedly demonstrating non-mastery on state standardized assessments. As the benchmark for showing successful academic achievement increases, so does the need for discovering effective ways for students to learn. The Montessori teaching method has been in existence since the early 1900s when Dr. Montessori made her discovery of the student learning process. Dr. Montessori connected to the laws of nature and the environment for creating students who are problem-solvers with critical-thinking skills. The Montessori Method is designed to promote independent learning and support normal development in children. A Montessori lesson is defined as any interaction between an adult and a child; it incorporates techniques that are defined to serve as guidance for the adult personality in working with the child. The study investigated the impact of Montessori Method on the academic achievement of 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade students. The State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR) was used to measure academic achievement in reading and mathematics. An ex post facto, causal-comparative design was employed. The characteristic-present samples consisted of 47 3rd, 40 4th, and 44 5th graders. There were 71 3rd, 60 4th, and 49 5th graders in the comparison samples. Due to non-probability nature of the sampling technique, external validity was limited to study participants. Due to non-experimental nature of the study, no causal inferences were drawn. A series of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the students who received the Montessori Method of instruction and those who did not on the basis of the outcome measures of academic achievement in reading and mathematics. The mean difference effect sizes, which were used to examine the practical significance of the findings, ranged from negligible to small. Although the results of the study did not support the hypothesis, it must be pointed out that the Montessori Method of teaching facilitates self-paced learning that promotes a child's independence and encourages decision-making which are instrumental in becoming successful learners. Additionally, Montessori advocates experiences that are "real-world" and allow children to build intrinsic motivational opportunities; therefore, creating independent thinkers that will be competitive problem-solvers in the global economy of the 21st century. The limited studies on the Montessori Method of teaching offer opportunities for further investigation at all grade levels. For example, it is recommended to conduct a study to compare students who receive Montessori education during the early years of their academic life with those who receive Montessori education from pre-k to high school graduation. Because the Montessori name does not have a trademark, there are opportunities for investigating Montessori teacher preparation and comparing the preparation of the teachers to the standardized assessment results. There are also opportunities for investigating the method and curriculum used at schools that carry the name Montessori for comparison purposes amongst Montessori schools as well as in comparison to the results of the standardized assessments at these schools.

Language: English

Published: Corpus Christi, Texas, 2013

Report

Effectiveness of Direct Verbal Instruction on IQ Performance and Achievement in Reading and Arithmetic [Academic Preschool, Champaign, Illinois]

Available from: ERIC

Academic achievement, Americas, Arithmetic, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Literacy, Mathematics education, North America, Reading, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This experiment was based on the assumption that the academic failure of the disadvantaged or middle class child is due to a failure of instruction and that if above-normal learning schedules were maintained, the second year of an enrichment program would not show the customary drop in gains from the first year. The subjects of this study were 43 disadvantaged Negro and white 4-year-olds of high, middle, and low intelligence. Fifteen of the children were placed in an experimental group (I) and 28 in a control group (II). A 2-year program involving a group (III) of middle class 4-year-olds was also conducted, with a control group (IV) consisting of middle class 4-year-olds in a Montessori preschool. Groups I and III received a 2-year experimental program in which rapid attainment of basic academic concepts was emphasized. Group II received a 2-year traditional preschool education. Group I achieved significantly greater Stanford-Binet IQ gains than Group II and maintained them over the 2-year program. Group III children also benefited measureably from the program and demonstrated greater achievement in many areas than Group IV.

Language: English

Published: Washington, D.C., 1966

Doctoral Dissertation

Longitudinal Academic Achievement Outcomes: Modeling the Growth Trajectories of Montessori Public Elementary School Students

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: Elementary education has theoretical underpinnings based on cognitive psychology. Ideas from cognitive psychologists such as James, Dewey, Piaget, and Vygotsky coalesce to form constructivism (Cooper, 1993; Yager, 2000; Yilmaz, 2011). Among others, the Montessori Method (1912/1964) is an exemplar of constructivism. Currently, public education in the United States is heavily impacted by the No Child Left Behind legislation (Paige, 2006) which emphasizes high stakes academic achievement testing. Absent from the literature is an examination of the academic achievement of Montessori students in public education. This study explores the academic achievement outcomes of public school students who completed varying numbers of years in Montessori elementary education. Singer and Willett's (2003) multilevel model of change serves as the statistical tool utilized to explore the academic achievement outcomes of a first grade cohort through their elementary and secondary school careers. Accrued years in Montessori did not account for significant variance amongst the trajectories, and gender and ethnicity, when considered without the interactions with accrued years, had minimal impact. Socioeconomic status, when the variable of accrued years in Montessori was removed from the equation, was a significant predictor of reading and math achievement.

Language: English

Published: Commerce, Texas, 2014

Report

Reading and Math Achievement for African American Lower Elementary Students in Public Montessori Programs

Available from: National Center for Montessori in the Public Sector (NCMPS)

Academic achievement, African American community, African Americans, Americas, Arithmetic - Achievement, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Lower elementary, Mathematics - Achievement, Montessori method of education, North America, Public Montessori

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Abstract/Notes: As Montessori programs in public schools expand, Montessori education is becoming available to a more diverse population of American students than ever before. Students of color have a significant presence in public Montessori schools; over a quarter of students in whole-school public Montessori programs are African American. As these programs grow, researchers have increasingly directed their attention to demonstrating that Montessori works in public schools; however, few studies have examined outcomes for African American students at the lower elementary level, when critical reading and math skills are being established. This study sought to answer the question, how effectively does Montessori instruction promote achievement for African American third grade students in reading and math, compared to similar traditional schools and other public school choice programs?

Language: English

Published: Washington, D.C., 2016

Article

Developing Reading Automaticity and Fluency: Revisiting What Reading Teachers Know, Putting Confirmed Research into Current Practice

Available from: Scientific Research

Publication: Creative Education, vol. 9, no. 6

Pages: 838-855

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Abstract/Notes: This article revisits research on reading automaticity and fluency with the goal of helping beginning reading teachers put confirmed research findings into current classroom practice. The article examines the concepts of automaticity and fluency, how both impact the development of skillful reading. The article reviews research on: a) reading strategies children use, and b) repeat reading teaching strategies to develop fluency. Case scenarios illustrate key findings. Based on the research and case scenarios, four conclusions are drawn: 1) The terms automaticity and fluency are often interchanged; the concepts are not the same; 2) Understanding the differences between automaticity and fluency can impact repeat reading teaching strategies; 3) There is an assumption that rapid word recognition is the same cognitive process as automatic word decoding; and 4) There are two pathways to fluent reading, rapid word recognition, and automatic decoding ability. The article presents a theoretical model which aligns with childhood learning theories, offering teachers a variation in repeat reading teaching strategies. Rather than repeating reading the same text, opportunities to read slightly different, decodable text improves decoding, builds fluency, and thus strengthens children’s reading comprehension of complex text.

Language: English

DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.96062

ISSN: 2151-4755, 2151-4771

Article

The Influence of Montessori-Based Literacy Instruction and Methods on Reading Achievement of Students in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7

Available from: Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses

Publication: Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

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Abstract/Notes: This study examines the influence of Montessori-based literacy curriculum and instruction on student achievement in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. I studied 71 matched pairs of urban charter school students (n=142) to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in reading achievement, as measured by the Maryland School Assessment (MSA), between students who were instructed by their teachers in Montessori literacy methods and curriculum and students from a nearby charter school who were instructed by their teachers using a basal reading method. T-tests were used to compare the mean scores of the combined grade levels from each cohort on the 2011-2012 Maryland School Assessment (Reading section). The results of this study suggest that there was no significant difference in reading achievement between the two groups of students. There is very limited empirical research available examining reading achievement in Montessori public charter schools. Further research is recommended with similar groups of students from public Montessori school settings, or in this same setting with a different comparison group or a different evaluation tool.

Language: English

Article

Multiage Programming Effects on Cognitive Developmental Level and Reading Achievement in Early Elementary School Children

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Reading Psychology, vol. 25, no. 1

Pages: 1-17

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Abstract/Notes: Differences in cognitive developmental level and reading achievement of elementary school children in multiage programming and traditional classrooms were explored. There is controversy regarding the benefit of multiage classrooms for learning academic subjects. According to previous research (e.g., Almy, Chittenden, & Miller, 1967; Brekke, Williams, & Harlow, 1973; Cromey, 1999), cognitive developmental level, reading achievement, and classroom type all seem to be related entities. This study assesses the effects of multiage classrooms compared to traditional classrooms on cognitive developmental level and reading ability of kindergartners, first graders, and second graders. The effects of cognitive developmental level on reading ability were also explored. The results support the connections among cognitive developmental level, reading ability, and classroom type.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/02702710490271800

ISSN: 0270-2711

Master's Thesis

Read Like You are Talking to a Friend: The Effects of Using a Systematic Approach, Including Teacher Modeling, Repeated Reading, and Corrective Feedback on the Reading Fluency and Prosody of Students in a 6-9-year-old Public Montessori Classroom

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, Lower elementary, Montessori method of education

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to determine effective ways to improve fluency among lower elementary Montessori students. The study was comprised of 33 students ages 6-9 who attend public Montessori classrooms in North America. The field of research on reading fluency and comprehension was surveyed as a background to support this action research study, which utilized an experimental design, collecting quantitative data through student-generated artifacts. The researchers implemented a reading block into their Montessori classrooms. The large and small group lessons focused on modeled readings from the teacher, repeated readings, and corrective feedback. Data was collected at the beginning and end of the study. Data included words read correctly after three reads, comprehension and fluency scores, and two student selfevaluations rating their knowledge and feelings about reading. Students made progress in all areas measured, including fluency, comprehension, and feelings about reading. This research highlights the benefit of a designated daily reading block and explicit reading instruction, incorporating teacher modeling, repeated reading, and corrective feedback.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2018

Doctoral Dissertation

An Exploratory Study on the Effectiveness of Montessori Constructs and Traditional Teaching Methodology as Change Agents to Increase Academic Achievement of Elementary Black Students

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Academic achievement, African American children, African American community, Americas, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Black students consistently underachieve academically in comparison to White students. To minimize the achievement gap between Black students and White students, some experts advocate the use of differentiated instruction as an alternative methodology to teach underachieving students. Differentiated instruction is predicated on teaching students based on their learning abilities and/or learning preferences. The differentiated instructional model examined in this study combined traditional teaching methodology with specific Montessori stage two and stage three constructs. This exploratory qualitative study examined the impact that Montessori constructs combined with traditional teaching methods had on academic achievement of Black students in grades four and five in an inner city school in Dallas County, Texas. The study further explored the sample’s perceptions of and preferences for the combined teaching methodology. The sample group had been exposed to the differentiated teaching model evaluated in the study. Disaggregated 2007 and 2008 TAKS results from the Texas Education Agency were obtained to compare the school’s fourth and fifth grade Black students’ achievement to their cohort groups in the district and in the state. The TAKS data comparisons found variability in performance among the groups in each of the subject areas assessed by TAKS. Qualitative data from a Likert Scale, multiple choice questions, questionnaires, written essay, and interviews were obtained from the participants to examine the students’ perceptions of and preferences for the combined teaching methodology. Data responses were analyzed and themes were developed to determine black students’ preferences for teaching, learning, and factors that contribute to learning. The findings of this study imply that future use of a differentiated instructional model that combines traditional teaching methodology and specific Montessori constructs and principles might be effective in improving Black student achievement.

Language: English

Published: Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2009

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Montessori in Indigenous Communities
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