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Conference Paper

Montessori and Krishnamurti: A Comparison of Their Educational Philosophies and Schools in Practice in the U.S. and India

Annual Conference of the Australian Comparative and International Education Society (11th, Hamilton, New Zealand, August 21-24, 1983)

Americas, Annual Conference of the Australian Comparative and International Education Society (11th, Hamilton, New Zealand, August 21-24, 1983), Asia, Comparative education, India, Jiddu Krishnamuti - Biographic sources, Krishnamurti method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., North America, Peace education, South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: The educational philosophies of Maria Montessori and Jiddu Krishnamurti are compared and contrasted in this paper. The discussion is based on texts by both educators and direct observation of some of the schools (United States, Australia and India) where these ideas are being implemented. First, general principles of each educator are discussed. Both are said to have condemned traditional approaches to education and to have objected to the record of state involvement in education. The next three sections describe their ideas regarding: (1) how children learn and the role children should take in their own education; (2) the attributes, characteristics, and training of teachers, and the teacher-child relationship; and (3) the proper education environment, with focus on discipline, competition, evaluation, and the use of methods. In conclusion, it is said that Montessori's and Krishnamurti's philosophies have more similarities than differences. Children love being at both kinds of school. Their schools have successfully deinstitutionalized the learning process and made the teacher-pupil relationship a caring and loving one. The major difference between the two types of education is the approach to method: Krishnamurti scorns adopting a particular method while Montessori tried to design a method that was based on her observation of the "natural" child.

Language: English

Published: Bundoora, Victoria, Australia: Centre for Comparative and International Studies in Education, 1983


Montessori Pre-School Education: Final Report

Available from: ERIC

Academic achievement, Americas, Comparative education, Comparative Analysis, Early childhood education, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: In order to investigate the effectiveness of Montessori preschool education as compared with non-Montessori preschool education, Phase I of this study matched 2 groups, each of 21 preschool children, on intelligence quotient and certain socio-economic factors. One group attended a Montessori preschool and the other a non-Montessori preschool. The children were administered tests near the beginning and end of the preschool year to determine any differences in achievement due to the preschool training. In Phase II a trained researcher interviewed the primary grade teachers who by then had some of the preschool children of Phase I in their classrooms. Ratings of these teachers provided information on the personality and ability of 3 groups of children, (1) former Montessori preschool children, (2) former non-Montessori preschool children, and (3) non-preschool children. The children were rated on 8 major traits which contained 27 stimulus variables. Phase I data indicated that Montessori preschool children gained significantly more in verbal ability than non-Montessori preschool children. Phase II data indicated that Montessori children were superior to the children of the other 2 groups in reading readiness, interest in learning, independence, interpersonal relations, leadership, and learning ability. No differences were found in creativity or ability to adjust to the traditional-type school.

Language: English

Published: Washington, D.C., Jun 1967


The Advanced Montessori Method: Scientific Pedagogy as Applied to the Education of Children from Seven to Eleven Years. Volume 1, Spontaneous Activity in Education

Maria Montessori - Writings, Montessori method of education

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Language: English

Published: Oxford, England: Clio, 1991

Edition: 1st Clio ed.

ISBN: 1-85109-114-9 978-1-85109-114-0

Series: The Clio Montessori series , 9

Volume: 1 of 2


Montessori Education Theory from the Viewpoint of Philosophy of Education [part 2 of 2]

Publication: Montessori Kyōiku [Montessori Education], no. 17

Pages: 54-58

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Language: Japanese

ISSN: 0913-4220

Book Section

Kosmische Erziehung zur "Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung" - Vordereitung auf das Leben im Klimawandel [Cosmic education for "Education for Sustainable Development": preparation for life in the face of climate change]

Book Title: 100 Jahre Montessori-Kinderhaus Geschichte und Aktualität eines pädagogischen Konzepts [100 Years of the Montessori Children's Home: History and Topicality of an Educational Concept]

Pages: 253-288

Cosmic education, Sustainability

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Language: German

Published: Berlin, Germany: LIT Verlag, 2009

ISBN: 978-3-8258-1650-6

Series: Impulse der Reformpädagogik , 24


Colegio Montessori-Palau de Girona: Educación primaria - la educación cósmica [Colegio Montessori-Palau de Girona: Primary Education - Cosmic Education]

Publication: Cuadernos de Pedagogía, no. 455

Pages: 23-24

Cosmic education, Europe, Southern Europe, Spain

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Language: Spanish


Old and New Ideals in Education [a lecture delivered to the Theosophical Fraternity in Education, London, September 26th, 1916]

Available from: HathiTrust

Publication: The Herald of the Star, vol. 5, no. 11

Pages: 485-496

Curuppumullage Jinarajadasa - Speeches, addresses, etc., England, Europe, Great Britain, New Ideals in Education, Northern Europe, Theosophical Society, Theosophy, United Kingdom

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Language: English


Career Education vs. Education as a Career

Publication: American Montessori Society Bulletin, vol. 15, no. 4

Pages: 1-11

Career education, Teaching, ⛔ No DOI found

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Language: English

ISSN: 0277-9064


Research and early childhood education programs in the city of Baroda

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: International Journal of Early Childhood, vol. 11, no. 2

Pages: 176-181

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Abstract/Notes: The growth of the preschool education movement has been a result of the growing recognition of the needs of young children, the need to be provided with a rich and wholesome environment which is conducive to, and promotes the all round development of the child. Prior to 1947, very little attention was paid to preschool education in our country, even by the Government, and preschool was not considered a state responsibility. The Central Advisory Board of Education on Post-War Educational Development (1944) was the first body to recognise the need for preschool education. The report of the Committee emphasised its significance and recommended that an adequate provision of pre-primary education should be an essential adjunct of a National System of Education. The development of preschool education, during the pre-independence period, was rather slow in the country as a whole, but due to the influence of a number of workers inspired by the work of Madam Montessori, pioneering work in the field was undertaken in the state of Gujarat.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/BF03176567

ISSN: 0020-7187, 1878-4658


'Cosmic education', the Cornerstone of Montessori education

Conferences, Cosmic education, Eva-Maria Tebano Ahlquist - Speeches, addresses, etc.

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Language: English

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