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Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

Bridging the Developmental Gap in the Montessori Toddler Classroom

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this research was to determine if the introduction of more developmentally appropriate materials and activities into the toddler classroom would create a more stimulating environment for the older toddlers, increase student engagement, and decrease disruptive behavior. Observations were carried out prior to the introduction of new work and after new work was implemented. This study was conducted in a toddler classroom at a private Montessori school. Children and teachers from the toddler classroom and three early childhood classrooms were included in this project. The results indicated that the older toddlers were more engaged and less disruptive after the introduction of new challenging work into the environment. However, this research was conducted early in the school year and the process of normalization likely impacted the results. Therefore, it is recommended that further research be conducted later in the school year.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2014

Article

The Origins and Development of Child-Centred Education: Implications for Classroom Management

Available from: Sabinet African Journals

Publication: Educare (South Africa), vol. 32, no. 1-2

Pages: 222-239

Africa, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - History, South Africa, Southern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Since 1994 far-reaching curriculum changes in the form of an Outcomes-based Education (OBE) approach to schooling have been put into practice in South Africa. One of the pillars of OBE is a child (learner)-centred approach, that has an impact on virtually every aspect of classroom management. The question that arises is: what is a child-centred approach and what are its implications for classroom management? This article traces the broad issues surrounding the origins of a child-centred approach and investigates the implications of the implementation of a child-centred approach for classroom management. It concludes that child-centred teaching is still more rhetoric than reality in South Africa, because of certain constraints faced by educators. Constraints educators have to deal with in their classrooms, such as class size and inadequate training label education as child-conscious rather than child-centred.

Language: English

ISSN: 0256-8829

Article

Challenging the Gaze: The Subject of Attention and a 1915 Montessori Demonstration Classroom

Available from: Wiley Online Library

Publication: Educational Theory, vol. 54, no. 3

Pages: 281-297

Americas, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - History, North America, Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915, San Francisco, California), United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The child's attention, how this attention is reasoned about, and how attention works as a surface for pedagogical intervention are central to understanding modern schooling. This article examines attention as an object of knowledge related to the organization and management of individuals. I address what we might learn about attention by studying one specific Montessori classroom, the glasswalled public demonstration set up at the 1915 San Francisco World's Fair. The pedagogy of attention on display and the spectatorship of the classroom provide an opportunity to rethink how power and subjectivity play in the formation of human attractions. I argue that thinking through Montessori offers important and relevant suggestions for present-day examinations of attention. The 1915 demonstration classroom can help us theorize the relation of attention to normalizing and governmentalizing practices. This specific study of how attention operates in one locale has implications for tactile learning theories and for the analytics of power to be used in studies of attention. -- ERIC

Language: English

DOI: 10.1111/j.0013-2004.2004.00020.x

ISSN: 0013-2004, 1741-5446

Article

Opportunities for Inquiry Science in Montessori Classrooms: Learning from a Culture of Interest, Communication, and Explanation

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: Research in Science Education, vol. 43, no. 4

Pages: 1517-1533

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Abstract/Notes: Although classroom inquiry is the primary pedagogy of science education, it has often been difficult to implement within conventional classroom cultures. This study turned to the alternatively structured Montessori learning environment to better understand the ways in which it fosters the essential elements of classroom inquiry, as defined by prominent policy documents. Specifically, we examined the opportunities present in Montessori classrooms for students to develop an interest in the natural world, generate explanations in science, and communicate about science. Using ethnographic research methods in four Montessori classrooms at the primary and elementary levels, this research captured a range of scientific learning opportunities. The study found that the Montessori learning environment provided opportunities for students to develop enduring interests in scientific topics and communicate about science in various ways. The data also indicated that explanation was largely teacher-driven in the Montessori classroom culture. This study offers lessons for both conventional and Montessori classrooms and suggests further research that bridges educational contexts.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/s11165-012-9319-9

ISSN: 1573-1898

Article

Enacting Attention: Concentration and Shared Focus in Montessori Classrooms

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 24, no. 4

Pages: 18-20,22-26

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Concentration is a "sine qua non," a hallmark, of a Montessori Casa program. Yet, it happens that some children do not concentrate. They do not engage with the materials in the classic pattern of normalization. They are not challenged by ADD, ADHD, or a variant of sensory integration spectrum disorder. Instead of working alone, they prefer the company of others; they prefer to learn with others. One may wonder if their natural intelligence is interpersonal. Based on studies of brain development and findings from recent ethnographic research, this article describes a type of attention called "shared focus." Ethnographic research was conducted in Casa classrooms, located in four Montessori schools, during a 3-year period, beginning in 2008. The research involved observing classrooms and interviewing school staff, teachers, and children. "Children who do not concentrate" was a common concern raised by the teachers in those classrooms. A review of brain development research suggests concentration is a type of attention. Children may use a type of attention called shared focus when, for example, they laugh and run together on the playground, and when they leave their parents during morning arrival. Some children may also more naturally use this type of attention instead of concentration during the work period. (Contains 1 table.)

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Doctoral Dissertation

Examining the Transition Experience of Students from Multiage Elementary Programs to Single-Grade Classrooms at the Middle School

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: Multiage programming is a school reform option used throughout the United States. Much of the current literature focuses on the short-term benefits of multiage programs, particularly at the elementary level, with little consideration for long-term effects or for what might happen to students once they leave the multiage classroom and enter middle school. While there has been significant research that generalizes the transition experience of the general population of students, there has been limited research conducted on this transition experience for this specific population, the multiage elementary student. The purpose of this simultaneous, mixed methods study was to provide an in-depth examination of the transition effects on students who transition from multiage elementary classrooms to traditional single-grade classrooms at the middle school. In this study, eight students who had previously attended multiage elementary classrooms were given the Piers-Harris 2 Children's Self Concept Scale at three points, fall, winter, and spring during their first year in middle school to assess the students' social and emotional well-being during the transition. Students were also administered a middle school transition questionnaire to identify what procedural, academic, or social issues were of concern to them. Students were interviewed about their transitional experiences. In the analysis of the data showed that the students' overall sense of self and self-esteem improved over the course of the transitional year. Student concerns with procedures, academics, and social life decreased over the course of the year. The following major categories emerged from the interviews: (a) adjusting to the structure of middle school, (b) adjusting to new academic demands, (c) managing relationships with teachers and peers, and (d) changing sense of self. The findings have implications for middle level educators, multiage classroom elementary educators and for parents.

Language: English

Published: Chicago, Illinois, 2012

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

Creating A Normalized Montessori Classroom

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, Lower elementary, Montessori method of education

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this report is to describe the findings of a study on how the implementation of the Accelerated Reader Program, use of five different management strategies, as well as the introduction of routines and rituals affects students' ability to create a normalized 1st through 3rd grade Montessori classroom. The research was conducted with a lower elementary Montessori classroom within a public school setting. More than half of the students had never experienced a Montessori environment. The data collecting methods used were a summative assessment, tally sheets, field notes, attitude scale inquiries, and semi-structured conversations with the students. The results of this research indicated only a marginal increase in a positive direction toward a normalized class. A large part of the difficulty in reaching a normalized class was due to the lack of ability to concentrate on work because of noise in the classroom. The implications of this action plan include reducing extraneous distractions, increasing positive reinforcement, and teaching more time management and self-monitoring skills.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2015

Article

Implementing the multiage classroom

Available from: ERIC

Publication: Research Roundup, vol. 13, no. 1

Pages: 1-4

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Abstract/Notes: Multiage education is the placement of children of varying ages, grades, and ability levels in the same classroom with the aim of improving learning for all of them. Teaching a multiage class requires very different knowledge and skills than teaching traditional single-grade classes. Interest in multiage education has grown in recent years, and more educators are asking for information on how and why it works, and for practical advice on implementation. Five recent publications that address these questions are reviewed in this brief: (1) "A Common-Sense Guide to Multiage Practices" (Jim Grant and Bob Johnson); (2) "Full Circle: A New Look at Multiage Education" (Pennelle Chase and Jane Doan); (3) "Multiage Portraits: Teaching and Learning in Mixed-Age Classrooms" (Charles Rathbone, Anne Bingham, Molly McClaskey, and Justine O'Keefe); (4) "Children at the Center: Implementing the Multiage Classroom" (Bruce A. Miller); and (5) "Nongraded Education: Overcoming Obstacles to Implementing the Multiage Classroom" (Joan Gaustad). (LMI)

Language: English

ISSN: 8755-2590

Article

Classroom Solutions for Sensory-Sensitive Students

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 29, no. 2

Pages: 45-49

Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, Montessori method of education, People with disabilities, Sensory disorders in children, Sensory integration dysfunction in children, Special education, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Soon after No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation was signed into law in the U.S. (2002), an increasing emphasis in schools on high-stakes testing performance resulted in a decrease in recess and movement time, including physical education for Elementary students (Ohanian, 2002). Since the hazard of unmonitored television time was first explored by Marie Winn in The Plug-In Drug (1977, revised 2002), the allure of screens too early and too often has only become an increasing challenge for both parents and educators. Providing dedicated time for movement and nature are important general guidelines for parents and educators to remember, but there are also classroom-based tools available that teachers can implement into the school day to promote sensory health and positive behaviors in their students. Some individual tools that could be set up in the classroom to be utilized by students, perhaps even as a classroom work or on a "sensory shelf," might include the following: * Hand-size fidgets and squeeze balls of varying textures and firmness levels; * Headphones (noise-canceling, silent or with music); * Lap weights; * Fine-motor activities that allow for accommodations and sensory variety (e.g., sensory table, Practical Life, and art works); * Colored glasses (to mute visual input or block flickering of fluorescent lights); * Stretch/resistance bands; * Massage balls or a foam roller; * Chewing tools (pencil toppers, pendants, gum, etc.).

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Book

How To Manage Your Multi-Age Classroom: Grades K-2

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Abstract/Notes: This guide is designed to assist teachers of multi-age K-2 classrooms in organizing and implementing their classrooms effectively. Section 1, "Understanding the Multi-Age Classroom," describes characteristics of such classrooms, including relevant classroom models, incorporating kindergarten students, grouping students, and developing specific routines. Section 2, "Using Literature," presents suggestions for using children's literature in theme-based teaching and recommends specific books. Section 3, "Language Arts," includes class activities and several forms for teachers' use. Section 4, "Math," contains suggestions for activities from the Nuffield Mathematics Project, the whole-class approach, team teaching, small groups and centers, and the laboratory method. Section 5,"Using Centers," discusses how to design effective centers and megacenters, arrange the classroom, and select materials, and presents activities for several different types of centers. Section 6, "Flannel Board

Language: English

Published: Westminster, California: Teacher Created Materials, Inc., 1996

ISBN: 1-55734-468-X

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