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Report

Report of a Research and Demonstration Project for Culturally Disadvantaged Children in the Ancona Montessori School

Available from: ERIC

Academic achievement, Classroom environment, Early childhood education, Classroom environment

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Abstract/Notes: A preschool experience was provided for lower-income negro children, and then their gains or losses in IQ and social integration were evaluated in terms of the type of the teaching method used. Thirty lower-income negro children and 17 middle-income negro and white children were separated into three groups and exposed to three teaching methods. Class one was unintegrated (all lower-income negro children) and non-Montessorial in methodology. It was the most unrestricted in terms of teacher control. Class two as integrated and non-Montessorial, but teacher control and restriction was more evident. Class three was integrated and Montessorial. The pupils here were the most disciplined and controlled. A thorough study was made of these classroom procedures, teaching techniques, and pupil activities. The results of the Stanford Binet intelligence tests showed no significant iq gain among the groups or within a group from test one at the beginning of the eight-week summer session to test two at the end of the session. But individual gains appeared. These were found to be an inverse function of distractibility. A winter pre-school session, with new pupils and using only the Montessori method, resulted in IQ gains. This was attributed to an improved classroom atmosphere. In general, the sessions did increase the children's readiness to begin school work and helped them to gain social confidence. Encouraging parental interest and participation was a collateral aspect of the programs. (WD)

Language: English

Published: Washington, D.C., 1966

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Benefits of Good Shepherd Catechesis Among Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Kenya

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: Journal of Religious Education, vol. 66, no. 3

Pages: 225-234

Africa, Children with disabilities, East Africa, Inclusive education, Kenya, Learning disabilities, People with disabilities, Sub-Saharan Africa

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Abstract/Notes: Since Martin Luther, religious education has largely been identified with catechism that used question and answer method, particularly in the Catholic church. For a person with intellectual disability, this offers a grave difficulty in religious formation. Could there be alternatives? The present study aimed at exploring the benefits of Catechesis of the Good Shepherd (CGS) for children living with intellectual disabilities. The participants were 23 children and nine care-givers in a Catholic context in Kenya. Observation guides and interviews were used to collect data that showed that children with intellectual disabilities had the ability to spontaneously relate with the spiritual world, and in some cases, with Jesus. The findings confirmed that the CGS offers children with special needs the space, tools, and time to get in touch with the Divine through witnessing to the narrative of the Word.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/s40839-018-0069-5

ISSN: 2199-4625

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

You Don’t Need to Speak to be Heard: The Effects of Using American Sign Language with Hearing Lower Elementary Montessori Children

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, American Sign Language (ASL), Language acquisition, Montessori method of education

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Abstract/Notes: Our research introduced the use of ASL signs with hearing elementary children and examined if this intervention affected the noise level produced in the classroom. The project was performed in two Montessori lower elementary classrooms (1st-3rd grade); one at a Maine private Montessori school, with 28 hearing children, and one at a Wisconsin public Montessori school, with 34 hearing children. In Wisconsin the researcher was a teacher in the classroom, in Maine the researcher was not. Data was measured using four tools: a decibel measuring app, observation form, tally sheet, and a structured discussion. In both classrooms, the change in noise level was minimal, decreasing by 2% overall. Qualitative results, however, indicate the project was worthwhile. The children responded positively to instructions given using ASL and their enthusiasm of learning signs justified the intervention. The intervention granted the children opportunities to discuss exceptionalities. We recognized the importance in such conversations and encouraged this dialogue.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2019

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Master Gardener Classroom Garden Project: An Evaluation of the Benefits to Children

Available from: JSTOR

Publication: Children's Environments, vol. 12, no. 2

Pages: 256-263

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: The Master Gardener Classroom Garden Project provides many inner-city children in the San Antonio Independent School District with an experiential way of learning about horticulture, gardening, themselves, and their relationships with their peers. To evaluate the benefits of participation in the Classroom Garden Project, data was collected on 52 second and third grade students. Qualitative interviews indicate that participation in the gardening project has had many positive effects on the school children. The children have gained pleasure from watching the products of their labor flourish, and have had the chance to increase interactions with their parents and other adults. In addition, the children have learned the anger and frustration that occur when things of value are harmed out of neglect or violence.

Language: English

DOI: 10.2307/41503434

ISSN: 2051-0780

Article

The Effect of Using Montessori Method on Developing Kindergartener's Speaking and Reading skills

Available from: The Egyptian Knowledge Bank

Publication: مجلة التربية في القرن 21 للدراسات التربوية والنفسية [Journal of Education in the 21st Century for Educational and Psychological Studies], vol. 1, no. 10

Pages: 1-23 (Article 3)

Africa, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Egypt, Language development, Middle East, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, North Africa, Reading - Academic achievement

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Abstract/Notes: play and have fun, the learning and teaching processes should be suited totheir nature. There is a number of known interesting learning activitieswhich are based on the arts, games and other oral activities. Thus Englishshould be taught as a means of communication and researchers should dotheir best to help EFL learners to develop their reading and speaking skills.Ur (2000: 12) declared that "out of all the four skills ,listening,speaking, reading and writing, speaking seems the most important, peoplewho speak a language are known as speakers of the language, as if speakingincluded all other kinds of knowing a target language" Today, many secondlanguage learners give the speaking skill priority in their learning because ifthey master this skill then they will be considered as if they have masteredall of the other skills.The importance of speaking is best shown with the integration of theother language skills. For instance, speaking can help students develop theirvocabulary and grammar and improve their writing skill. Ability to read isthe primary fundamental skill required for children to achieve academicsuccess. Currently, the expectation is that all children should begin readingearly and be able to read on grade level by third grade (U.S. Department ofEducation, 2002)Another way that speaking and reading are connected is throughdecoding .decoding is the process of pulling apart the sounds that each(1)letter makes, and then putting them back together to make a word.it is mucheasier for a child to sound out a word on the page that they have alreadyheard in conversation, than a completely new word. There less informationto process since the meaning and the pronunciation of the word are alreadyknown. A child who has heard more words spoken is at an advantage whenlearning to read, the skill of reading is special and often difficult to acquire.the fact that anyone learns how to read is something of a miracle. Learningto read is different from learning to speak; in the development of humanhistory, speaking precedes reading by thousands of yearsItalian educator and physician Maria Montessori developed aninnovative teaching methodology for children that left an indelible mark oneducation curricula throughout the world. Montessori education is a sensorybasedpedagogy that is based on the belief that children learn at their ownpace through manipulation of objects (Lopata, Wallace, & Finn,2005).According to Montessori, (Montessori, 1967, p.14). the goal ofeducation is “to be able to find activities that are so intrinsically meaningfulthat we want to throw ourselves into them” (Crain : 2004) confirmed thisassertion by noting that “when children find tasks that enable them todevelop their naturally emerging capacities, they become interested in themand concentrate deeply on them.In general, there is a need for more research regarding successfuleducational methods and pedagogy for this disenfranchised populationbecause the existing research does not adequately provide educationalplanners with the resources or information to develop effective programs(Williams:2001) examined the impact of the Montessori Method on(2)refugee children‟s social, cognitive and motor development using adifference-in-difference approach .The Montessori method of teachingaimed the fullest possible development of the whole child, ultimatelypreparing him for life‘s many rich experiences. Complemented by hertraining in medicine, psychology and anthropology, Dr .Maria Montessori(1870-1952) developed her philosophy of education based upon actualobservation of children.Students are assigned their own personal workstations designed witheducational items that correspond to the daily lesson plans and activities.Students are responsible for setting up the work area, choosing the learningactivity, applying the physical materials, and returning the materials back tothe shelves (Pickering: 2004).Children are always free to move around theroom and are not given deadlines for the various learning tasks. Desks arearranged into open networks that encourage meaningful group discourse, aswell as independent learning.Students work together with the teachers to organize time strategicallyin order to complete the necessary learning tasks of the day. The amount ofteachers in the classroom varies based on class size, but usually two teachersare used for sections with thirty or more students, In most settings, childrenare grouped in mixed ages and abilities based on three to six-year incrementssuch as 0-3, 3-6, 6-12, 12-15 and 15-18 (other Montessori schools use onlythree year increment settings). Ages are mixed so that older students canassist and mentor the younger children in the group. Students are groupedaccording to common interests and experiences rather than the ability andskill level (Pickering: 2004).According to Montessori, from birth to age three the child learnsprimarily through the “unconscious absorbent mind.” During education in(3)the first three years, Montessori believed that it was necessary for theparents to develop in the role of unobtrusive educator; there to protect andguide without infringing on the child‟s right to self-discovery (Crain: 2004).This early developmental model enabled children to learn their own skillsat their own place. During the ages of three to six the child begins to utilizethe “conscious absorbent mind” which prompts students to participate increative problem-solving consisting of wooden and metal objects of varioussizes and shapes, personally designed by Montessori. If a problem becomestoo difficult or overwhelming for the student, the teacher delays the projectfor a future day. Children also engage in practical work consisting ofhousehold tasks and personal maintenance.

Language: Arabic

DOI: 10.21608/jsep.2020.84322

ISSN: 2682-1931

Article

Helping Children with Attentional Challenges in the Montessori Classroom: Introduction

Available from: ERIC

Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 42, no. 2

Pages: 263-285

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Attention-deficit-disordered children, Children with disabilities, Inclusion, Montessori method of education, People with disabilities

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Abstract/Notes: Catherine Nehring Massie provides important contextual information in considering children with attentional challenges. She discusses the prevalence of attentional challenges in today's culture and the contributing factors. She gives a general overview of the spectrum of attentional challenges and some of the indicators in children. Her history of Montessori and work with children facing attentional challenges provides a clearer understanding to the individual details and definitions as it builds upon years of work and observation. Critical to her article and those that follow is the link she draws between concentration (attention) and human development: "Attention lays the foundation for concentrated work--normalization of the child's personality." By partnering Montessori with medical knowledge, fostering focus and attentional development can be better achieved. [This talk was presented at the NAMTA conference titled "Finding the Hook: Montessori Strategies to Support Concentration," October 6-9, 2016, in Columbia, MD.]

Language: English

ISSN: 1522-9734

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Effectiveness of a Counseling Program Based on the Use of Montessori Method on Adaptive Environmental Behavior in a Sample of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

Available from: The Egyptian Knowledge Bank

Publication: Journal of Environmental Science, vol. 49, no. 9

Pages: 181-216

Africa, Children with disabilities, Counseling, Egypt, Middle East, Montessori method of education, North Africa

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Abstract/Notes: The present study aims to identify the effectiveness of a counseling program based on the use of the Montessori method on the environmental adaptive behavior in a sample of children with mild intellectual disabilities, identifying also the differences in the level of behavioral adaptation in a sample of children on the adaptive behavior scale pre/post application of the program. The researchers define a sample of (40) items, applied to a sample consisting of (40) children with mild intellectual disabilities, aged between (10-12) years, selected from boys, divided equally to (20) experimental samples and (20) control samples, from Al-Ghafir Foundation for people with special needs. The researcher has used the (experimental) method and applied the scale of adaptive behavior. The research has come to several results, the most important of which is that there is a statistically significant correlation between the average scores of the control group and the experimental group, regarding the post application of the total adaptive behavior scale. There are statistically significant differences between the average scores of the experimental group, regarding the post/ follow up application of the adaptive behavioral scale. There are statistically significant differences between the average scores of the control group and the experimental group regarding the post-application of the total behavior scale, in favor of the experimental group. The research reached a set of recommendations, the most important of which are: the necessity of providing the necessary tools for developing skills for children with disabilities within government institutions, setting a special budget.

Language: Arabic

DOI: 10.21608/jes.2020.206380

ISSN: 1110-0826

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

The Impact of of Grace and Courtesy Lessons on Independence in Elementary Aged Children

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research

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Abstract/Notes: Independence is a skill that everyone needs to possess in order to function in society (Montessori, 1918). The study was designed to see if Grace and Courtesy lessons would help increase independence skills in elementary children. The study took place in a Montessori classroom of 35 children, aged 6-9 years old. The researcher used tally marks to calculate how often the children asked adults for help with tasks that they already knew how to perform. The researcher also tallied how often the children would perform the task after being reminded one time. Observations were done daily and the observation sheets indicated how many children were not focused on a task and when the concepts in the Grace and Courtesy lessons were being used. The study showed that there was a decrease in asking adults for help and an increase in the use of Grace and Courtesy lessons throughout the research period.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2019

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

The Effects of Meditative Activities for Primary-Aged Children

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this research was to optimize the development of the will, a level of self-regulation, and cognitive function of primary-aged children through the habitual use of designated meditative activities. Past research and studies relating to meditation, neuroscience, the sensory needs of children and human development have determined that age-appropriate meditation exercises with preschool children would foster the development of self-regulation (Schwatz, 2011; Semple, Lee & Rosa, Miller, 2009; Thompson & Raisor, 2013; Zelazo & Lyons 2011). This four week study integrated tangible meditation tools and outlets: a yoga mat, bolster, a booklet with pictures of four restorative yoga poses, a wood hand-massaging ball, noise-cancelling headphones and a meditation space with a floor cushion. It involved 28 children between the ages of three and six-years-old in a private Montessori school in Minnesota. Data collection included a daily observation chart, behavioral scale, tally and end of study parent feedback/observations. Results showed the meditative activities did not increase the children’s self-regulated behavior. However, it did indicate any "work" done with intention could be considered a meditative activity that does not necessarily consist of yoga or massage. Suggestions for further research include an extended study period that could expand to providing meditative opportunities for infants and toddlers and interviewing adults who were exposed to meditative activities as a primary-aged child, infant or toddler. Following up with adults who were provided the opportunity to engage in meditative activities as a child may solidify whether exposure to meditative activities at an early age would help individuals achieve an optimal development of self-regulation and will through habitual use of meditative activities.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2016

Report

Montessori Partners Serving All Children: Evaluation Report for 2012–2015

Available from: Development and Training, Inc

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori Partners Serving All Children (MPSAC) is a collaborative between the Montessori Center of Minnesota (MCM) and metro-area organizations. The goal of MPSAC is to demonstrate how the Montessori approach, starting with early education, can be viable, effective, culturally responsive, and accessible for all Minnesota children, including low income children from culturally distinct families and communities. Toward that end, MCM commissioned a three-year evaluation of its MPSAC initiative, currently a partnership with four participating community-led schools. This report presents comparative data and findings from that evaluation process, including data and analysis for this third and final year. The MPSAC initiative engaged partners in community-led Montessori schools in a three-year evaluation to assess the progress of children, staff, and schools in the following areas: School structures and quality (classroom environments, professional development, ongoing mentoring, and administrative technical assistance for newly formed schools); Children’s academic, cognitive, social, and physical health; and Successful inclusion and support of parents and community.

Language: English

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