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Book Section

Addressing Classism in Early Childhood Education: How Social-Class Sensitive Pedagogy and the Montessori Method Can Work Together

Available from: Emerald Insight

Book Title: Discussions on Sensitive Issues (Advances in Early Education and Day Care, vol. 19)

Pages: 113-135

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Abstract/Notes: Classist perspectives embedded in our meritocratic society permeate early childhood education. Curricula, instructional practices, and classroom interactions have the potential to send messages to children about who and what is valued by society; frequently influenced by the characteristics and abilities of a middle-class child. In order to best serve the needs and abilities of children from any social class, early childhood educators should be well versed in social-class sensitive pedagogy, a pedagogy that helps teachers to be inclusive of social class diversity in their classrooms. This chapter argues that aspects of Montessori theory, such as the four planes of development and the prepared adult, complement social-class sensitive pedagogy in ways that all early childhood educators may apply to their own teaching.

Language: English

ISBN: 978-1-78560-293-1 978-1-78560-292-4

Article

Topics: Motoric Skill Enhancement, Social Class Effects, and Teacher Interactions: Their Power

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 10, no. 4

Pages: 10

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Abstract/Notes: Reviews of 4 research studies

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Book

Creating the Multi-Age Classroom: Organization, Curriculum, Instructional Strategies and Assessment for the Multi-Age Classroom Plus Considerations for Getting Started and Techniques for Classroom Management

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Abstract/Notes: Intended for teachers who have asked for information on how to manage a multi-age classroom, this book outlines the ideal classroom as it exists when all of the multi-age components are put in place. Opening sections of the guide discuss creating the multi-age classroom, and the advantages and principles of multi-age instruction. The next sections provide overviews of classroom organization, instructional strategies, curriculum, assessment and evaluation, and getting started. Each of these sections includes the overview, results of the changes brought about by multi-age instruction, and advice from the experts. Additional sections address scheduling, grouping strategies, working with Bloom's taxonomy, projects for active learners, using novels for literature instruction, and helping children discover themselves and others. Separate sections address the management of mathematics, authentic assessment and evaluation, and student record forms, with sample forms included. A glossary of

Language: English

Published: Edmonds, Washington: CATS Publications, Apr 1995

Edition: Revised

ISBN: 1-886753-03-2

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

The Effects of the Implementation of the Conscious Discipline Program on Social Emotional Learning in an Early Childhood Classroom

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research

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Abstract/Notes: This study investigates the efficacy of Conscious Discipline’s teaching strategies to enrich social-emotional learning and establish a positive classroom climate in an early childhood Montessori classroom. Conscious Discipline is a written program, of instructional and behavioral strategies created by Dr. Becky Bailey (2011). The question throughout this research project was “Does teaching Conscious Discipline strategies enhance social-emotional learning in preschool aged children?” The study was conducted in a Montessori classroom, the participants being both boys and girls ranging in age from 3 to 4 years. For six weeks, Conscious Discipline strategies were being implemented on a day-to-day basis, when dealing with real-life incidents in the classroom, reading books purchased through Conscious Discipline and establishing a Safe Place. During this sixweek study data was gathered through observations, a pre-survey, and a standardized assessment, and analyzed to document the effects of Conscious Discipline. The data collected demonstrated an increase in social-emotional learning, an increase in the joy in teaching, a positive classroom climate, a decrease in aggressive acts, and an increase in student respect and responsibility in a social community.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2014

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Non solo seggioline e tavolini: il valore sociale della proposta di Maria Montessori [Not just small chairs and tables: the social value of Maria Montessori's proposal]

Available from: Educação (UFSM)

Publication: Educação (UFSM), vol. 43, no. 4

Pages: 641-654

Europe, Italy, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: Il contributo ha un taglio storico con attenzione all’attualità e si occupa della pedagogia montessoriana, che è recentemente al centro di un dibattito vivace in Italia e di nuove sperimentazioni. Esso vuole mostrare il notevole valore etico e sociale presente nella proposta di Maria Montessori: un valore che attualmente è un po’ trascurato a livello divulgativo, perché la concezione montessoriana viene ridotta in alcuni casi a un metodo didattico (arredi a misura di bambino, materiali scientifici, maestra unica). Per questo motivo, l’autrice del contributo analizza il Discorso inaugurale in occasione dell’apertura di una Casa dei bambini nel 1907, scritto e pronunciato da Maria Montessori, focalizzandosi su alcuni temi. Il primo tema è quello degli spazi: il Discorso mette in luce come Montessori pensava al valore simbolico e sociale delle Case dei bambini e alla loro importanza per il recupero di situazioni di degrado e di miseria. Il secondo tema è quello del profilo professionale della maestra: le parole di Montessori mostrano come l’insegnante ha una importante funzione sociale ed è la persona che cresce i futuri cittadini favorendone la consapevolezza critica attraverso una relazione fondata sull’autonomia. Una rilettura dell’opera montessoriana in questa luce ci sprona anche a rivedere le proposte di altri pensatori della nostra storia culturale non come metodi didattici, pur innovativi e interessanti, ma anche e soprattutto nel loro messaggio sociale. Questa prospettiva appare sempre più urgente e doverosa in un’epoca come la nostra, che si trova ad affrontare problemi molto gravi riguardo alle condizioni dell’infanzia. [The contribution has a historical focus with attention to current affairs and deals with Montessori education, which has recently been at the centre of a lively debate in Italy and new experiments. It wants to show the remarkable ethical and social value present in the proposal of Maria Montessori: a value that is currently somewhat neglected at the level of popularization because the Montessori concept is reduced in some cases to an educational method (child-friendly furnishings, materials and methods, single teacher). For this reason, the author of the contribution analyzes the inaugural speech on the occasion of the opening of a Children's Home in 1907, written and pronounced by Maria Montessori, focusing on some themes. The first theme is that of spaces: the Discourse highlights how Montessori thought of the symbolic and social value of the homes of children and their importance for the recovery of situations of degradation and misery. The second theme is that of the professional profile of the teacher: the words of Montessori show how the teacher has an important social function and is the person who grows future citizens, encouraging critical awareness through a relationship based on autonomy. A reinterpretation of the Montessori work in this light also encourages us to review the proposals of other authors of our cultural history not as educational methods, although innovative and interesting, but also and above all in their social message. This perspective appears ever more urgent and necessary in our age, which is facing very serious problems concerning the conditions of childhood.]

Language: Italian

DOI: 10.5902/1984644434579

ISSN: 1984-6444

Conference Paper

Positive Socialization in an Educational Inclusion Group of a Montessori Elementary School

Available from: IATED Digital Library

8th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of the present work was to foster positive socialization in a multilevel group of a Montessori elementary school comprised by 20 students between 9 and 12 years old and many students with Special Education Needs. Positive socialization refers to the group of behaviors to aid the more vulnerable and concern for the others (Rudolph, 2000). It is important to nurture these behaviors during the school age since this is the stage where students require them to foster healthy coexistence and cooperation, as well as respect for differences and diversity among peers, which is closely related to educational inclusion, which premise is to make a school for all, for which the creation of spaces where coexistence and differences acceptance are nurtured taking into account the needs of each student (Romera, 2008). The Elementary Education Syllabus in Mexico mentions the inclusion principle, which emphasizes the teaching of values, attitudes and behaviors towards helping the others (Secretary of Public Education, 2011). Under this perspective, a traditional empirical quantitative applied field study was conducted. The design was of only one group, with two pretest-posttest measurings in which also 5 teachers participated in the group activities. The group was assessed in Positive socialization by means of the Socialization Battery BAS-3 by Silva and Martorell (1987) which defines a child’s profile by five factors. The pretest results indicated five subjects obtained a scoring below the mean value in the Concern for the others scale, this meant the subjects had little social sensitivity or concern for others. In addition, the Inclusive Practices in the Classroom Evaluation Guideline in its observation and self-report version by Garcia, Romero and Escalante (2009) was applied, which allowed to measure the levels of educational inclusion in the group. The results determined that four teachers obtained a scoring below the mean value in the planning area scale. Based on the pretest results obtained from both instruments, an intervention program was designed based on the Cooperative play proposal by Garaigordobil (2004), to foster prosocial behaviors, while the decision taking according to the students’ needs were worked with the teachers. At the end of the intervention, a posttest was applied to the group and the results indicated a significant increment in the positive socialization, especially, the behaviors towards helping the others in the students with the lowest scores from the pretest; teachers planning also improved to achieve a more inclusive environment in the group. The results were validated with the non-parametric Wilcoxon test using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

Language: English

Published: Barcelona, Spain: International Academy of Technology, Education and Development (IATED), 2016

Pages: 7934-7941

DOI: 10.21125/edulearn.2016.0741

ISBN: 978-84-608-8860-4

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

Modeling Grace and Courtesy in a Montessori Classroom and Its Influence on Children’s Social Behavior

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, Grace and courtesy, Lower elementary

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Abstract/Notes: It has long been known that teachers have a large influence on students, however, little is known about the effect that teachers may have on students’ ability to develop positive social behaviors. Accordingly, there is a need to collect data regarding the effect that a teacher modeling grace and courtesy may have on how students interact with their peers and teachers. Therefore, the purpose of this action research is to analyze the effects of intentional teacher role modeling of grace and courtesy on children’s social behaviors. A classroom of 24 lower elementary, mixed age children from five to eight years old were observed for six weeks in the mornings of every school day to see if demonstrating and modeling grace and courtesy would affect children’s interactions with peers and teachers. An observation log for frequency-count was used to record negative instances of behaviors related to grace and courtesy. Results indicated a positive relationship between children’s social behaviors and teachers modeling grace and courtesy in the classroom. The two conclusions are that children were not sensitive regarding improvements in their social behaviors, and children can be influenced to exhibit positive social behaviors by teachers. Implications of this action research paper show that for children to learn positive social behaviors, teachers should be patient and consistent when modeling, reinforcing, and encouraging children to behave with grace and courtesy.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2019

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

The Effects of Teacher-Centered Coaching on Whole-Class Transitions in a Montessori Lower Elementary Classroom

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, Lower elementary, Montessori method of education

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this action research project was to explore what effects one-on-one coaching would have on whole class transition times. The transitions in question were in a class of first through third graders moving from the period of class-time consisting of individual or small-group work choices to the whole class gathering in order to move on to the next activity, such as circle time in preparation for lining up to head to another part of the school building for Specials classes or lunch or to recess. Mostly this consisted of cleaning up the classroom and gathering as a whole group at circle time. Individually coaching the teacher in implementing specific techniques from No-Nonsense Nurturing® (NNN) online training platform could affect the quality and length of time of identified whole class transitions. Coaching techniques consisted of one-on-one meetings between coach and teacher for identifying through observation, learning through online training and coaching conversations, and planning improvements with the coach as partner. The data collection utilized pre- and postintervention questionnaires, daily time tracker tally sheets, daily phrase tracker tally sheets, and weekly discussion questionnaires. Participation in the coaching cycle was found to improve the teacher’s understanding of NNN as a tool to increase the teacher-student relationships. This, in turn, increases efficiency in whole-class transition times.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2020

Doctoral Dissertation

Empathy, Social Problem-Solving, and the Social Behavior of Preschoolers

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: A social skills intervention was implemented at two suburban preschools. The purpose of the intervention was to develop subjects' empathic and social problem-solving skills to test whether this training would increase prosocial behavior in class. In addition, the study compared the effectiveness of two teaching methods in promoting cognitive and affective skills: training using role playing and discussion-based training. The subjects were 45 children of both sexes between the ages of four-and-one-half to five-and-one-half years. At each school, teachers led one of three training groups: empathy and problem-solving using role playing; the same training using discussion; home and outdoor safety training, which served as an attention-control group. Training sessions were conducted for 15 to 20 minutes, three times a week for six weeks. Pre- and post-intervention empathy, role-taking, problem-solving scores, observational behavior ratings, and teacher ratings using the Devereux scales were administered. Results of pre-testing revealed expected, significant associations between cognitive and affective skills and between these abilities and subjects' social behavior, with empathy showing the strongest associations. Responses to affective measures, however, did not prove to be consistent across emotions. Empathic and role-taking responses to anger and fear stimuli were unrelated to responses to happiness and sadness stimuli, yet were associated most strongly with observed and rated social behaviors. No significant differences in gain scores emerged across the three treatment groups on outcome measures, although gains in cognitive and affective skills correlated significantly with behavioral improvement. The most likely reasons for this lack of training effects across groups were: all children were from a higher SES background and displayed fewer behavioral problems than subjects used by many other studies in this area; children at one setting (a Montessori program) were much less receptive to a group social skills approach; the small sample size provided insufficient statistical power to assess small effects. Implications of the study's findings for future measurement and training of empathy and social problem-solving skills were discussed.

Language: English

Published: Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1983

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Representaciones sociales de la violencia generada por el conflicto armado colombiano en estudiantes víctimas, de la institución educativa municipal Montessori del municipio de Pitalito-Huila [Social Representations of Violence Generated by the Colombian Armed Conflict in Student Victims of the Municipal Montessori Educational Institution in the Municipality of Pitalito, Huila]

Available from: Universidad de San Buenaventura (Colombia)

Publication: El Ágora USB: Revista de Ciencias Sociales, vol. 19, no. 2

Pages: 372-386

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Abstract/Notes: La presente investigación tiene como propósito identificar las representacionessociales hacia la violencia, de los estudiantes de la institución educativamunicipal Montessori del Municipio de Pitalito Huila. Los estudiantes, a pesarde que tienen información de los hechos violentos a partir de sus familias,reflejan representaciones sociales hacia la violencia con imágenes de muerte,asesinato, manipulación y privación, por cuanto fueron movilizados desus asentamientos originales por los grupos armados. Igualmente, se percibeninterpretaciones cognitivas de sentimientos de tristeza y miedo hacia laviolencia y deducen que la paz podría ser una opción para evitar estas situaciones.Con respecto a las relaciones sociales u opinión del entorno hacialos hechos de violencia, los entrevistados expresaron que el entorno hizocaso omiso de la situación y los medios de comunicación nunca expresaronapoyos hacia las víctimas. [The purpose of this research is to identify the social representations towardviolence, of the students of the Municipal Montessori Educational Institution of the Municipality of Pitalito, Huila. Although, the students have information on violent events from their families, they reflect social representations toward violence with images of death, murder, manipulation, anddeprivation, as they were mobilized from their original settlements by armedgroups. Similarly, cognitive interpretations of feelings of sadness and fearof violence are perceived and infer that peace could be an option to avoidthese situations. With regard to the social relationships or opinion of theenvironment toward acts of violence, the interviewees expressed that theenvironment overlooked the situation, and the media never expressed support for the victims.]

Language: Spanish

DOI: 10.21500/16578031.4394

ISSN: 2665-3354

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