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Book Section

Addressing Classism in Early Childhood Education: How Social-Class Sensitive Pedagogy and the Montessori Method Can Work Together

Available from: Emerald Insight

Book Title: Discussions on Sensitive Issues (Advances in Early Education and Day Care, vol. 19)

Pages: 113-135

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Abstract/Notes: Classist perspectives embedded in our meritocratic society permeate early childhood education. Curricula, instructional practices, and classroom interactions have the potential to send messages to children about who and what is valued by society; frequently influenced by the characteristics and abilities of a middle-class child. In order to best serve the needs and abilities of children from any social class, early childhood educators should be well versed in social-class sensitive pedagogy, a pedagogy that helps teachers to be inclusive of social class diversity in their classrooms. This chapter argues that aspects of Montessori theory, such as the four planes of development and the prepared adult, complement social-class sensitive pedagogy in ways that all early childhood educators may apply to their own teaching.

Language: English

Published: Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015

ISBN: 978-1-78560-293-1 978-1-78560-292-4

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Montessori Method in Early Childhood Education: A Systematic Review / Erken Çocukluk Eğitiminde Montessori Yöntemi: Bir Sistematik Derleme

Available from: DergiPark Akademik

Publication: Çukurova Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi / Cukurova University Faculty of Education Journal, vol. 50, no. 2

Pages: 1154-1183

Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: The aim of this study was to examine the researches on the Montessori method in the field of early childhood education in Turkey and to analyze the studies conducted until April 2020, without any starting date limitation, according to the study group, the pattern, the year of publication, the data collection tools used, the purposes and the subjects studied. 22 articles were analyzed within the scope of the research. There are 15 articles using quantitative research method, 6 articles using qualitative research method and 1 article using mixed research method in the analyzed studies. The samples of the studies were grouped under four headings as child, teacher, teacher candidate and family. It was observed that 16 out of 22 articles examined in the study used a scale or test whose validity and reliability were made, an interview form in 5 studies and an observation report in one study. Most of the studies conducted as quantitative researches and the used scales have shown that the studies are result-oriented not process-oriented. In the study, it was observed that the studies on the Montessori approach were more in 2019 (n = 7) and 2016 (n = 6) compared to other years. Research results showed that researches focus more on visual perception and cognitive development. Studies can be made on all areas of child development rather than focusing on a few areas, and the Montessori approach applied in Turkey can be evaluated with a general view. It is expected that this research will contribute to the determination of the gaps in the field related to the Montessori method.

Language: English

DOI: 10.14812/cuefd.873573

ISSN: 1302-9967

Doctoral Dissertation

The Roots and Legacies of Four Key Women Pioneers in Early Childhood Education: A Theorectical and Philosophical Discussion

Available from: British Library - EthOS

Margaret McMillan - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Rachel McMillan - Biographic sources, Susan Isaacs - Biographic sources

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Abstract/Notes: Philosophical, theoretical and scientific interest in early childhood has a very long history. The idea that the early years are the foundation of children's long term prospects is one of the most ancient, enduring and influencing themes shaping early childhood policy and provision today. The motivation and purpose for this study stems from a desire to de-familiarise that which is already known in order to reflect upon, and identify new understandings of early childhood education in relation to universal values and beliefs concerning young children's learning and development. Using an interpretative paradigm, which Habermas (1984, p.109) would describe as a "double hermeneutic" as the process involves striving to re- interpret the already interpreted world, I argue that the principles, practices and provision of early childhood education in the United Kingdom today have strong roots in the innovative pedagogies of four influential women of the 19th and 20th century: Margaret and Rachel McMillan, Maria Montessori and Susan Isaacs. This study adopts a historical stance and firstly examines how early childhood education began through exploring and reflecting upon the early philosophers of the past whose ideas, values and beliefs were influential in shaping the key women pioneers' thinking. The study then moves on to examines the roots and legacies of the four women and the contribution they each made to early childhood education today. The contribution of my thesis to current knowledge and understanding of early childhood education lies firstly in the way I have synthesised the lives and work of the four women who form the focus of this thesis and secondly, in my demonstration of the way much of what constitutes effective early childhood provision has been shaped through the course of history.

Language: English

Published: Sheffield, England, 2011

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Impact of Montessori Teaching Methods on Developmental Domains in Early Childhood Education in Lagos State, Nigeria

Available from: Jereda Journal

Publication: Journal of Educational Research in Developing Areas (JEREDA), vol. 4, no. 1

Pages: 113-122

Africa, Child development, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Nigeria, Sub-Saharan Africa, West Africa

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Abstract/Notes: Introduction: Early Childhood Education and development is a start to life and a reliable foundation to continuing education. One of the reasons that early childhood is regarded up to the age of eight is to enable children acquire a smooth understanding of the entire education from the level of play group to pre-primary and from pre-primary to the level of primary. Purpose of the Study: The main purpose of this study is to examine the impact of Montessori teaching methods on the developmental domain of young children in early childhood schools in Lagos state. Methodology: Descriptive survey research design was adopted. Sample size of two (12) schools of 10 pupils each in the selected schools was employed using convenience sampling technique. Validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics which involves measures of central tendency descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage). Results: Findings indicate that there is higher impact of Montessori teaching methods on the literacy skills in early childhood education. Pupils from both Montessori and Non-Montessori schools perform equally better in Numeracy Skills. The impact of conventional method of teaching on reasoning skill is better than that of Montessori Method of teaching. Conclusion: In conclusion, many aspects of Montessori teaching methods positively consider children's developmental needs and should be an integral part of teachers’ working modalities in so-called “non-Montessori teaching methods (conventional public schools)” (such as the possibility for each child to be in multi-age classes; to have an absence of explicit, formal grades, rewards, or punishments; and a low teacher-student ratio). Recommendations: Based on the results of this study, it is therefore recommended that Montessori system of education may be used to improve language skills of children and to understand art of language at early childhood level.

Language: English

DOI: 10.47434/JEREDA.4.1.2023.113

ISSN: 2735-9107

Article

Spirituality in Early Childhood Education

Available from: He Kupu

Publication: He Kupu - The Word, vol. 3, no. 5

Pages: 16-22

Australasia, Australia and New Zealand, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., New Zealand, Oceania, Spirituality, Waldorf method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: Spirituality is an important dimension of the holistic development of young children, much like autonomy, resilience and responsibility. Unfortunately, it often remains as a forgotten area in early childhood education in many cultures (Zhang, 2012). Many people simply could not articulate the concept of spirituality concretely and some may confuse it with religion. Sokanovic and Muller (1999) pointed out that the definition of the term spirituality has little consensus of opinion throughout society, and has even, in specialised fields such as education, academia and religion sectors, various definitions. To explore the specific meaning of spirituality would be not only meaningful but of great significance for our understanding of the tenet of early childhood education and the national curriculum of New Zealand, Te Whāriki. Furthermore, spirituality is also a frequently discussed topic in many philosophies of early childhood education. For example, spiritual self or inner spirituality is recognised by Froebel and Pestalozzi (Froebel Web, 2014; Bruehlmeier, 2014), while spiritual development is further explored and integrated in teaching practices by Montessori and Steiner (Weinberg, 2009; Ullrich, 1994). Therefore, the task of this article is to try to define the term “spirituality” in the context of early childhood education, and explore spirituality as presented in the work of two early childhood theorists. Later, this article will also critically examine the aspect of spirituality in my own childhood education in China, and in relation to other contexts.

Language: English

ISSN: 1179 - 6812

Thesis

Autism in Early Childhood Education Montessori Environments: Parents' and Teachers' Perspectives

Available from: Auckland University of Technology - Institutional Repository

Australasia, Australia and New Zealand, Autism, Autism in children, Children with disabilities, Montessori method of education, New Zealand, Oceania, Parent and child, Parent-teacher relationships, Special education, Teacher-student relationships

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Abstract/Notes: There is very little research about children with Autism in Montessori early childhood education in Aotearoa New Zealand. This study examined parents’ and teachers’ perspectives of children with Autism attending Montessori early childhood education environments. This thesis documents literature that explores and critiques Montessori philosophy and the teaching of children on the Autism spectrum. The purpose of this study was to gain insights into the Montessori teaching approach in early childhood education, as a supportive environment for children with Autism in the early years. However, I discovered that the Montessori environment is less than ideal if the teachers do not understand Autism Spectrum Disorder and do not make allowances for the symptoms that present themselves. It was my intention to explore the factors that complemented both Montessori and the support of children with Autism with an approach that is conducive to learning and encourages positive behavioural patterns. The findings revealed three main indicators being identified as important. These were social competence, language and communication, and individual interests and sensory implications. However, not all findings were positive. The parents all agreed that the teachers needed to be flexible and understanding in their approach, and many Montessori teachers are strict in their routine and are not prepared to sway from their teaching method to assist a child with Autism. This study suggests that Montessori early childhood teachers would benefit from professional development in the areas of including children with special needs, particularly Autism Spectrum Disorder, particularly in regards to understanding the unique characteristics of children with Autism and how they can effectively use the Montessori philosophy, equipment and prepared environment to support each child’s learning and development. Suggestions for future professional learning for Montessori teachers include the provision of professional development in including children with “special needs”, particularly Autism Spectrum Disorder for Montessori early childhood teachers. It is not only the Montessori philosophy and the prepared environment that supports the child with Autism, but the teacher’s awareness of the child’s needs and a willingness to be flexible in their approach.

Language: English

Published: Auckland, New Zealand, 2015

Thesis

Método Montessori: Contribuições para a Educação Infantil / Montessori Method: Contributions to Early Childhood Education

Available from: Universidade de Caxias do Sul

Americas, Brazil, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Latin America and the Caribbean, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Preschool children, Preschool education, South America

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Abstract/Notes: This research paper addresses the theme "Montessori Method: contributions to Early Childhood Education". This research sought to answer the research problem "How does the use of the Montessori Method contribute to the learning process of early childhood education children aged 4 to 5 years?" The research described was of an applied nature, qualitative in terms of approach, exploratory in relation to its objectives, in the field modality and developed through the Case Study methodology (GIL, 2008). For data collection, semi-structured interviews were applied to teachers and principals of two early childhood education schools. The data collected through these interviews were analyzed through discursive textual analysis (MORAES, 2003) and based on theoretical contributions, including Montessori (1965), Piaget (1978) and Vygotsky (2001). Data analysis allowed identifying the following study blocks: "The Montessori Method and learning in Early Childhood Education, the Montessori Method and its role in building the freedom and autonomy of the child" and" The training of Montessoian teachers and their performance in the pandemic". The study allowed us to elaborate some knowledge to provide answers to the research problem and my questions. These constructed knowledge scans that the teachers and the principals shared their look at how the Montessori Method contributes to the child of Early Childhood Education beginning to build their independence, freedom and autonomy. I highlight the importance of their participation in deepening the research, through the reports of their practices with the application of the method in focus. The theoretical deepening also contributed to the understanding of the study contributing to my teacher education in this area that delights me a lot. / A presente pesquisa aborda o tema "Método Montessori: contribuições para a Educação Infantil". A referida investigação buscou resposta ao problema de pesquisa "De que forma o emprego do Método Montessori contribui no processo de aprendizagem das crianças da Educação Infantil na faixa etária de 4 a 5 anos?" A investigação descrita, de natureza aplicada, qualitativa quanto à abordagem, exploratória em relação aos seus objetivos, na modalidade de campo, foi desenvolvida através da metodologia de Estudo de Caso (GIL, 2008). Para a coleta os dados foram aplicadas entrevistas semiestruturadas a professoras e diretoras de duas escolas de Educação Infantil que empregam o Método Montessori em sua proposta pedagógica. Os dados coletados através das referidas entrevistas foram analisados por meio da técnica de análise textual discursiva (MORAES, 2003) e fundamentados em aportes teóricos entre os quais destaco Montessori (1965), Piaget (1978) e Vygotsky (2001). A análise dos dados permitiu identificar os seguintes blocos de estudo "O Método Montessori e a aprendizagem na Educação Infantil, O Método Montessori e seu papel na construção da liberdade e da autonomia da criança e a formação de professores montessorianos e sua atuação na pandemia". O estudo realizado permitiu elaborar alguns conhecimentos para dar respostas ao problema de pesquisa e às minhas indagações. A análise dos dados coletados e a experiência das participantes da pesquisa proporcionaram a compreensão de como o Método Montessori contribui para que a criança da Educação Infantil comece a construir sua independência, liberdade e autonomia. Ainda, foi possível fazer um aprofundamento teórico sobre o Método em foco e analisar como ocorre a prática pedagógica montessoriana neste momento de pandemia, contribuindo para minha formação docente nesta área que muito me encanta.

Language: Portuguese

Published: Bento Gonçalves, Brazil, 2021

Article

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Status of Early Childhood Education in Nepal

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: International Journal of Early Childhood, vol. 28, no. 2

Pages: 57-61

Asia, Early childhood education, Nepal, South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: "...Primary education starts at the age ofsix in Nepal. Parents were not aware of the need of institutional education for their preschool children before the establishment of a Montessori School by the government for the first time in 1949. This school was based on the philosophy of the early childhood educationalist Madam Montessori. Since then the idea of early childhood education started to grow in the context ofNepal. With the establishment of a College of Education (Now Faculty of Education) in 1956, the Montessori School was merged into its Laboratory School. Thus, this Montessori School lost its separate identity and started to work as a downward extension of the Laboratory School of the college. Since then, this model as a downward extension of primary school was followed by the private and boarding schools..."

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/BF03174504

ISSN: 0020-7187, 1878-4658

Report

Workforce Composition, Qualifications and Professional Development in Montessori Early Childhood Education and Care Settings in England

Available from: Open University

England, Europe, Great Britain, Northern Europe, United Kingdom

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Abstract/Notes: In England, the early childhood education and care (ECEC) workforce is largely characterised by a high proportion of young, female employees with lower than average qualification levels to comparable sectors, high staff turnover, poor pay, and restricted professional development opportunities, while carrying out demanding and responsible work. Within this context, the research reported here examined the workforce, professional development and qualifications of Montessori settings within the Montessori Schools Association (MSA) in England compared to the general ECEC sector in England. An online survey with a mix of closed and open text questions using the Qualtrics survey tool was administered through MSA from February - Summer 2020. A response rate of 22% was achieved with 77 responding settings. Key messages from findings were: Montessori settings reported well qualified, experienced staff and higher Ofsted ratings; nonetheless there were threats to maintaining qualification levels, difficulties in professional development and poor external recognition of Montessori qualifications; the future supply of trained Montessori workforce was insecure and currently has limited diversity; Montessori provision was more likely to be in areas of lower disadvantage and, within settings, higher qualified staff were most likely to be deployed with older children.

Language: English

Published: Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, 2020

Article

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Research and early childhood education programs in the city of Baroda

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: International Journal of Early Childhood, vol. 11, no. 2

Pages: 176-181

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Abstract/Notes: The growth of the preschool education movement has been a result of the growing recognition of the needs of young children, the need to be provided with a rich and wholesome environment which is conducive to, and promotes the all round development of the child. Prior to 1947, very little attention was paid to preschool education in our country, even by the Government, and preschool was not considered a state responsibility. The Central Advisory Board of Education on Post-War Educational Development (1944) was the first body to recognise the need for preschool education. The report of the Committee emphasised its significance and recommended that an adequate provision of pre-primary education should be an essential adjunct of a National System of Education. The development of preschool education, during the pre-independence period, was rather slow in the country as a whole, but due to the influence of a number of workers inspired by the work of Madam Montessori, pioneering work in the field was undertaken in the state of Gujarat.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/BF03176567

ISSN: 0020-7187, 1878-4658

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