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Article

Supporting Sensory-Sensitive Children in a Sensory-Intensive World

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 29, no. 1

Pages: 34-39

Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, Sensory disorders in children, Sensory integration dysfunction in children, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: For American children with educational challenges, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (or DSM-5) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), is critically important because inclusion of a disorder in the DSM-5 allows for treatment and support to be paid for by the child's public school district if it interferes with his or her educational achievement. Early parent observation of sensory differences is often a child's first reported sign of autism, occurring as early as 9-12 months of age (Murray-Slutsky & Paris, 2000; Baranek, 2002). * Sensory profiles can distinguish among children with autism, children with ADHD, and children without those diagnoses (Tomchek & Dunn, 2007; Yochman, Parush, & Ornoy, 2004). * Well-developed sensory integration has strong correlation with academic achievement and cognitive processing. Early detection and management of sensory challenges can tie to predicting later academic performance deficits (Parham, 1998; Koenig & Rudney, 2010). * In a review of studies examining links between SI and ADHD, sensory-motor abilities of children with ADHD were lower than those of a control group. Other literature examines connections with disorders ranging from fragile X syndrome, mood disorders, behavioral disorders, and nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) to physically based conditions, such as premature birth, prenatal drug exposure, cerebral palsy/spina bifida/ Down syndrome, language delay, and other learning disabilities, as well as environmentally caused deficits, including abuse, neglect, or trauma.

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Multisensory Gains in Simple Detection Predict Global Cognition in Schoolchildren

Available from: Nature

Publication: Scientific Reports, vol. 10, no. 1

Pages: Article 1394

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Abstract/Notes: The capacity to integrate information from different senses is central for coherent perception across the lifespan from infancy onwards. Later in life, multisensory processes are related to cognitive functions, such as speech or social communication. During learning, multisensory processes can in fact enhance subsequent recognition memory for unisensory objects. These benefits can even be predicted; adults’ recognition memory performance is shaped by earlier responses in the same task to multisensory – but not unisensory – information. Everyday environments where learning occurs, such as classrooms, are inherently multisensory in nature. Multisensory processes may therefore scaffold healthy cognitive development. Here, we provide the first evidence of a predictive relationship between multisensory benefits in simple detection and higher-level cognition that is present already in schoolchildren. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the extent to which a child (N = 68; aged 4.5–15years) exhibited multisensory benefits on a simple detection task not only predicted benefits on a continuous recognition task involving naturalistic objects (p = 0.009), even when controlling for age, but also the same relative multisensory benefit also predicted working memory scores (p = 0.023) and fluid intelligence scores (p = 0.033) as measured using age-standardised test batteries. By contrast, gains in unisensory detection did not show significant prediction of any of the above global cognition measures. Our findings show that low-level multisensory processes predict higher-order memory and cognition already during childhood, even if still subject to ongoing maturation. These results call for revision of traditional models of cognitive development (and likely also education) to account for the role of multisensory processing, while also opening exciting opportunities to facilitate early learning through multisensory programs. More generally, these data suggest that a simple detection task could provide direct insights into the integrity of global cognition in schoolchildren and could be further developed as a readily-implemented and cost-effective screening tool for neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly in cases when standard neuropsychological tests are infeasible or unavailable.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-58329-4

ISSN: 2045-2322

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Children’s Preference for Real Activities: Even Stronger in the Montessori Children’s House

Available from: University of Kansas Libraries

Publication: Journal of Montessori Research, vol. 4, no. 2

Pages: 1-9

Americas, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: In the United States, children are often given the opportunity to engage in pretend activities; many believe this kind of play benefits children’s development. Recent research has shown, though, that when children ages 4 to 6 are given a choice to do the pretend or the real version of 9 different activities, they would prefer the real one. The reasons children gave for preferring real activities often concerned their appreciation of the functionality; when children did prefer pretend activities, their reasons often cited being afraid of, not allowed to, or unable to do the real activity. Given that children in Montessori classrooms have more experience performing real, functional activities, in this study we asked if this preference for real activities is even stronger among children in Montessori schools. We also asked children to explain their preferences. The data are from 116 3- to 6-year-old children (M = 59.63 months, SD = 12.08 months; 68 female): 62 not in Montessori schools and 54 in Montessori schools. Children explained their preferences for pretendand real versions of 9 different activities. Children in Montessori schools preferred real activities even more than did children in other preschools, but all children explained their choices in similar ways. The implications of these results are discussed with regard to play in preschool classrooms.

Language: English

DOI: 10.17161/jomr.v4i2.7586

ISSN: 2378-3923

Article

When Sensory Sensitivity Requires Intervention: Assessment and Treatment of Sensory-sensitive Children

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 29, no. 3

Pages: 38-43

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: In other words, observers must look at the sensory stimuli in a given environment at the time a behavior occurs (Williamson & Anzalone, 2001). [...]diagnosis requires extensive observation of a child across multiple environments over time. Over time and with frequent reinforcement, a child can demonstrate growth in a range of areas and behaviors as a result of a successful course of therapy; for example, a child experiencing numerous hypersensitivities might show improvements in motor planning, more participation in activities with peers, more flexibility in eating a variety of foods, and/or less fear related to gross-motor activities (Schaaf & Nightlinger, 2007). If these techniques are utilized consistently, OTs believe student behaviors and performance can improve in many concrete, measurable areas, ranging from general attention, focus, and behavior to self-calming, quality of academic work, fine-motor skills (including handwriting), and memory retention. [...]OTs also emphasize the importance of consistent, ongoing communication between therapists, parents, and teachers of children who are receiving SI therapy, in order to maximize the benefit of therapy and provide reinforcement of therapy techniques across a child's daily environments.

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Article

President Wilson's Daughter to Aid Mme. Montessori Show Her System

Available from: Chronicling America (Library of Congress)

Publication: The Sun (New York) (New York City, NY)

Pages: 6

Americas, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The Montessori movement, considered by many a radical departure from traditional educational methods, will receive new emphasis and publicity from the fact that visitors to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition will see during the months of August, September, October and November not only a demonstration of the Montessori system but will see it conducted by the talented woman herself. Associated with her will be Miss Margaret Wilson, daughter of the President, Dr. David Starr Jordan, chancellor of Leland Stanford Junior University, and other well known educators. The Montessori method has been summed up as 'freedom for development of the child under best conditions disturbing as little as possible but helping buy every means this development.' Any estimate of Mme. Montessori's work to be of practical value will involve a comparison between the Montessori method and that of the kindergarten, since the kindergarten is the only system of organizes educational work for young children that has so far received general recognition. In the middle of the last century the sensitive woman soul and philosophic mind of Froebel grasped the fundamental principle of development and say that the first six or seven years are the most important in the life of the individual. After years of study he embodied what he conceived to be the fundamental principles of the education of little children in what is known as the kindergarten, and his ideas of the best means for the application of these principles in his kindergarten program, materials and devices. The discovery of the kindergarten marked a new era in the history of the educational world. Though suppressed for years by government authority in Germany, and received with much suspicion elsewhere, the kindergarten has become an integral part of the public school system of many cities and States in our country. Its introduction into England was championed by Charles Dickens, and in America it found an advocate in the philosopher and educator Dr. William T. Harris. Concerning the kindergarten and the Montessori methods, Dr. P. P. Claxton, United States Commissioner of Education says: 'Though aims and principles are the same for both Froebel and Montessori, their different methods of approach have resulted in difference in emphasis, program and decides. For those who see no further than the form there is apparent conflict. Many cannot understand that the work of both Froebel and Montessori must finally lose each its distinctive characteristics in the larger whole of a more perfect knowledge of the nature of infancy and the means of educating young children.' It must be said of Dr. Montessori that she is first, last and always scientific in her work. Prolonged training in the sciences that relate to human life, vitalized by practical experience in their application to defective children, gave her a method which is the outcome of genius, training and experience. She swung into prominence, against her wish, in the following way: While serving as assistant doctor at the psychiatric clinic of the University of Rome, Italy, she founder herself differing from her colleagues in that she felt, as she says, 'that mental deficiency presented chiefly a pedagogic rather than mainly a medical problem.' The expression of these views in an address brought Dr. Montessori prominently before the Minister of Public Instruction, and her work from this on assumed a public character. Her belief that the methods employed with deficient children 'contained educational principles more rational than those in use and that if applied to normal children they would develop or set free their personality in a marvelous and surprising way,' became her controlling idea, and is the very heart of the Montessori system. The system of Mme. Montessori is indissolubly joined with her famous 'didactic material.' Among this will be found small wooden frames to which are attached pieces of cloth or leather on which are buttons and buttonholes, hooks and eyes, eyelets and lacing cords, and strings to be tied and untied. There are also boxes of cylindrical insets and other simple devices to develop 'man's mystery over nature.' Mme. Montessori is her best interpreter when she says, 'We are inclined to believe that children are like puppets and we wash them and feed them as if they were dolls. We do not stop to think that the child that does not do does not know how to do. Our duty is that of helping him to make a conquest of such useful acts as nature intended he should perform for himself. The mother who feeds her child without making the least effort to teach him to hold the spoon for himself and to try to find his mouth with it is not a wise mother. She treats her son as though he were a doll. We call an individual disciplined when he is master of himself and can regulate his own conduct when it shall be necessary to follow some rule of life. If any educational act is to be efficacious it is necessary rigorously to avoid the arrest of spontaneous movements and the imposition of arbitrary tasks. It is of course understood here that we do not speak of a useless or dangerous act; this must be suppressed, destroyed.' The Montessori doctrine is therefore in substance that the child's inner self or personalit cannot rightfully develop unless free to express itself undirected and unguided by another person. As a consequence Dr. Montessori insists that each child be allowed bodily freedom and have as much unhampered liberty of action as possible in order that he may fully express his inner life in outer activity. The classic illustration by which Dr. Montessori puts in concrete form her doctrine is the following: 'One day the children had gathered in a circle about a basin of water containing some floating toys. A little boy 2 1/2 years old had been left outside the circle. He drew near to the other children and tried to force his way among them, but he was not strong enough to do this. The expression of thought on his face was intensely interesting. His eyes then lighted upon a little chair and he had evidently made up his mind to place it behind the group of children and climb on it. As he began to move toward the chair, his face illuminated with hope, a teacher seized him in her arms, lifted him above the heads of the other children, showed him the basin of water, saying, 'Come poor little one you shall see too.' The child seeing the floating toys did not experience the joy that he was about to feel through conquering the obstacles with his own force. The teacher hindered the child in this case from educating himself. The little fellow was about to feel himself a conqueror, and instead he found himself held within two imprisoning arms impotent.' The now famous 'House of the Children' in Rome, under the patronage of Queen Margherita, faithfully reflects and demonstrates the Montessori principles and methods. It has been described as an old orphan asylum, whose gray outer walls give no idea of the two beautiful and luxuriant courtyards within. These latter are filled with beds of blossoming plans, and the pillars of the inner porch are covered with clinging vines. The schoolroom in which the class for the children is held opens with wide double doors into one of these lovely courtyards, where the children play during hours in which they are not engaged in their Montessori exercises. Miss Elizabeth Harrison, president of the National Kindergarten Union says of this 'House of the Children': 'On my first visit I found the children busy getting out the 'didactic material' with which they were to employ themselves for the next hour and a quarter. Some came forward to shake hands with me; some merely smiled and nodded and did not interrupt their work. All seemed busy, happy and free. I afterward saw as many as eighty visitors in the room where there were only a dozen children, but none of the children were in the least disturbed by or seemingly conscious of the presence of the visitors. Most of the children came from nearby tenement houses, yet even the youngest of them washed their own hands and faces, put on clean, neat calico aprons and looked as fresh and clean as children from well cared for homes.' Comparing the kindergarten and the Montessori systems, the following differences appear: The kindergarten stresses group activities, while the Montessori system emphasized almost exclusively the development of the individual. The kindergartners say that education in coordinating of muscles, the special training of the child's senses and all such phases of individual development are expected to come in the nursery. The Montessori system has no place for stories; the kindergartners are famous for them. Mme. Montessori objects to stories for young children on the theory that all activities of the mind are derived from the outside world and are dependent on sense impressions, and that therefore the child should be kept within the realm of his own personal experience until he is at least 7 or 8 years old. It is not necessary to add that two __ meet at this point of difference. The most remarkable features of the Montessori system, as well as one of its decided points of divergence from the kindergarten, lies in its ___ of definite attitude on religious training. Froebel, trained in an environment where instruction in religion is practically nationwide, says that while the child unconsciously manifests teh divine impuse within him he must follow it with conscious insights persisting in what he knows to do right and must needs have definite training of this kind. Montessori, on the other hand, with nuns as her assistants and attendants in her 'House of the Children,' acknowledges the importance of religious training for little children, 'but confesses that as yet it is an unsolved problem to her.' Miss Harrison, who spent some time in Rome with Mme. Montessori says, 'She [Montessori] seems to feel that a child's spiritual nature will ___ aright if freedom is given ....

Language: English

ISSN: 1940-7831

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Comparison of Sudoku Solving Skills of Preschool Children Enrolled in the Montessori Approach and the National Education Programs

Available from: Red Fame

Publication: Journal of Education and Training Studies, vol. 8, no. 3

Pages: 32-47

Asia, Comparative education, Middle East, Turkey, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: According to Johnson-Laird (2010), sudoku, a mind game, is based on a pure deduction and reasoning processes. This study analyzed sudoku solving skills of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of Education preschool education program and the Montessori approach. Sudoku skills of children were analyzed by gender, age, duration of preschool attendance, mother’s and father’s education level and previous experience of playing sudoku using a 12-question Sudoku Skills Measurement Tool developed for this research study. The study sample of the study consisted of 118 children (57 girls, 61 boys) aged between 54-77 months. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in sudoku skills by gender. However, sudoku skills varied with age (54-65 months and 66-77 months) in favor of older groups. Children's sudoku skills were more developed with an increase in education level of either parent. Children who had been in preschool for longer had higher sudoku scores. A previous experience of playing sudoku did not impact sudoku scores. Sudoku skills of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to Ministry of National Education program.According to Johnson-Laird (2010), sudoku, a mind game, is based on a pure deduction and reasoning processes. This study analyzed sudoku solving skills of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of Education preschool education program and the Montessori approach. Sudoku skills of children were analyzed by gender, age, duration of preschool attendance, mother’s and father’s education level and previous experience of playing sudoku using a 12-question Sudoku Skills Measurement Tool developed for this research study. The study sample of the study consisted of 118 children (57 girls, 61 boys) aged between 54-77 months. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in sudoku skills by gender. However, sudoku skills varied with age (54-65 months and 66-77 months) in favor of older groups. Children's sudoku skills were more developed with an increase in education level of either parent. Children who had been in preschool for longer had higher sudoku scores. A previous experience of playing sudoku did not impact sudoku scores. Sudoku skills of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to Ministry of National Education program.

Language: English

DOI: 10.11114/jets.v8i3.4620

ISSN: 2324-8068

Article

Dr. Montessori Aims to Aid Poor: Italian Educator Says Their Children Are More Eager to Learn

Available from: Chronicling America (Library of Congress)

Publication: New York Tribune (New York, New York)

Pages: 6

Americas, Margaret Naumburg - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: "Yesterday the Dottoressa Maria Montessori held the first conference with her pupils in America. It was at the Children's House, 520 East Seventy-seventh Street. The Children's House is one of the thirty Montessori schools which have sprung up in New York during the last three years. The conference was impressive. The great Italian teacher greeted her pupils, her disciples , if you like, with delight and apparent amazement at the development of her work in New York. "This beautiful house of the children!" She cried. "You have so much here; in Italy we cannot give the children all this, we have it not to give, but little is much when children are free." Her work is growing fast in Italy. In the districts which have been devastated by the earthquakes twelve schools have been established. "I have now developed a method of educating children from five to ten years old. By it they learn reading, writing, arithmetic very easily - but especially nature, science, the languages. Then they are ready to enter the high schools, I believe you call it. Two years are saved in the school life of every child. My elementary methods have been put into sixteen schools in Italy. Signorini Maccheroni is training teachers and opening our schools in Spain." Miss Anne E. George, who introduced Dr. Montessori's work into this community, asked how Montessori teachers in the United States could learn the methods for older pupils. "Signorina Fidele might come here and supervise the elementary classes which you form." "But you, Dottoressa," exclaimed Margaret Naumberg, "why won't you stay and help us?" Dr. Montessori didn't say she would, but I noticed particularly that she didn't say she wouldn't. She is now on her way to California, where she will give a four months' course in Montessori methods in Los Angeles and San Diego. Her latest book, describing her work with older children, will be published in the fall. "Now, that is all my news, and I want to hear what you are doing. I want always to keep in close touch with you and with your work. Tell me what you are doing." Mrs. A. Reno Margulies, of 534 West 187th Street, told of her work with deaf and backward children. Miss George spoke of hers. "Ah," said Dr. Montessori, "but are you not working with the children of the well-to-do? Tell me what you are doing for the children of the poor." Miss Zoé Bateman, secretary of the Montessori Association, explained that the Children's House in which the conference was held was a free school, supported by contributions. "It is very hard to get the work taken up by the public schools," said Margaret Naumberg. "We have just secured permission to establish a class in Public School 4. It was only possible because of the enthusiasm of the principal, Simon Hirsdansky, for Dr. Montessori's work. "Until the work is developed by the Board of Education it cannot be carried very far among the poor, for teachers must live as well as teach." "It is easier to teach the children of the poor," said Dr. Montessori. "They are more eager to learn." "Oh, no" cried her pupils in chorus, "The children who have better homes, better food and better care learn much faster than the poorer children." "I had a group of poor children last winter, and a group of well-to-do children this winter," said Margaret Naumberg, "and the latter learned in six weeks more than the former learned in a year.""

Language: English

ISSN: 1941-0646

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Influences of Multisensory Experience on Subsequent Unisensory Processing

Available from: University of California eScholarship

Publication: Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 2

Pages: Article 264

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Abstract/Notes: Multisensory perception has been the focus of intense investigation in recent years. It is now well-established that crossmodal interactions are ubiquitous in perceptual processing and endow the system with improved precision, accuracy, processing speed, etc. While these findings have shed much light on principles and mechanisms of perception, ultimately it is not very surprising that multiple sources of information provides benefits in performance compared to a single source of information. Here, we argue that the more surprising recent findings are those showing that multisensory experience also influences the subsequent unisensory processing. For example, exposure to auditory-visual stimuli can change the way that auditory or visual stimuli are processed subsequently even in isolation. We review three sets of findings that represent three different types of learning ranging from perceptual learning, to sensory recalibration, to associative learning. In all these cases exposure to multisensory stimuli profoundly influences the subsequent unisensory processing. This diversity of phenomena may suggest that continuous modification of unisensory representations by multisensory relationships may be a general learning strategy employed by the brain.

Language: English

DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00264

ISSN: 1664-1078

Report

The Evaluation and Implications of Research with Young Handicapped and Low-Income Children at the Institute for Research on Exceptional Children at the University of Illinois

Available from: ERIC

Americas, Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, North America, Poor children, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This study to determine effects of preschool training of mentally retarded children from low-income families asks three major questions: 1. Does preschool training displace the rate of development of such children? 2. Does rate of growth continue at an accelerated rate, or does it return to the original rate of development during primary school years? 3. Are the results similar for children living in different environments? Five intervention programs are outlined: 1. Traditional nursery school; 2. Community Integrated program; 3. The Montessori method; 4. Karnes structured cognitive plan; and 5. The Bereiter-Englemann(B-E). As a result of the program, some children in the demonstration center no longer function in the retarded range. Behavior has improved and several have entered a public school or preschool for normal children. It is suggested that mothers of infants might accomplish more at home with guidance, since professional tutoring is not feasibly practical, and children with higher IQ need special early programming to attain their potential. (RG)

Language: English

Published: Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, 1973

Article

Making Sense of Every Child

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 18, no. 4

Pages: 40-47

Asperger's syndrome in children, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Attention-deficit-disordered children, Autism in children, Children with disabilities, Depression in children, Inclusive education, Oppositional defiant disorder in children, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: This article presents an example of two boys who have received a list of diagnoses including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), autism, Asperger's syndrome, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and clinical depression. Both boys received a variety of interventions ranging from behavior modification plans to counseling and medication, but it was not until their behaviors were examined from a sensory integration perspective that a clear, consistent picture of each of them began to emerge. Sensory integration (SI) is neurobiological activity within our bodies, defined as the way the central nervous system processes information from the senses. Sensory integration is the brain and nervous system's ability to organize the sensory information that bombard a person's nervous systems. When sensations flow into the brain in an organized or integrated manner, these sensations can be used by an individual to form perceptions and create learning experiences. Dysfunction occurs when the nervous system is unable to integrate incoming information smoothly, resulting in the misinterpretation of information and roadblocks to creating appropriate perceptions, behaviors, and learning experiences. In this article, the authors explain how sensory integration affects behavior and the interventions to promote sensory integration for all children. (Contains 1 table.)

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

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