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Adaptation of the Montessori Method in Developing Visual Perception in the Special Child

Book Title: The Special Child in Century 21

Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, People with disabilities, Special education

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Language: English

Published: Seattle, Washington: Special Child Publications of the Seguin School, 1964

Master's Thesis

Montessori materyallerinin zihin engelli ve işitme engelli çocukların alıcı dil gelişiminden görsel algı düzeyine etkisi [The effect of Montessori materials on the level of visual perception from receptive language development of developmentally disabled and hearing impaired children]

Available from: Selçuk University (Turkey)

Asia, Developmentally disabled children, Hearing impaired children, Language development, Middle East, Montessori materials, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Engelli çocukların gelişmesi ve iyi yönde ilerleme kaydetmesi, devam ettikleri okullarda almış oldukları eğitim hizmetinin niteliği ile yakından ilişkisi vardır. Engelli çocuklar, diğer normal çocuklar gibi yaşamlarını bağımsız olarak sürdürebilmeleri için günlük yaşamda gerekli bazı davranışları öğrenmeleri gerekir. Engelli çocuklar görerek ve dokunarak öğrendikleri için materyal öğretiminin önemli bir yeri ve eğitici bir etkisi vardır. Pedagojinin etkili temsilcilerinden M. Montessori bu gerçeği görerek engelli çocukların bazı davranışları kolaylıkla edinebilmeleri için farklı gelişim alanlarına yönelik çeşitli materyaller geliştirmiş ve engelli çocukların duyu organlarının eğitimine ağırlık vermiştir. Bu amaçla araştırmada Montessori-Materyallerinden 'geometrik cisimlerin' işitme engelli ve zihin engelli çocukların alıcı dil becerilerinden görsel algı düzeyleri üzerinde etkili olup olmadığı saptanmak istenmiştir. Araştırmanın evreni, Konya'daki KOMMES-İşitme ve Konuşma Özürlüler Rehabilitasyon Merkezine ve EMPATİ-Zihinsel Yetersiz Çocukları Yetiştirme ve Koruma Vakfı'na devam etmekte olan ve belirlenen ön koşul becerilerinin yerine getirebilen 20 işitme engelli (on çocuk kontrol grubu-10 çocuk deney grubu olmak üzere), 20'de zihin engelli (on çocuk kontrol grubu-10 çocuk deney grubu olmak üzere), toplam 40 öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmada ön test son test kontrol gruplu model uygulanmıştır. Öğrencilerin alıcı dil becerilerinden görsel algı düzeyleri Dönmez ve arkadaşlarının (1997) dil gelişimi etkinlikleri çalışmasından yararlanılarak araştırmacı tarafından hazırlanan 5 maddelik ölçek ile ölçülmüştür. Bu maddeler; 1. tanıyabilme 2. ayırt edebilme 3. gruplayabilme 4. şekil seçme ve bulabilme 5. başka şekiller oluşturabilme Araştırmanın amacına göre ki-kare kullanılmış ve grupların ortalamaları arasındaki farklılıklar 't' testi ile yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonunda işitme engelli ve zihin engelli öğrencilerin görsel algı düzeylerine ilişkin başlangıç düzeylerine ait bulgularına bakıldığında işitme engellilerde (hem deney hem de kontrol grubunda) sonuçların anlamlı olmadığı; zihin engellilerin başlangıç düzeylerine ait bulgularına bakıldığında ise sonuçların anlamlı olduğuna varılmıştır. Başlangıç düzeyi tespitinden sonra 6 haftalık bir süreçte programın etkililiğini incelemek için Montessori-Materyali 'geometrik cisimler' uygulanmıştır. Bu süre sonunda işitme engelliler deney grubunda alıcı dil becerilerinden görsel algı düzeylerinde önemli bir değişiklik saptanmamıştır, zihin engelli deney grubunda ise görsel algı düzeylerinde önemli bir değişiklik elde edilmiştir. Her grup kendi içersinde başlangıç düzeyleri ve 6 haftalık bir süre sonunda test düzeyleri karşılaştırıldığında elde edilen bulgular ise şu şekildedir; İşitme engelli deney grubunun başlangıç düzeyini kontrol grubu ile denk olduğu, 6 haftalık uygulama sonunda da anlamlı düzeyde yüksek olmadığı saptanmıştır. Zihin engelli deney grubunun ise başlangıç düzeyi kontrol grubu ile denk olarak saptanmış, fakat 6 haftalık uygulama sonunda elde edilen sonucun anlamlı düzeyde yüksek olduğu tespit olmuştur. Kontrol gruplarına ise 6 hafta boyunca geleneksel yöntem ile öğretimlerine devam edilmiştir. 6 hafta sonra uygulanan test düzeyleriyle başlangıç düzeyleri karşılaştırıldığında manidar bir farklılık bulunmadığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. / There is a closest relation and correlation between the positive progressing for underdeveloped-spastic children and the quality of training and their educational performance that was given by their school. In order to continue and follow up their daily life by themselves just like a normal ones, they - underdeveloped children must learn some attitudes, so that underdeveloped children learn by sights and sensation. Therefore, learning by materials has a big importance and also these materials have a great training effects on their learning period. M. Montessori, who created some new approaches on pedagogy by her prescient for reality, developed new methods and created different materials focus on differentiated progressive fields of gaining attitudes and talents by underdeveloped children, hence Montessori focused on the training of senses of underdeveloped children. The purpose of this research study is determination of the effectiveness of 'geometric objects' which included by Montessori training materials, over the children's, those are deafness and mentally insufficient, receptive linguistic of the level of visual perception. The environment-space of this research study is KOMMES-Deafness And Non-Speaker Rehabilitation Center and EMPATİ-Mentally Insufficient Children Training and Protection Foundation. This experimental research study covers insufficient children follow up the courses and training of these two scholl, the selected 20 deafness children who can perform predetermined and conditioned talents (10 of these for controlling, the other 10 for experimental purposes) additionally 20 mentally insufficient children (again 10 for control and the other 10 for experimental purposes). 40 children totally were followed up. In this study Salomon's four-quadral-group model was applied and examined. Them, the students' receptive linguistic abilities through the level of visual perception - Dönmez and Ark's study of linguistic development effectiveness (1997) was measured with 5 factors scale which was prepared by researcher. These are 1. Recognition, 2. Distinguishing, 3. Sorting-Grouping, 4. Selection of figures and finding, 5. Creating the figures and forming. According to aim of this research-study, ki-square was used and the differences between the means of each group were determined by 't' test method. The results of this research study are, the beginning levels of visual perception of deafness children and of the children who are mentally insufficient; it is found that the results of deafness children-for both in control and in experimental group, are not meaningful. The findings of the level of beginning for mentally insufficient children are meaningful. After the determination of the beginning level, Geometric-three dimensional-objects from Montessori's materials method was applied in order to inspect the effectiveness of program for 6 weeks period. At the end of this period, for the experimental group of deafness children. It cannot be found that important changes on the level of visual perception of receptive linguistic talents, On the other hand, in experimental group covers the mentally insufficient children, important changes on visual perception level were found. For each group, the beginning levels of intra group and end of the 6 weeks period, comparing the group's level of test, the findings are as follow: The level of beginning for the experimental group of deafness children is equivalent to the level of beginning for the control group. After the 6 weeks experimental application, it was found that the level changes are not meaningful as much as. It was found that the level of beginning for the experimental group of mentally insufficient children is equivalent to the level of beginning for the control group these are mentally insufficient children. But, end of the 6 weeks experimental application, meaningful changes were taken from results. Along with the 6 weeks period, in controlling groups, the training and learning progress had been continued based on conventional method. End of the 6 weeks period, by the level of applied test and the level of beginning were compared. It was found that there is no valuable and notable differences between these two.

Language: Turkish

Published: Konya, Turkey, 2005

Book Section

Visual and Auditory Distinctions: Material - Solid Insets and Blocks; Perfecting the Perception of Dimensions by Sight Alone; Colour Masterials; Sensorial Knowledge of Geometry; Exercises for Distinguishing Sounds; Silence

Book Title: The Discovery of the Child

Pages: 129-152

Maria Montessori - Writings

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Abstract/Notes: Formerly entitled The Montessori Method: Scientific Pedagogy as Applied to Child Education in the Children's Houses. This book was first published in 1909 under the title 'Il Metodo della Pedagogia Scientifica Applicato all'Educazione Infantile nelle Case dei Bambini' ('The Montessori Method: Scientific Pedagogy as Applied to Child Education in the Children's Houses) and was revised in 1913, 1926, and 1935. Maria Montessori revised and reissued this book in 1948 and renamed it 'La Scoperta del Bambino'. This edition is based on the 6th Italian edition of 'La Scoperta del Bambino' published by the Italian publisher Garzanti, Milan, Italy in 1962. M. J. Costelloe, S. J. translated this Italian version into the English language in 1967 for Fides Publishers, Inc. In 2016 Fred Kelpin edited this version and added many footnotes. He incorporated new illustrations based on AMI-blueprints of the materials currently in use.

Language: English

Published: Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company, 2017

ISBN: 978-90-79506-38-5

Series: The Montessori Series , 2

Article

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Montessorı Eğitim Kurumlarındaki Çocukların Görsel Algı ve Çizim Becerileri Arasındaki İlişkinin İncelenmesi / The Examination of The Relationship Between Visual Perceptions and Drawing Skills of Children in Montessori Preschools

Available from: DergiPark Akademik

Publication: Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi / Kastamonu Education Journal, vol. 24, no. 5

Pages: 2595-2608

Asia, Drawing ability, Early childhood care and education, Middle East, Montessori method of education, Turkey, Visual perception in children, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between the visual perception and drawing skills of children in the Montessori preschools. In this regard relational secreening model was used. The study group was composed of 83 children in Montessori preschools located in Ankara province. The data of research was collected by using the Bender Gestalt Visual motor Perception Test developed by Bender (1983) and Goodenough-Harris Draw-aPerson Test developed by Goodenough and revised by Harris (1963). It was detected that as the visual perceptions of children increased, the drawing skills also increased. / Montessori eğitim kurumlarındaki okul öncesi dönem çocuklarının görsel algı ve çizim becerileri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi amaçlayan bu çalışmada ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Çalışma grubunu Ankara’da bulunan Montessori eğitim kurumlarına devam eden 83 okul öncesi dönem çocuğu oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmada araştırmacılar tarafından geliştirilen ve çocukların sosyo-demografik bilgilerini sorgulayan bilgi formu, Bender (1938) tarafından geliştirilen ve Türkçe’ye uyarlaması Yalın (1980) ve Somer (1988) tarafından yapılan “Bender-Gestalt Görsel Algı Testi” ve Goodenough (1926) tarafından geliştirilip Harris (1963) tarafından yeniden düzenlenen “Goodenough-Harris Adam Çizme Testi” kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda çocukların görsel algı ve çizim becerileri arasında pozitif yönlü düşük düzeyde anlamlı bir ilişinin var olduğu görülmüştür.

Language: Turkish

ISSN: 2147-9844

Article

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The Effect of Montessori Programme on the Motion and Visual Perception Skills of Trainable Mentally Retarded Individuals

Available from: RedFame

Publication: Journal of Education and Training Studies, vol. 7, no. 2

Pages: 120-128

Asia, Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, Middle East, Montessori method of education, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: In this research, it is aimed to examine the effects of Montessori education on the mentally retarded individuals in the special education who have had Montessori education and who have not had it. 24 trainable mentally disabled male students who had and did not have Montessori education in a private school in Kayseri participated in the study. The students were between the ages of 20-22. 12 voluntary participants constituted the experimental group who had Montessori education. The control group included 12 voluntary mentally disabled individuals. While the control group had a routine training for 8 weeks, the experimental group had Montessori education program for 8 weeks. In addition, mothers of the students in the experimental group were included in the training program. The mentally disabled individuals had movement and visual perception skills tests.When the results of the movement perception skills in the experimental and control groups were reviewed, no significant differences were found in the movement skill variables according to the values (p>0.05). While the pretest posttest values in the mentally retarded individuals in the experimental group revealed significant difference (p<0,05), no difference occurred only in the left foot balance test (p>0,05). All pretest posttest values depending on the movement revealed significant difference in the control group (p<0,05).As a result, when the effect of the Montessori program on the movement skills of trainable mentally retarded people was examined, no significant difference was found between the values of the control group, and Montessori education gave similar values as the classical education. Thus, it was concluded that it was advisable Montessori education program to be used widely. When its effect on the visual perception skills was examined, it could be stated that the posttest averages of the each visual perception sub-scale average revealed an increase except the shape-ground connection. Consequently, when the movement skills of the trainable mentally retarded individuals were reviewed, no difference was found in the control group values, and Montessori education values were similar to classical education. Therefore, it is concluded that Montessori education program should be used widely.

Language: English

DOI: 10.11114/jets.v7i2.3875

ISSN: 2324-8068

Article

Bildnerische Entfaltung des Kindes im Kinderhaus [Visual development of the child in the children's home]

Publication: Montessori: Zeitschrift für Montessori-Pädagogik, vol. 37, no. 2-3

Pages: 107-113

Children - Physiology

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Language: German

ISSN: 0944-2537

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Persepsi Jean Charlier De Gerson Dan Tuhan Yesus Kristus Mengenai Pendidikan Agama Kristen (PAK) Anak [Jean Charlier De Gerson's Perception And Lord Jesus Christ Regarding Children's Christian Education (PAK)]

Available from: Institut Agama Kristen Negeri Manado (Indonesia)

Publication: Montessori Jurnal Pendidikan Kristen Anak Usia Dini, vol. 1, no. 2

Pages: 45-57

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggali informasi mengenai persepsi Jean Charlier De Gerson dan Tuhan Yesus Kristus mengenai pelayanan anak dan bagaimana informasi tersebut berguna untuk membangun teori dan praktik Pendidikan Agama Kristen (PAK) bagi Anak di masa kini dan mendatang. Untuk mencapai tujuan penelitian ini, maka peneliti menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif  dengan pendekatan deskriptif. Melalui pengumpulan data terhadap sumber data primer dan sekunder ditemukan bahwa terdapat kesesuaian persepsi antara Jean C. D. Gerson dan Tuhan Yesus Kristus mengenai pelayanan anak. Bagi tokoh Pendidikan Agama Kristen (PAK) tersebut dan Tuhan Yesus Kristus, anak dan orang dewasa memiliki kedudukan dan nilai yang sama dalam  pelayanan. Memfokuskan diri bagi pelayanan anak / Pendidikan Agama Kristen (PAK) Anak  tidak merendahkan martabat seorang guru atau teolog. Sejatinya, pelayanan kepada anak adalah pelayanan Kristen yang tertinggi. Mendidik anak adalah kesempatan emas untuk memperoleh generasi unggul di masa mendatang.

Language: Indonesian

DOI: 10.51667/mjpkaud.v1i2.496

ISSN: 2798-6195

Article

To Save Displaced Children and Young Refugees: Montessori’s Early Initiatives for Children at Risk

Available from: Association Montessori Internationale

Publication: AMI Journal (2013-), vol. 2020

Pages: 18-25

Displaced communities, Refugees, White Cross (Croce Bianca)

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Language: English

ISSN: 2215-1249, 2772-7319

Article

Kinder lernen auch von Kindern: zur Jahrgangsmischung an Montessori-Schulen [Children also learn from children: for a mixed-age group in Montessori schools]

Publication: Montessori: Zeitschrift für Montessori-Pädagogik, vol. 37, no. 1

Pages: 20-27

Montessori method of education, Nongraded schools

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Language: German

ISSN: 0944-2537

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Making Room for Children's Autonomy: Maria Montessori's Case for Seeing Children's Incapacity for Autonomy as an External Failing

Available from: Wiley Online Library

Publication: Journal of Philosophy of Education, vol. 50, no. 3

Pages: 332-350

Maria Montessori - Philosophy

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Abstract/Notes: This article draws on Martha Nussbaum's distinction between basic, internal, and external (or combined) capacities to better specify possible locations for children's ‘incapacity’ for autonomy. I then examine Maria Montessori's work on what she calls ‘normalization’, which involves a release of children's capacities for autonomy and self-governance made possible by being provided with the right kind of environment. Using Montessori, I argue that, in contrast to many ordinary and philosophical assumptions, children's incapacities for autonomy are best understood as consequences of an absence of external conditions necessary for children to exercise capacities they already have internally, rather than intrinsic limitations based on their stage of life. In a closing section, I show how Montessori proposes a model wherein both children and adults have autonomy, power, and responsibility, but over different spheres, and suggest implications of these differences for who has responsibility for establishing the conditions under which children can flourish.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1111/1467-9752.12134

ISSN: 1467-9752

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