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Article

Developing Reading Automaticity and Fluency: Revisiting What Reading Teachers Know, Putting Confirmed Research into Current Practice

Available from: Scientific Research

Publication: Creative Education, vol. 9, no. 6

Pages: 838-855

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Abstract/Notes: This article revisits research on reading automaticity and fluency with the goal of helping beginning reading teachers put confirmed research findings into current classroom practice. The article examines the concepts of automaticity and fluency, how both impact the development of skillful reading. The article reviews research on: a) reading strategies children use, and b) repeat reading teaching strategies to develop fluency. Case scenarios illustrate key findings. Based on the research and case scenarios, four conclusions are drawn: 1) The terms automaticity and fluency are often interchanged; the concepts are not the same; 2) Understanding the differences between automaticity and fluency can impact repeat reading teaching strategies; 3) There is an assumption that rapid word recognition is the same cognitive process as automatic word decoding; and 4) There are two pathways to fluent reading, rapid word recognition, and automatic decoding ability. The article presents a theoretical model which aligns with childhood learning theories, offering teachers a variation in repeat reading teaching strategies. Rather than repeating reading the same text, opportunities to read slightly different, decodable text improves decoding, builds fluency, and thus strengthens children’s reading comprehension of complex text.

Language: English

DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.96062

ISSN: 2151-4755, 2151-4771

Article

TEP Listings

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 32, no. 1

Pages: 54-55

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Teacher education programs affiliated by the American Montessori Society provide comprehensive courses of study that prepare the adult learners of today to be the highly skilled, highly qualified Montessori teachers and leaders of tomorrow. ARIZONA ARIZONA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Chandler KHALSA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary II, Elementary I-II Tucson ARKANSAS ARKANSAS CENTER FOR MONTESSORI STUDIES Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Little Rock CALIFORNIA CAPITAL EDUCATION INSTITUTE Early Childhood Claremont COTTAGE MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Fresno Additional Site: Lancaster EAST BAY MONTESSORI TRAINING Early Childhood Fremont FOUNTAINHEAD MONTESSORI ADULT EDUCATION Early Childhood Dublin MONTESSORI CENTER FOR TEACHER EDUCATION Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary II, Elementary I-II San Diego MONTESSORI HILLS ACADEMY TEACHER CERTIFICATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Chula Vista MONTESSORI INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES Early Childhood Castro Valley MONTESSORI TEACHER ACADEMY Early Childhood Dana Point MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER/SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II San Leandro, San Mateo, Sunnyvale Additional Site: West Covina MONTESSORI TRAINING CENTER Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Shingle Springs UNIVERSITY MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM AT UC IRVINE Early Childhood Irvine COLORADO MONTESSORI EDUCATION CENTER OF THE ROCKIES Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II, Administrator Boulder DELAWARE DELAWARE INSTITUTE FOR MONTESSORI EDUCATION Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Hockessin MONTESSORI INSTITUTE FOR TEACHER EDUCATION Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Wilmington FLORIDA BARRY UNIVERSITY MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I-II Miami Shores DUHOVKA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I-II Additional Site: Fernandina Beach MAITLAND MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Maitland MONTESSORI ACADEMY TRAINING INSTITUTE Early Childhood Pembroke Pines MONTESSORI TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTE/MTTI Early Childhood Palmetto Bay ORLANDO MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE Early Childhood Celebration PALM HARBOR MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood Tarpon Springs SUMMIT MONTESSORI TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I Davie GEORGIA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE-ATLANTA Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Atlanta HAWAII CHAMINADE UNIVERSITY OF HONOLULU MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Honolulu ILLINOIS MIDWEST MONTESSORI TEACHER TRAINING CENTER Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Evanston MONTESSORI HEARTLAND TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood Moline SETON MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Administrator Clarendon Hills INDIANA MONTESSORI TEACHER ACADEMY AT EDISON LAKES Early Childhood Mishawaka KENTUCKY GREATER CINCINNATI CENTER FOR MONTESSORI EDUCATION Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Covington MAINE MAINE MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Early Childhood Falmouth MARYLAND INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED MONTESSORI STUDIES Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II, Administrator Silver Spring MARYLAND CENTER FOR MONTESSORI STUDIES Early Childhood Lutherville MONTGOMERY MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Rockville MASSACHUSETTS CAMBRIDGE MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler Cambridge MONTESSORI ELEMENTARY TEACHER TRAINING COLLABORATIVE Elementary I, Elementary II, Elementary I-II Lexington MONTESSORI INSTITUTE - NEW ENGLAND Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Beverly NEW ENGLAND MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood Newton NORTHEAST MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Wenham MICHIGAN ADRIAN DOMINICAN MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE Early Childhood Adrian MICHIGAN MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II, Elementary II Waterford MINNESOTA VIRGINIA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood Additional Site: Excelsior MISSOURI HOPE MONTESSORI EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood St. Louis MONTANA MONTANA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE Early Childhood Kalispell NEBRASKA MID-AMERICA MONTESSORI TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Omaha NEVADA MONTESSORI TRAINING OF SOUTHERN NEVADA Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Las Vegas NEW JERSEY MONTESSORI CENTER FOR TEACHER DEVELOPMENT Early Childhood Morristown MONTESSORI TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTE OF MERCER COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE Early Childhood Robbinsville PRINCETON CENTER TEACHER EDUCATION Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II, Administrator Princeton WEST SIDE MONTESSORI SCHOOL TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Infant & Toddler Additional Site: Whitehouse Station NEW YORK BUFFALO MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Clarence CENTER FOR MONTESSORI EDUCATION I NEW YORK Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Administrator New Rochelle WEST SIDE MONTESSORI SCHOOL TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II, Administrator New York City NORTH CAROLINA CENTER FOR MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION/NORTH CAROLINA Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Huntersville OHIO CINCINNATI MONTESSORI SECONDARY TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Secondary I, Secondary I-II Cincinnati COLUMBUS MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Columbus XAVIER UNIVERSITY MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Cincinnati OKLAHOMA OKLAHOMA CITY UNIVERSITY MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Oklahoma City OREGON MONTESSORI OF ALAMEDA TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Portland PENNSYLVANIA CHESTNUT HILL COLLEGE MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Philadelphia PUERTO RICO INSTITUTO NUEVA ESCUELA Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II, Secondary I Rio Piedras SOUTH CAROLINA GULF COAST MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Elementary I, Elementary I-II Additional Site: Charleston HOUSTON MONTESSORI CENTER Secondary I-II, Administrator Additional Site: Charleston LANDER UNIVERSITY MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary II, Elementary I-II Greenwood NORTHEAST MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Early Childhood Additional Site: Mt. Pleasant SEACOAST CENTER FOR EDUCATION Elementary I, Elementary I-II Charleston TENNESSEE MONTESSORI TRAINING CENTER OF BRENTWOOD Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Brentwood TEXAS DALLAS MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Plano GULF COAST MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Elementary I, Elementary I-II Houston HOUSTON MONTESSORI CENTER Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary II, Elementary I-II, Secondary I, Secondary I-II, Administrator Houston MONTESSORI DEVELOPMENT CENTER OF DFW Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Irving MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE-HOUSTON Early Childhood Houston NORTH TEXAS MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Early Childhood Frisco SHELTON MONTESSORI TRAINING Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Dallas UTAH INSTITUTE FOR MONTESSORI INNOVATION AT WESTMINSTER COLLEGE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary II, Elementary I-II, Administrator Salt Lake City VIRGINIA NORTHERN VIRGINIA MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Early Childhood Ashburn VIRGINIA CENTER FOR MONTESSORI STUDIES Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Richmond VIRGINIA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood Chesapeake WASHINGTON MONTESSORI CENTER FOR TEACHER EDUCATION-WASHINGTON STATE Early Childhood Bellevue MONTESSORI EDUCATION INSTITUTE OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Bothell WISCONSIN UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN- RIVER FALLS MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II River Falls INTERNATIONAL BAISHAN MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Qingdao, CHINA BEIJING HEART & MIND MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Beijing, CHINA Early Childhood Additional Site: Yiwu, CHINA CADALIN GLOBAL EDUCATION Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Hsinchu City, TAIWAN CAPITAL COLLEGE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Richmond, BC, CANADA CAPITAL EDUCATION INSTITUTE Early Childhood Additional Site: Nanning, CHINA CENTRE FOR ADVANCED MONTESSORI STUDIES-VANCOUVER Elementary I, Elementary I-II Vancouver, BC, CANADA CENTRO DE ENSEÑANZA MONTESSORI, A.C. Early Childhood Tijuana, BC, MEXICO CENTRO DE ENTRENAMIENTO MONTESSORI Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Monterrey, NL, MEXICO THE CHILDREN'S HOUSE MONTESSORI EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood Beijing, CHINA DR. JUN INSTITUTE OF MONTESSORI EDUCATION Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Seoul, REPUBLIC OF KOREA DUHOVKA MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC ETONKIDS MONTESSORI TEACHER TRAINING ACADEMY Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Beijing, CHINA HOUSTON MONTESSORI CENTER Secondary I, Secondary I-II Additional Site: Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC INFINITY MONTESSORI ACADEMY OF HONG KONG Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, HONG KONG INTERNATIONAL MONTESSORI EDUCATION INSTITUTE Early Childhood, Elementary I, Elementary I-II Taichung City, TAIWAN INTERNATIONAL MONTESSORI TEACHING INSTITUTE Early Childhood Beijing, CHINA KOREAN INSTITUTE FOR MONTESSORI Early Childhood Seoul, REPUBLIC OF KOREA KOREAN MONTESSORI COLLEGE Early Childhood Seoul, REPUBLIC OF KOREA LMS MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Windsor, ON, CANADA MONTESSORI INSTITUTE FOR TEACHER EDUCATION Early Childhood Additional Site: Istanbul, TURKEY MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER/SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Infant & Toddler Additional Site: Taipei City, TAIWAN Early Childhood Additional Site: Kowloon Tong, HONG KONG NORTHEAST MONTESSORI INSTITUTE Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood Additional Site: Chengdu, CHINA OKLAHOMA CITY UNIVERSITY MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Early Childhood Additional Site: Taipei City, TAIWAN PALM HARBOR MONTESSORI TEACHER EDUCATION CENTER Early Childhood Additional Site: Beijing, CHINA SHANGHAI MONTESSORI EDUCATION ACADEMY Infant & Toddler, Early Childhood, Administrator Shanghai, CHINA WEIMING MONTESSORI EDUCATION CENTRE Early Childhood Beijing, CHINA WEST SIDE MONTESSORI SCHOOL TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM Infant & Toddler Additional Site: Beijing, CHINA

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Article

The Dilemma of Scripted Instruction: Comparing Teacher Autonomy, Fidelity, and Resistance in the Froebelian Kindergarten, Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All

Available from: Teachers College Record

Publication: Teachers College Record, vol. 113, no. 3

Pages: 395-430

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Abstract/Notes: More than a century before modern controversies over scripted instruction, the Froebelian kindergarten--the original kindergarten method designed by Friedrich Froebel--and Maria Montessori's pedagogy were criticized for rigidly prescribing how teachers taught and children learned. Today, scripted methods such as Direct Instruction and Success for All are condemned for limiting teachers' autonomy and narrowing students' learning, especially that of students from low-income backgrounds, for and with whom scripts are often designed and used. Proponents of scripted instruction counter that it is helpful for teachers and effective with students. Comparing historical and modern scripts offers an opportunity to explore teachers' reactions to this hotly debated approach to school reform and to think about some possible implications for teacher education. I examine how teachers reacted to four different models of scripted instruction. I chose to compare the Froebelian kindergarten, Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All because of their longevity, wide use, and the amount of information available about them. I focus on the scripts' theory and research base and teacher training, and on teachers' assessments of the scripts' effectiveness, and ask how these factors might influence teachers' autonomy, fidelity, and resistance when using scripts. Research Design: Using historical methods, I summarize the history of scripted instruction; selectively survey research on teacher autonomy, fidelity, and resistance; and interpret primary and secondary sources on the Froebelian kindergarten, Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All. Teacher autonomy, fidelity, and resistance varied in these four scripts. Froebelian kindergarten and Montessori teachers autonomously chose to receive scripted, lengthy, intensive, pre-service training and professional development in closed professional learning communities. Direct Instruction and Success for All teachers receive scripted, relatively limited pre-service training and ongoing professional development in schools in which teachers often do not autonomously choose to teach. Despite the scripted training, most Froebelian kindergarten teachers, and many Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All teachers modified these scripts at the classroom level; some Froebelian and Montessori teachers made very overt, substantial changes when the social class backgrounds of the students changed. Many Froebelian and most Montessori teachers seemed to believe that these scripts helped their students learn. Direct Instruction and Success for All teachers express more mixed views of these scripts' effectiveness. Some say that the scripts "work "for their students but that as teachers they feel constrained, a situation I see as a professional dilemma. Anecdotally, some new teachers with little pre-service training say that they feel limited by scripts but daunted by the task of creating curricula and instruction on their own. My research raises questions about teachers' reactions to scripts. The examples of Froebelian kindergarten, Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All teachers I studied suggest that there may be unpredictable contradictions in scripted instruction. Scripted, autonomously chosen, intensive training may strengthen teacher fidelity and resistance, by giving teachers a deep repertoire of pedagogical skills that some continue to use and others use to autonomously modify scripts in response to students' perceived needs. Scripted, externally imposed, less extensive training may give some teachers a sense of security but also create tensions between the scripts 'perceived effectiveness and the teachers' desires for autonomy, and, for new teachers, between autonomy and the difficulty of independently designing curricula and methods. I argue that these reactions suggest that educators in traditional pre-service teacher education programs may want to experiment with offering an autonomous choice of distinctly different instructional models, including scripted ones such as Direct Instruction and Success for All, in which teachers in training in professional learning communities may become deeply skilled. I also argue that script developers may want to experiment with giving teachers more explicit autonomy, both in choosing scripts and in modifying them, and more extensive pre-service training. I recommend more comparative research on teachers' reactions to scripts, especially on new teachers. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Language: English

ISSN: 0161-4681

Doctoral Dissertation

An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Korean Montessori Teacher Training Program as Perceived by Montessori Teachers and Parents of Montessori-Educated Children

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: During the past ten years, a total of 3,642 teachers and administrators have attended the Korean Montessori Teacher Training Program (KMTTP). A sample of Montessori teachers (n = 261) and Korean parents (n = 375) from 32 Korean Montessori schools located in the major cities of Korea were surveyed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this teacher preparation program. The EXPECTATIONS AND GOAL ATTAINMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (EGAQ), designed by the researcher, was the instrumentation used to conduct this study. Major findings demonstrated that 74.5 percent of the teachers surveyed indicated that their main reasons for attending the KMTTP were to increase their professional competency and their knowledge of child development through Montessori philosophy. The correlation between teachers' levels of satisfaction with their preparation and perceived effectiveness of the training program was higher (r =.29, p $<$.05) than between their levels of satisfaction with the program and their perceptions of their preparedness after completion of training (r =.18, p $<$.05). Significant differences existed between perceived effectiveness of the KMTTP and teachers' ages, positions, and years of experience. Older teachers and those with more advanced teaching positions expressed greater satisfaction with the program. Teachers indicated that, upon completion of the KMTTP, they felt more prepared in, than knowledgeable of, Montessori educational methodology. From the parent perspective, the most frequently cited reason (74.3%) for sending their child to a Montessori School was to provide a learning environment that nurtured their child's interpersonal growth. A majority of the parents (58.5%) were very satisfied with the Montessori experience; no parents were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied. In correlating the effectiveness of Montessori education with specific outcomes, parents indicated highest levels of satisfaction in the areas of "concentration" and "academic achievement." A majority of the teachers surveyed (52.8%) encouraged the implementation of the Montessori Teacher Training Program in neighboring countries, with 42.1 percent strongly encouraging implementation. This study demonstrated the need for further development and improvement in the area of Montessori teacher training in Korea.

Language: English

Published: San Francisco, California, 1994

Doctoral Dissertation

The Effects of Montessori Teacher Training on Classroom Teaching Skills: The Public Montessori Teachers' Perspective

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: This study compares the opinions of public school teachers of their classroom teaching skills due to participation in the Montessori model of teacher training and the traditional teacher education training programs. The data were collected through a survey of 223 public Montessori schools across the United States. The design used in this study is causal comparative to establish cause and effect. The independent variable is the participation in the Montessori Model of Teacher Training. The dependent variables are the opinions of public school teachers as perceived from participation in the Montessori Model of Teacher Training. Comparisons of teacher opinions were compiled from a survey to ascertain the impact of participation in the Montessori Model of Teacher Training. The population for this study included all teachers employed in the public Montessori schools. The sample included the entire population of teachers who participated in traditional teacher training to earn state licensure and in a Montessori teacher training program. A total of thirty-eight states were included in the survey. A total of 560 surveys were received from the population sample. The teachers surveyed included 81% females and 19% males. The years of teaching experience in public schools were 0–5 years 31%; 6–10 years 28%; 11–15 years 16%; and over 15 years 25%. The years of teaching experience in Montessori schools were 0–5 years 57 %; 6–10 years 23%; 11–15 years 11%; and over 15 years 9%. The basic conclusions from this study indicated that there are significant differences, p < .05, in the responses of teachers who participated in the Montessori model of teacher training and the traditional teacher training for preparation of classroom instruction. In 11 out of the 12 survey items, the diverse approach of teaching used in the Montessori model of teacher training was perceived to be superior to traditional teacher training. However, in one survey question, the traditional teacher training was viewed superior for preparation of teaching in a whole group setting. This study suggest that the responses of teachers strongly recommend the Montessori model of teacher training.

Language: English

Published: Orangeburg, South Carolina, 1997

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

Read Like You are Talking to a Friend: The Effects of Using a Systematic Approach, Including Teacher Modeling, Repeated Reading, and Corrective Feedback on the Reading Fluency and Prosody of Students in a 6-9-year-old Public Montessori Classroom

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, Lower elementary, Montessori method of education

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to determine effective ways to improve fluency among lower elementary Montessori students. The study was comprised of 33 students ages 6-9 who attend public Montessori classrooms in North America. The field of research on reading fluency and comprehension was surveyed as a background to support this action research study, which utilized an experimental design, collecting quantitative data through student-generated artifacts. The researchers implemented a reading block into their Montessori classrooms. The large and small group lessons focused on modeled readings from the teacher, repeated readings, and corrective feedback. Data was collected at the beginning and end of the study. Data included words read correctly after three reads, comprehension and fluency scores, and two student selfevaluations rating their knowledge and feelings about reading. Students made progress in all areas measured, including fluency, comprehension, and feelings about reading. This research highlights the benefit of a designated daily reading block and explicit reading instruction, incorporating teacher modeling, repeated reading, and corrective feedback.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2018

Doctoral Dissertation

Understanding What it Means to be a Montessori Teacher: Teachers Reflections on Their Lives and Work

Montessori method of education - Teacher training, Montessori method of education - Teachers, Teachers

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Abstract/Notes: The overall aim of this study has been to come to a better understanding of what it means to be a Montessori teacher, by getting a group of Montessori teachers to reflect on their lives and work. Data exploration has comprised journals, interviews, written reflections and collaborative con-textual analysis. Analysis of the teachers? occupational life histories and the findings as a whole have been used to shed light on: ?Values and specific aspects of the philosophy of Montessori edu-cation that primarily attract teachers to this profession. ?Ways in which teachers? conceptions of their professional roles reflect their own personal values, beliefs and convictions. ?Teachers? views regarding the role of Montessori education to-day and in the future. Eight female Montessori primary school teachers participated in the study. Findings reveal that the strengths of the Montessori method lie in its focus on philosophical awareness, the holistic approach and a genuine ethic of care. Montessori?s fundamental educational principles are also in alignment with the current Curriculum for Compulsory Schools (Lpo 94). On the other hand, difficulties are experienced due to conflicting tradi-tional/contemporary interpretations of Montessori theory and practice and a general lack of collaboration among Montessori teachers. Open discussion and a sharing of ideas and experiences would help Montessori teachers come to terms with how to apply fundamental principles in new ways without the fear of losing an educational ?identity?. The Montessori teachers in this study reflect this attitude. Tendencies toward continu-ity/meaningful change in education depend to a great extent on the ways in which teachers are able to critically reflect about how they think and what they do. Taking seriously what teachers have to say is in fact essen-tial in order to understand the forces that, among other things, govern and sway teachers? inner as well as outer motivations, something of relevance and concern to all involved in teaching and educational processes.

Language: English

Published: Malmö, Sweden, 2003

Doctoral Dissertation

Möjligheter och begränsningar: Om lärares arbete med montessoripedagogiken i praktiken [Opportunities and limitations: About teachers' work with Montessori pedagogy in practice]

Available from: DiVA Portal

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Abstract/Notes: This study examines processes connected to teacher’s transformation of the Montessori theory and it's described application to a daily practice. The aim is to create knowledge about what constitutes possibilities and limitations for teachers in their daily work with Montessori education. This does not only refer to what constitutes opportunities and limitations in teachers' everyday work with teaching, but also to what constitutes opportunities and limitations for teachers to learn at work. The theoretical framework is based on action theory and theories on adult learning and connects to a tradition called workplace-learning in which learning is considered to take place in, but also between, individuals. This approach indicates that the contextual conditions which the teachers were imbedded in are important to identify. The study was conducted in four different Montessori-environments and involved nine Montessori teachers. The methods used were participant observation, interviews, informal conversations and review of teacher produced material and documents. Possibilities and limitations in teachers work were related to if they had access to Montessori materials or not. In work with Montessori materials teachers identified the children's abilities to a greater extent than they did when other materials were in use. This identification directed their interventions. When the teachers did not have access to Montessori material their method often appeared to be the same as “individual work” with the provided material. Furthermore, interventions of the teacher were then significantly often procedural rather than content-related, although the teachers clearly expressed that they wanted to go into a dialogue with children about the treated subject area. The survey therefore contradicts with the opinion that Montessori-teachers withdraw in favor of Montessori materials that sometimes has been brought up by interpreters of the pedagogy. Rather, teachers stepped back when other materials were in use. The study also shows how a prerequisite for a collective development-oriented learning among the teachers was dependent on whether teachers made their own private understanding of the pedagogy available to each other. At times, however, teachers took the use of the materials for granted. Some of the teachers also deliberately refrained from making their personal understanding available to others due to the fact that they then could be seen as a less competent Montessori-teacher. This maintaining of a “false” collective understanding is seen as an expression of an institutionalization of teaching practice which was maintained by sanctions from the environment if the individual didn´t recognize the institutionalization in question. Since teacher’s “space for action” in this way was limited, the institution created conditions that prevented a possible development of the working methods in use. In those cases when conditions for a collective development-oriented learning were more favorable, it was clear that the teachers did not perceive Montessori education as a given method but rather saw it as a "model" for teaching in which the teachers had to interpret and define their own method from. The teachers thus came to take advantage of a potential “space for action” which was not noticed when the pedagogy was seen as a method.

Language: Swedish

Published: Stockholm, Sweden, 2016

Article

Elementary Teacher's Conceptions of Inquiry Teaching: Messages for Teacher Development

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Journal of Science Teacher Education, vol. 23, no. 2

Pages: 159-175

Americas, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., North America, Teacher attitudes, Teacher training, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This study explored practicing elementary school teacher’s conceptions of teaching in ways that foster inquiry-based learning in the science curriculum (inquiry teaching). The advocacy for inquiry-based learning in contemporary curricula assumes the principle that students learn in their own way by drawing on direct experience fostered by the teacher. That students should be able to discover answers themselves through active engagement with new experiences was central to the thinking of eminent educators such as Pestalozzi, Dewey and Montessori. However, even after many years of research and practice, inquiry learning as a referent for teaching still struggles to find expression in the average teachers’ pedagogy. This study drew on interview data from 20 elementary teachers. A phenomenographic analysis revealed three conceptions of teaching for inquiry learning in science in the elementary years of schooling: (a) The Experience-centered conception where teachers focused on providing interesting sensory experiences to students; (b) The Problem-centered conception where teachers focused on engaging students with challenging problems; and (c) The Question-centered conception where teachers focused on helping students to ask and answer their own questions. Understanding teachers’ conceptions has implications for both the enactment of inquiry teaching in the classroom as well as the uptake of new teaching behaviors during professional development, with enhanced outcomes for engaging students in Science.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/s10972-011-9251-2

ISSN: 1046-560X, 1573-1847

Doctoral Dissertation

Examining Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of the Impact of High-Stakes Testing on Classroom Teaching Practices: A Mixed Methods Study

Available from: UAB Libraries

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Abstract/Notes: The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) requires schools to be held accountable for academic performance. It is believed the pressure of accountability will lead teachers to narrow the curriculum by engaging students in test preparation activities. The purpose of this two-phase, explanatory mixed methods study was to examine elementary teachers’ perceptions of the impact of the Stanford Achievement Test 10 (SAT-10) and the Alabama Reading and Math Test (ARMT) on classroom teaching practices from a sample of third-grade, fourth-grade, and fifth-grade teachers in three large school systems in Alabama. The purpose of the first, quantitative phase of the study, was to reveal teachers’ perceptions of the impact of high-stakes testing on curriculum and instructional approaches, the amount of time spent on critical thinking skills, the amount of time spent on test preparation activities, and the perceived impact of state tests on students and teachers by surveying 123 third-grade through fifth-grade teachers in three large Alabama school systems. In the second, qualitative phase of this study, purposeful sampling strategy and maximal variation sampling strategy were employed to interview nine teachers who responded to the survey in the first, quantitative phase of the study to explore the results from the statistical tests in more depth. Findings suggested urban teachers spent more time on critical-thinking skills than rural and suburban teachers, and low-socioeconomic, rural teachers experienced more stress caused by high-stakes testing than their geographical counterparts. All teachers independent of socioeconomic status or school geographical location reported they increased their focus on reading and math, which were the subjects assessed on high-stakes tests and de-emphasized subjects not tested such as social studies and science. Finally, most teachers reported they decreased the teaching of critical thinking skills due to the SAT-10 but increased the teaching of critical thinking skills due to the ARMT. Due to the lack of research regarding high-stakes testing in Alabama elementary schools, there was a need for teachers to discuss the specific impact of testing on classroom teaching practices because they work directly with students and are cognizant of the challenges that teachers face.

Language: English

Published: Birmingham, Alabama, 2010

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