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Sličnosti i razlike pedagoških modela Marije Montessori, Rudolfa Steinera i Célestina Freineta [Similarities and differences of pedagogical models of Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner and Célestin Freinet]
Available from: Hrčak - Portal of Croatian scientific and professional journals
Publication: Školski vjesnik: časopis za pedagogijsku teoriju i praksu, vol. 56, no. 1-2
Abstract/Notes: Ovim radom nastoji se istaknuti važnost alternativnih škola koje u svijetu paralelno s državnim školama funkcioniraju od prve polovice 20. st. Metodom komparativne analize prikazuju se tri originalna pedagoška modela: Montessori-pedagogija, waldorfske škole i Freinetov pokret. Posebna pozornost posvećena je teoretskim postavkama i didaktičko-metodičkim posebnostima navedenih pedagoških modela. Steinerova pedagogija temelji se na antropozofiji, Montessori pedagogija na antropologiji, dok je rad temelj Freinetove pedagogije. Zajednička sastavnica ovih alternativnih modela jest: sloboda u širem značenju, poštivanje djeteta kao individue, samostalan rad učenika, učenje istraživanjem, poticanje suradnje u kolektivu, promjena uloge učitelja, korištenje raznih materijala i tehnika u organizaciji učenja i nastave i općenito bolja priprema za život u društvu. Proučavajući temeljne sličnosti i razlike alternativnih školskih sustava, može se zaključiti da je rad i cjelokupna organizacija učenja i nastave uvelike drugačija nego u državnim školama. Obzirom da u Hrvatskoj postoji nekolicina škola koje rade po koncepcijama ovih pedagogija, svrha je rada da se zanimljiva didaktičkometodička rješenja implementiraju u postojeće državne škole, a time i poboljšaju razvoj pedagoškog i školskog pluralizma. [This article tries to point-out the importance of alternative schools which have existed in the world parallel with public schools from the first half of the 20th century. The method of comparative analysis shows three original pedagogical models: Montessori pedagogy, Waldorf schools and Freinet’s movement. Special attention was given to theoretical theses and didactic-methodological particularities of these pedagogical models. Steiner’s pedagogy is based on anthroposophy; Montessori’s pedagogy is based on anthropology, while in Freinet’s pedagogy work is fundamental. The models share the following characteristics: freedom in a broader sense, respect for the child as an individual, individual work of the student, learning through research, stimulation of group cooperation, use of different methods and materials in the organization of learning activities, and generally better preparation for life in society. By analyzing similarities and differences between alternative pedagogical models and those used in public schools, we can conclude that the overall organization of teaching classes differs considerably from that in public schools. Since there are only few schools in Croatia that work following the conceptions of these pedagogies, the main purpose of this work is to implement these interesting didactic-methodical solutions in the existing public schools and by doing so to enhance the development of pluralism in education.]
ISSN: 0037-654X, 1848-0756
Child Centered Education: Criticisms
Available from: Shanlax Journals
Publication: Shanlax International Journal of Education, vol. 8, no. 1
Abstract/Notes: There have been quite a lot of concerns and arguments over the appropriateness of CCE for developing countries where the social and cultural values, educational traditions, and available resources are so different from the West. Most of the educationists argue for the teacher centred formalistic approach which is believed to be more suitable for contexts where resources are sufficient and teacher professional capability is very high. Issues related to CCE in developing countries have been the focus of discussion from 1980s and particularly the 1990s. The major intention of the present study to explore the major criticisms related to child centered education. Eleven serious criticisms: danger of centeredness; absenting knowledge; learner centeredness: scientifically validated?; freedom versus discipline; practicality of learner centered teaching; individual and society; the absence of authentic social relationships; teacher's roles; natural Sequence of development; the powerless female teacher and child; and the free and individual child: an illusionary and decontextualized construct have been discussed in the present article.
Meng tai suo li quyu huodong yu zonghe xing zhuti huodong xiang jiehe de tansuo / 蒙台梭利区域活动与综合性主题活动相结合的探索 [Integration of Montessori Regional Activity and Comprehensive Theme Activity]
Publication: Shanghai Jiaoyu Keyan / 上海教育科研 [Shanghai Research on Education], vol. 2006, no. 8
Asia, China, East Asia, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.
Üç Farklı Programa Göre Eğitim Alan Okul Öncesi Çocukların Sosyal Kural Algılarının İncelenmesi / Examination of Preschool Children’s Conceptions of Social Rules Regarding Three Different Preschool Education Programs
Available from: DergiPark Akademik
Publication: Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi / Journal of Selçuk University Institute of Social Sciences, no. 28
Asia, Comparative education, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Middle East, Montessori method of education, Preschool children, Preschool education, Social development, Social emotional learning, Socialization, Turkey
Abstract/Notes: Pre-school education is important in terms of children's acquisition of social rules and rearing them as socialized individuals. However, it seems that there are limited studies regarding the issue of which pre-school education approach or pre-school education program is more effective on the development of children's perception of social rule. Therefore, with this research it is aimed to study the social rule perceptions of 5-year old children who get education according to three different programs Montessori Approach, Multiple Intelligences Theory-Based Education and Preschool Education Program Implemented by the Ministry of Education *Dependent variable of this experimental study is the social rule perception of 5-year old children while independent variables are three different preschool education programs Montessori approach, education based on multiple intelligences theory, Preschool Education Program implemented by the Ministry of Education with effects on children’s perception of social rule. Total of 62 children participated in this study, including 21 children attending a university kindergarten where Montessori Approach is applied, 19 children attending nursery class within primary school where education based on Multiple Intelligences Theory is implemented within the scope of EU Project called “If there are multiple intelligences there is no unsuccessful child ” and 22 randomly selected children attending an independent kindergarten and nursery class within primary school where Preschool education program of Ministry of Education is implemented. Age of these children showing normal development ranged from 60 to 66 months. "Conception of Moral and Social Rules Scale" that was used to evaluate social rule perception of the children participating in this study, was developed by Smetana 1981 . The scale which consists of 10 conventional pictures showing transgression of moral and social rules, includes two sub-scales. They are: "Conception of Moral Rule" and "Conception of Social Rule" subscales. In this study, only " Conception of Social Rule" sub-scale was used according to the purposes of the research. Conception of Social Rule sub scale consists of 5 pictures showing transgression of social rules. Children were asked 5 questions consecutively for each of these pictures. Each question asked aimed to create data for 5 sub dimensions of the scale. Sub dimensions of the sub scale are; Seriousness in Social Rules, Absence of Authority in Social Rules, Absence of Social Rules, Generalization of Social Rules and Punishment in Social Rules. Conception of Social Rule sub scale of Conception of Moral and Social Rules Scale was applied to the children in working group in a pre-test and post-test form. Pre-test data were collected at the beginning of the academic year, while post-test data were collected at the end of the academic year. No intervention that would affect children’s perception of social rule in a desired direction was made to the education programs of the institutions where different pre-school education programs are implemented. Single-factor ANCOVA was used in order to determine whether social rule perception of the children included in the study differs according to the preschool education program they attend. Bonferroni test was used in cases where ANCOVA was significant. According to the Covariance Analysis results significant difference was found F 2,58 = 7.210, p .05]. Results of Bonferroni test, which was implemented to determine the pre-school education program or programs that cause the significant difference obtained from Seriousness in Social Rules, Absence of authority in Social Rules and Punishment in Social Rules sub-dimensions in accordance with Covariance Analysis, show that Seriousness in Social Rules, Absence of authority in Social Rules and Punishment in Social Rules sub-dimensions scores of the children who receive education according to Montessori approach are significantly higher than the scores of the children who receive education according to the other preschool education programs. In this study which compares social rule conception of the preschool children getting education according to Montessori approach, education program based on the theory of multiple intelligence and pre-school education program implemented by the Ministry of Education; it’s observed that the children who receive education according to Montessori approach had significantly higher scores than the children who receive education according to the other pre-school education programs in Seriousness in Social Rules, Absence of Authority in Social Rules and Punishment in Social Rules sub-dimensions of social rule conception sub scale. This situation indicates that the children receiving education based on Montessori Approach take social rules more serious and their perception regarding importance of obeying the rules even in absence of the authority mother-father, teacher etc. is higher. These children obey the rules not because the authority wants them to do so, but because they comprehend the importance and necessity of acting in accordance with the rules. In other words, the children getting education in Montessori Approach have internalized social rules. The researchers state that children's conception of social rules may develop as they experience the rules and practices of the social system in which they exist Smetana, Schlagman and Adams, 1993; Smetana, 1984 . This means that, Montessori Approach is able to offer this experience to the children in a better way than the other pre-school education programs. Another sub-dimension where difference between the means was statistically significant was Punishment in Social Rules sub dimension. According to these finding obtained, perception of punishment in case of breaking social rules is higher in children getting education according to Montessori Approach than the children getting education in other pre-school education programs. This means the children that receive education according to Montessori Approach are more decisive in necessity of obeying social rules and punishing those who transgress social rules. It was identified that scores regarding Absence of Social Rules and Generalization of Social Rules sub dimensions of Social Rule Conception sub scale did not differ depending on the pre-school education program attended. In other words perception of all the participant children is found to be equivalent to each other regarding the necessity of obeying social rules even if there is no verbally expressed rule and acceptance of social rules in every environment lived in. In any case, pre-school educational institutions provide the best environment for children so that they acquire social rules and understand the importance of these rules. Seçer and Sarı 2006 , who studied moral and social rule conception of the children who attend and who do not attend preschool educational institution, determined that mean score of the children attending pre-school educational institution received from Absence of Authority in Social Rules, Generalization of Social Rules and Absence of Social Rules sub dimensions is significantly higher than those who do not attend pre-school educational institution. / Bu çalışmada, üç farklıprograma Montessori Yaklaşımı, Çoklu Zekâ Kuramına DayalıEğitim ve Milli Eğitim BakanlığıTarafından Uygulanan Okul Öncesi Eğitim Programı göre eğitim alan okul öncesi çocukların sosyal kural algılarıincelenmiştir. Normal gelişim gösteren ve yaşları60 ile 66 ay arasında değişen toplam 62 çocuk çalışmaya katılmıştır. Çocukların 21 tanesi Montessori Yaklaşımına göre, 19 tanesi Çoklu Zekâ Kuramına göre, 22 tanesi ise Milli Eğitim Bakanlığıtarafından halıhazırda uygulanan okul öncesi eğitim programına göre bir eğitim-öğretim yılıboyunca okul öncesi eğitim almışlardır. Deneysel bir çalışma olan bu araştırma da ön-test ve son-test verileri, Smetana 1981 tarafından geliştirilen Ahlaki ve Sosyal Kural AlgısıÖlçeği’nin Sosyal Kural Algısıalt ölçeği kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Araştırmada elde edilen verilerin analizinde betimsel istatistiklerin yanısıra, araştırmanın amaçlarınıtest etmek amacıyla, ANCOVA, ANCOVA’nın anlamlıolduğu durumlarda Bonferroni Testi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda çocukların Sosyal Kural Algısıalt ölçeğinin Sosyal Kurallarda Ciddiyet, Sosyal Kurallarda Otoritenin Yokluğu ve Sosyal Kurallarda Ceza alt boyutlarına ait puanların çocukların eğitim aldığıokul öncesi eğitim programına göre değiştiği saptanmıştır. Bonferroni çoklu karşılaştırma sonuçları, farklılığın Montessori Yaklaşımı’na göre eğitim alan grubun lehine olduğunu göstermiştir. Sosyal Kuralların Yokluğu ve Sosyal KurallarıGenelleme alt boyutlarına ait puanların ise çocukların eğitim aldığıokul öncesi eğitim programına göre anlamlıbir şekilde farklılaşmadığıtespit edilmiştir.
ISSN: 1302-1796, 2667-4750
Using object boxes to teach the form, function, and vocabulary of the parts of the human eye
Available from: Taylor and Francis Online
Publication: Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, vol. 45, no. 2
Date: Jul 2008
Abstract/Notes: These science activities for elementary students focus on the external structures and functions of the human eye with hands-on object box activities based on the Montessori theory (1966) of concrete learning through manipulation of objects and focus of attention through touch. Object boxes are sets of items and corresponding cards housed in a box. Two types of object boxes are highlighted: (a) form and function analogy object boxes that describe the structures and functions of external parts of the human eye along with analogous manufactured items exhibiting the same forms and functions and (b) words with multiple meanings object boxes that present objects and two different meanings of eye-related words. These activities use analogy to help learners construct connections between previous and new learning along with developing vocabulary for better thinking and communication.
ISSN: 0036-8121, 1940-1302
Evaluating Montessori Education
Available from: AAAS - Science
Publication: Science, vol. 313, no. 5795
Abstract/Notes: An analysis of students’ academic and social scores compares a Montessori school with other elementary school education programs.
ISSN: 0036-8075, 1095-9203
Between New Education and Idealistic Vision: Giuseppe Lombardo Radice and the Arduous Path of L’educazione Nazionale in Italy (1927-1933)
Available from: Universität Bern
Publication: Schweizerische Zeitschrift fuer Bildungswissenschaften / Swiss Journal of Educational Research, vol. 41, no. 2
Date: Sep 25, 2019
Europe, Italy, New Education Fellowship, Southern Europe
Abstract/Notes: Opening the issue of Pour l’ère nouvelle (January 1927), Adolphe Ferrière announced that L’Educazione Nazionale, directed by Giuseppe Lombardo Radice, would be the Italian partnership of the educational press officially committed with the New Education Fellowship. The strong relation between the two scholars was based on a shared vision of education as really focused on the release of children’s natural energies. The cultural mission of the Italian journal was not an easy one to accomplish, due to the increasingly heavy atmosphere characterizing the Italian public life, signed by the turning of Fascism into an authoritarian Regime. Up to the turning point of the thirties the review often tried to draw attention onto several themes and figures related to the progressive expansion of the New Education. Unfortunately, the involution of Fascism hindered the journal’s activity, finally forcing its closure in 1933.
Montessori Yönteminin Beş-Altı Yaş Çocuklarının Alıcı Dil Gelişimine Etkisinin İncelenmesi / Examination of the Affect of Montessori Method on Receptive Language of Kindergarten Children
Available from: Selçuk University (Turkey)
Publication: Selçuk Üniversitesi Türkiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi / Selçuk University Journal of Studies in Turcology, vol. 1, no. 26
Asia, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Language acquisition, Language development, Middle East, Montessori method of education, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Turkey, Western Asia
Abstract/Notes: Bu araştırmada, Montessori yönteminin beş - altı yaş çocuklarının alıcı dil becerilerine etkisiincelenmiştir. Araştırma, deneme modelinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu,2008 – 2009 yıllarında Selçuk Üniversitesi Mesleki Eğitim Fakültesi İhsan DoğramacıUygulama Anaokulu’nda eğitim gören toplam 40 çocuk oluşturmaktadır. Veri toplama aracıolarak Peabody Resim-Kelime Testi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucuna göre, Montessori yöntemiile eğitim alan beş - altı yaş çocuklarının alıcı dil becerileri ile Milli Eğitim BakanlığıOkul Öncesi Eğitim Programına göre eğitim alan beş - altı yaş çocuklarının alıcı dil becerileriarasında anlamlı bir fark bulunmuştur. / At this research, the effects of Montessori Method to receptive language skills of five-six aged children were examined. This research was carried out with essay form. Working group of research consists of totally 40 kindergarten children who received education between 2008- 2009 academy years in Ihsan Dogramaci Application Kindergarten, Faculty of Vocational Education, Selcuk University. Peabody Picture-Vocabulary Test was used as data collection tool. According to the result of research, a significant difference was found between receptive language skills of kindergarten children who receive education with Montessori Method and also education according to The Ministry of Education, Preschool Education Program.
School Ethos and its Religious Dimension: International Network for Interreligious and Intercultural Education
Available from: Sabinet African Journals
Publication: Scriptura: Journal for Contextual Hermeneutics in Southern Africa, vol. 89, no. 1
Date: Jan 2005
Abstract/Notes: In the Netherlands the debate on the identity of a school is influenced by the long and dominant history of a close linking between religious traditions (mainly the Christian tradition) and the design of the national school system. For almost 100 years, most schools, formally speaking, are so called Christian schools. This is not an accidental adverb used to indicate some of the Dutch schools, but it has a strong juridical basis. In recent education a certain discrepancy is experienced between the formal corporate identity of a school and the actual identity of the school population. This discrepancy is the central matter of this article. We present two research projects by which this discrepancy is explored. The key issue seems to be that in Dutch education there is a strong need for a paradigm shift from a more deductive to a more inductive reflection on school ethos.
ISSN: 0254-1807, 2305-445X
The Dynamic Interactions Among Beliefs, Role Metaphors, and Teaching Practices: A Case Study of Teacher Change
Available from: Wiley Online Library
Publication: Science Education, vol. 75, no. 2
Date: Apr 1991
Philosophy, Psychology, and Educational Goals for the Montessori Adolescent, Ages Twelve to Fifteen
Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 28, no. 1
North American Montessori Teachers' Association (NAMTA) - Periodicals
Abstract/Notes: Defines Montessori theory in terms that can interface with developmental psychology, summarizing adolescent cognitive, social, emotional, and moral outcomes. Focuses on outcomes of the third plane of education for youth in an Erdkinder setting, Montessori's "Educational Syllabus," providing clues about the future Montessori adult. Suggests that the emotional dimension of the early adolescent stage might be viewed as the end state for childhood. (Author/KB)
Competence Theories of Learning and Motivation: How They Pertain to Montessori Philosophy
Available from: University of Connecticut Libraries - American Montessori Society Records
Publication: The Constructive Triangle (1974-1989), vol. 9, no. 4
Date: Fall 1982
Montessori's Philosophy of Everyday Living
Available from: University of Connecticut Libraries - American Montessori Society Records
Publication: The Constructive Triangle (1974-1989), vol. 10, no. 2
Date: Spring 1983
“The Ayn Rand School for Tots”: John Dewey, Maria Montessori, and Objectivist Educational Philosophy during the Postwar Years
Available from: Historical Studies in Education (Canada)
Publication: Historical Studies in Education/Revue d'histoire de l'éducation, vol. 25, no. 1
John Dewey - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Objectivism (Philosophy) - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Progressive education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.
Abstract/Notes: Objectivism, the libertarian philosophy established by Ayn Rand during the postwar years, has attracted a great deal of attention from philosophers, political scientists, economists, and English professors alike in recent years, but it hasn’t received much notice from historians with an interest in education. This article will address that problem by discussing how Rand and her followers established a philosophy of education during the 1960s and 1970s that was based, in part, on vilifying the so-called collectivist ideas of John Dewey and lionizing the so-called individualist ideas of Maria Montessori. Unfortunately, the narrative that emerged during this time seriously misrepresented the ideas of both Dewey and Montessori, resulting in a somewhat distorted view of both educators.
ISSN: 0843-5057, 1911-9674
Maria Montessori’s Philosophy of Education: An Early Beginning of Embodied Education
Available from: University Colleges Knowledge database (Denmark)
18th International Network of Philosophers of Education Conference: Pedagogical Forms in Times of Pandemic (Copenhagen, Denmark, 17-20 August 2022)
Comparative education, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.
Abstract/Notes: For a century Montessori’s philosophy of education has been understood in separation from Dewey’s philosophy of education. According to Thayer-Bacon , a plausible explanation is that Kilpatrick, Dewey’s influential student, rejected Montessori’s system of education . His main objection was that her educational system was founded on an outdated psychology. In contrast, this paper suggests, Montessori’s educational systems is founded on a psychology which, like Dewey’s, was markedly ahead of her time by putting purely embodied interactions with the environment as the foundation of human understanding. By comparing Montessori’s psychology [3; 4] to Dewey’s [5; 6] this paper shows their compatibility. The developed pragmatism of Sellars [5;6] and the interactivism of Bickhard  further enables us to explain how the prelinguistic human-environment interactions (or transactions), central to Dewey and Montessori, are pure processes . The pure process ontology enables us to see how more complex processes emerge from simpler ones and how learning in the mere causal domain of bodily human-environment interactions can grow into the linguistic and conceptual domain of education. The ambition is to show that a flourishing interaction between Montessori and pragmatism is possible and preferable if we are to understand the proper role of the body in education.  Thayer-Bacon, Barbara (2012). Maria Montessori, John Dewey, and William H. Kilpatrick. Education and Culture, 28, 1, 3-20.  Kilpatrick, W. H. (1914). The Montessori system examined. Cambridge, Mass.; The Riverside Press  Montessori, M. (1912). The Montessori method. NY: Frederick A. Stokes Company  Montessori. M. (1949). The absorbent mind. Adyar: The Theosophical Publishing House  Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. NY: The Macmillan Company  Dewey, J. (1925) Experience and nature. Chicago: Open Court Publishing Company  Sellars, W. (1960). Being and Being Known. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association, 34, 28-49.  Sellars, W. (1981). Foundations for a metaphysics of pure process: The Carus lectures of Wilfrid Sellars. The Monist 64 (1):3-90.  Bickhard, M. H. (2009). The interactivist model. Synthese, 166, 3, 547-591.  Seibt, Johanna (2016). How to Naturalize Intentionality and Sensory Consciousness within a Process Monism with Gradient Normativity—A Reading of Sellars. In James O'Shea (ed.), Sellars and His Legacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 186-222.
Published: Copenhagen, Denmark: International Network of Philosophers of Education, 2022
Introduction of Philosophy for Children into the Montessori Curriculum
Available from: Montclair State University
Publication: Thinking: The Journal of Philosophy for Children, vol. 15, no. 1
Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Philosophy for Children
ISSN: 0190-3330, 2380-6370
Filsafat Pendidikan Maria Montessori Dengan Teori Belajar Progresivisme Dalam Pendidikan Aud [Maria Montessori Educational Philosophy with Progressivism Learning Theory in Early Childhood Education]
Available from: Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry
Publication: Bunayya: Jurnal Pendidikan Anak [Journal of Children's Education], vol. 6, no. 2
Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Southeast Asia
Abstract/Notes: Tulisan ini berusaha menjelaskan pendidikan Islam dari sudut pandang Maria Montessori, yang merupakan tokoh pendidikan anak yang mencurahkan hampir keseluruhan hidupnya untuk anak-anak. Maria Montessori memiliki prinsip dasar mengenai metode montessori ini, yang sangat memfokuskan anak sebagai childern center dan orang dewasa sebagai pembimbing. Menurutnya, suatu fase kehidupan di awal sangat berpengaruh terhadap faserase kehidupan selanjutnya artinya bahwa pengalaman-pengalaman yang dialami oleh seorang anak di awal kehidupannya sangat berpengaruh terhadap kedewasaannya kelak begitu juga perlakuan yang di dapatkan anak sejak kecil akan sangat berpengaruh terhadap perkembang an anak selanjutnya. Kemudiaan sebagai umat Islam, sudah menjadi kewajiban bagi orang tua dan pendidik untuk menanamkan nilai-nilai ke-Islaman pada anak-anaknya. Dan agar nilai-nilai ke-Islaman tersebut dapat terserap dengan sempurna, maka harus diajarkan sejak anak-anak usia dini juga. Rasulullah telah menegaskan tentang tanggung jawab orang tua terhadap anak-anak dalam sabdanya. [This paper tries to explain Islamic education from the perspective of Maria Montessori, who is a figure of children's education who devotes almost her entire life to children. Maria Montessori has a basic principle regarding this Montessori Method, which is very focused on children as children centers and adults as guides. According to him, a phase of life at the beginning is very influential on the phases of the next life which means that the experiences experienced by a child early in life are very influential on their maturity as well as the treatment that children get from childhood will greatly affect the subsequent development of children. Youth as Muslims, it has become an obligation for parents and educators to instill Islamic values in their children. And so that these Islamic values can be absorbed perfectly, it must be taught from an early age as well. Rasulullah has emphasized the responsibility of parents towards children in their sayings.]
Montessori in Practice: A Teacher's Interpretation of Dr. Montessori's Philosophy
Available from: Internet Archive
Publication: New Era in Home and School, vol. 51, no. 6
Date: Jun 1970
Philosophy of Education: A Teacher's Starting Point
Available from: University of Connecticut Libraries - American Montessori Society Records
Publication: The Constructive Triangle (1974-1989), vol. 14, no. 1
Date: Winter 1987
Pages: 17–19, 21–23
Montessori in de Fröbelschool [part 3]
Available from: Delpher - Nationale Bibliotheek van Nederland
Publication: Het Kind, vol. 20, no. 16
Date: Aug 9, 1919
Friedrich Fröbel - Biographic sources, Friedrich Fröbel - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy