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Doctoral Dissertation

A Comparison of Academic Achievement of Students Taught by the Montessori Method and by Traditional Methods of Instruction in the Elementary Grades

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: The problem of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference between the academic achievement scores of students in grades 2 through 5 who are taught with the Montessori method of instruction and those students who are taught with traditional methods of instruction in the Helena Public Schools. Analyses used a two-way ANOVA; method and gender as well as method and aptitude were examined. The level of significance was set at alpha =.05. A matching technique was used to match Montessori students with students from traditional classrooms by the independent variables of grade, aptitude, gender, socioeconomic conditions, and handicapping conditions. The study also examined if there was a significant difference between the aptitude of all students in Montessori classrooms and all students in traditional classrooms. The population studied was second, third, fourth, and fifth grade students during the spring of 1996. A total of 120 students was used in the study of academic achievement. There were 145 F-tests conducted in this study. At the second grade level, students from traditional classrooms scored significantly higher than students in Montessori classrooms in mathematics computation and mathematics concepts and applications. Also at the second grade, when aptitude was taken into consideration, Montessori low aptitude students scored significantly higher in vocabulary than low aptitude students in traditional classrooms. There were no significant findings in any of the subtests at the third and fourth grade levels. At the fifth grade level, Montessori students scored significantly higher in language expression and social studies. Interaction was found with aptitude in language expression and with gender in science. A comparison of the aptitude of all Montessori students to all students from traditional classrooms revealed that Montessori students scored significantly higher. The overall results of this study show that the Montessori method of instruction and the traditional method of instruction provide students with comparable achievement test scores. A longitudinal study is recommended to examine the long-term effects of academic achievement of those students taught by the Montessori method of instruction.

Language: English

Published: Bozeman, Montana, 1997

Doctoral Dissertation

A Comparison of Student Achievement, Student Self-Concept, and Parental Attitude Toward Traditional and Montessori Programs in a Public School Setting

Available from: University of North Texas Digital Library

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Abstract/Notes: This study investigates differences in academic achievement and self-concept of students enrolled in a traditional public school program and a public school Montessori program. The attitudes of parents of students are also compared. The population includes 182 experimental and control kindergarten, first-, second-, and third-grade students in a Texas metropolitan school district. Academic pretest and posttest data include scores on the Bilingual Syntax Measure, Metropolitan Readiness Tests, California Achievement Tests, and the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. The McDaniel-Piers Young Children's Self Concept Scale and the Parent Opinion Survey were also administered. A two-way analysis of covariance was used to analyze pretest and posttest academic achievement and self-concept scores, and to test for possible interaction between the programs and the sex variable. The pretest score was used as the covariate. The means of both parent groups were analyzed using the t test for two independent samples. The .05 level of significance was used to test each hypothesis. First-grade traditional students had significantly higher academic achievement scores than first-grade Montessori students. A significant interaction effect at the first-grade level revealed that traditional males had the highest adjusted mean score for academic achievement and Montessori males had the lowest adjusted mean score. Second-grade traditional students showed a significant increase over second-grade Montessori students in self-concept. No significant difference was found in the attitude of parents of students enrolled in both programs. Conclusions based on this investigation are that more similarities than differences are evident between the two programs, differences in academic achievement and interaction effects and sex appeared at only one grade level, differences in self-concept appeared at only one grade level, and parent attitudes are similar. Recommendations include continuation of the Montessori program evaluation and replication using a larger population, different grade levels, and different socioeconomic levels.

Language: English

Published: Denton, Texas, 1982

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Design and Validation of Learning Sequences of PGSD Sanata Dharma University Student to Teach the Fraction Concept for Primary Student Using Montessori Manipulatives

Available from: Institute of Physics

Publication: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1470

Pages: 012083

Asia, Australasia, Efficacy, Indonesia, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Fraction concept is one of the learning problems that often occurs in elementary students. Elementary student’s misconceptions can be caused by teacher’s misconceptions. PGSD students are teacher candidates, so they must have the correct concept then they can teach the concept of fractions correctly too. Learning must be an inspiration for students when they become teachers later. One medium that can be used to teach fraction concepts is media based on Montessori. Local culture can support the use of Montessori media. This study aims to design and validate the learning sequence of PGSD Students in using Montessori media, to develop design principles to teach fraction concepts in elementary school students. The approach in this research is design research which includes three phases, namely design, trial and assessment. In the design phase, researchers formulate students’ prior knowledge and learning objectives. This is used as the basis for the sequence of learning. This stage of learning is evaluated in a repeat trial phases, the hypothesis design principle is developed and from which the learning stages are redesigned. The results of the assessment phase, together with the experience of the previous cycle and research review, are used to perfect the design principles of the student’s learning sequences so they can teach the concept of fractions correctly. From: The 7th South East Asia Design Research International Conference (SEADRIC 2019) 25-27 July 2019, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Language: English

DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1470/1/012083

ISSN: 1742-6596

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

Mathematical Literacy: The Effects of Mathematics Journals on Student Understanding of Fractions in a Montessori Classroom

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, Upper elementary

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Abstract/Notes: It is a typical Monday morning. As students enter the classroom wearing brightly colored polo shirts embroidered with the school logo, their smiles are equally bright. This Title I public school in the heart of the city where 96% of the students qualify for free or reduced lunch has recently opened a Montessori option. Walking into the classroom, one 5th grade student eagerly asks, “Who’s on the bread committee this week?” Baking bread is a weekly occurrence in the upper elementary (4th – 6th grade) Montessori classroom. During the first week of school, this same student vehemently threw materials to the floor declaring, “I HATE fractions!” In an effort to positively engage students in mathematics, the weekly bread-making tradition was implemented. Through cooking, students experience the importance of fractions in everyday life. Each week, two students work together, read several recipes, select one, and submit a precise written list of needed ingredients. The next day, with the aid of a bread machine bought for $10 at the local thrift store, the students work together to follow directions, read fractions, measure ingredients, and bake bread. Once baked, students divide the bread into equal portions and serve. After several months of this routine, some recipes will need to be doubled or halved, and on it goes… The bread committee provides a “hook” for some resistant students. It is also a practical application of the role of literacy in mathematics. The choice to focus on mathematical literacy and the effect of journaling on student understanding was influenced by research around mathematical vocabulary as well as the instructional practices of noted educators and researchers. The rigor of upper elementary math as defined in the common core requires students to not only perform calculations with accuracy, but to demonstrate strong reading comprehension through the interpretation of real-world word problems, and to articulate an understanding of MATHEMATICAL LITERACY 3 mathematical reasoning through clear and concise writing. Achieving grade level proficiency has practical life implications for students because research showed mathematical knowledge during elementary school as a strong predictor of financial stability in adulthood, and understanding fractions in fifth grade as a predictor of overall achievement in mathematics (Siegler & Lortie-Forgues, 2015).

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2019

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Differences in Mathematics Scores Between Students Who Receive Traditional Montessori Instruction and Students Who Receive Music Enriched Montessori Instruction

Available from: University of California eScholarship

Publication: Journal for Learning Through the Arts, vol. 3, no. 1

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Abstract/Notes: While a growing body of research reveals the beneficial effects of music on education performance the value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized. If research of students in the school system indicates that learning through the arts can benefit the ‘whole’ child, that math achievement scores are significantly higher for those students studying music, and if Montessori education produces a more academically accomplished child, then what is the potential for the child when Montessori includes an enriched music curriculum? The decision to support music cannot be made without knowing music’s effect on academic achievement and its contribution to a student’s education. This study was an experimental design using a two-group post-test comparison. A sample of 200 Montessori students aged 3-5 years-old were selected and randomly placed in one of two groups. The experimental treatment was an “in-house” music enriched Montessori program and children participated in 3 half-hour sessions weekly, for 6 months. The instrument used to measure mathematical achievement was the Test of Early Mathematics Ability-3 (Barody & Ginsburg) to determine if the independent variable, music instruction had any effect on students’ math test scores. The results showed that subjects who received music enriched Montessori instruction had significantly higher math scores and when compared by age group, 3 year-old students had higher scores than either the 4 year-old or 5 year-old children. This study shows that an arts-rich curriculum has a significant positive effect on young students academic achievement.This comprehensive research presents developmentally appropriate early education curriculum for children from 2 through 6 years old and addresses some of the most compelling questions about early experience, such as how important music is to early brain development. Contemporary theories and practices of music education including strategies for developing pitch, vocal, rhythmic, instrumental, listening, movement and creative responses in children are presented. It explores the interrelationship of music and academic development in children, and demonstrates how music can enhance and accelerate the learning process. This study combines the best of research and practical knowledge to give teachers the necessary tools to educate tomorrow's musicians. It is essential reading for all students and teachers of young children.

Language: English

DOI: 10.21977/D93110059

ISSN: 1932-7528

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Teachers' and University Students' Evaluation of Chosen Didactic Materials According to the Maria Montessori Pedagogy / Učiteljska i studentska procjena odabranoga didaktičkog materijala prema pedagogiji Marije Montessori

Available from: University of Zagreb

Publication: Croatian Journal of Education - Hrvatski časopis za odgoj i obrazovanje, vol. 17, no. 3

Pages: 755-782

Cosmic education, Croatia, Europe, Montessori materials, Montessori schools, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: The goal of this research was to explore teachers' and university students' perceptions of material, cognitive and affective-motivational characteristics as well as the acceptance of didactic materials used in Montessori schools. It has been found that both teachers and university students are not familiar enough with alternative pedagogical concepts and believe there's an insufficient number of them in Croatia. While teachers prefer Cosmic Education and Mathematics materials, university students like Language Education materials more, although teachers show more willingness to use Language Education materials in teaching whereas university students use Cosmic Education materials more readily. Both university students and teachers find it most demanding to make Cosmic Education materials, but they also believe such materials to be most concrete. The results have shown that both university students and teachers are more willing to use in teaching such positively evaluated examples of Montessori didactic materials, which have been explored in this research, when they believe them to be valuable, desirable, necessary and useful.

Language: English, Croatian

DOI: 10.15516/cje.v17i3.1054

ISSN: 1848-5189, 1848-5197

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

High Stakes Testing and Student Perspectives on Teaching and Learning in the Republic of Ireland

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, vol. 24, no. 4

Pages: 283-306

Assessment, Europe, Ireland, Northern Europe, Perceptions

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Abstract/Notes: There is now a well developed literature on the impact of high stakes testing on teaching approaches and student outcomes. However, the student perspective has been neglected in much research. This article draws on a mixed method longitudinal study of secondary students in the Republic of Ireland to explore the impact of two sets of high stakes examinations on student experiences. The analyses are based on surveys completed by 897 lower secondary students and 748 upper secondary students, along with 47 lower secondary and 53 upper secondary group interviews with students. Findings show the presence of impending high stakes exams results in increased workload for students, with many reporting pressure and stress. Throughout their schooling career, students clearly favour active learning approaches. However, for some students, particularly high-aspiring middle-class students, these views change as they approach the terminal high stakes exam, with many showing a strong preference for a more narrowly focussed approach to exam preparation. This article highlights how students shift from a position of critiquing exam-focused teaching methods as inauthentic to accepting such methods as representing ‘good teaching’.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/s11092-012-9154-6

ISSN: 1874-8600, 1874-8597

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

The Effects of Creating Self-Assessed Work Portfolios on Student Learning Engagement in an Upper Elementary Montessori Classroom

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, Upper elementary

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of the research was to find whether the creation of self-assessed student work portfolios would be effective in engaging students in learning opportunities and lead to self-regulated behaviors. The research project was conducted in an upper elementary classroom. The class consists of twenty-three grade four to grade six Montessori students in a private school. Ten students have had a Montessori education starting in preschool, eight students started in grade three, two were held back a year, two students started in grade four, and two students started in grade six. Fifty-two percent of the class has a form of learning difference; prominently dyslexia. Three students are on the Autism spectrum. The sources of data used in this research included observation forms, self-assessment forms, journal prompts, teacher reflection journal, and student-teacher interviews. The results indicated an increase in engagement in learning and self-regulated behaviors. This was equally evident in the students with different learning needs. Implications are that empowering students with self-assessment and choices of work improves work habits and leads to better quality of learning outcomes and engagement. Students improved the most when they combined their self-assessment with peer feedback and were given direct responsibility for the creation of their own portfolio.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2014

Doctoral Dissertation

Assessment Practices Used by Montessori Teachers of Kindergarten Through Sixth Grade Students in the United States

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Americas, Assessment, Montessori method of education - Teachers, Teachers, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This research explored student evaluation practices used by Montessori elementary teachers. The Montessori teaching method emphasized students learning at their own pace within a prepared environment where the teacher's role was somewhat different compared to traditional classroom settings. Both traditional and alternative methods of student assessment were utilized by Montessori teachers (e.g., anecdotal records, informal conferences with students, observation of students, one-to-one interview with students, checklists of lessons, demonstration of skill mastery, and standardized achievement tests). The methodology and reasoning behind student evaluation was not well understood by the educational community, and today's dynamic cultural environment demands better attention to this subject. Following a literature review of assessment practices, analysis consisted of sampling member schools of the American Montessori Society (AMS). A questionnaire was submitted to 241 eligible AMS member schools with elementary programs across the United States, and 108 responses (representing 30% of the eligible schools) were collected. The questionnaire's items (27 total questions) were refined to 16 research questions which were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. A number of results were produced. The two most prominent were: Montessori elementary teachers used more alternative than traditional methods of assessment practices; and, the factors that influenced the assessment practices used by Montessori teachers were the make up (student:teacher ratio, individual student's needs, multi-aged range) of students in the classroom and the Montessori method of education. Other results of this study included: Montessori schools used standardized achievement tests but individual respondents were not convinced they fit the Montessori method of teaching; and, the combination of non-graded report cards, anecdotal records, and student portfolios were successful reporting practices for parent teacher conference. The study concluded with identifying several areas of assessment practice where future research and professional development may benefit Montessori administrators, teachers, students, and parents.

Language: English

Published: Memphis, Tennessee, 1999

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Open for Business: Learning Economics Through Social Interaction in a Student-Operated Store

Publication: Journal of Social Studies Research, vol. 35, no. 1

Pages: 39-55

Americas, Business education, Economics education, North America, United States of America, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: This study examines teaching and learning economics and entrepreneurship through a student-run Montessori middle school store. By designing and managing a school store, students created a 'community of practice' to learn economics concepts in their daily environment. Questions guiding this study were: (a) How do students' social-interactions in a Montessori middle school student-operated business demonstrate economics content knowledge? (b) How do students' social-interactions in a Montessori middle school student-operated business demonstrate economics skills? (c) How do students' business roles in the store develop their understanding of economics principles? Findings indicate that: (1) student activities in the school store promoted learning through social interaction; (2) the type and number of business roles a student assumed created opportunities for economic learning; (3) student entrepreneurs expressed specific knowledge of economics concepts, and, (4) students' decision-making and ownership affected behavior. Additionally, features of Kohlberg's (1985) concept of Just Community supported the learning environment. This study can provide social studies teachers and teacher-educators with a model for learning economics (or social studies) concepts through a curricular-based student-run enterprise.

Language: English

ISSN: 0885-985X, 2352-2798

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