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Article

Preparation for Life: How the Montessori Classroom Facilitates the Development of Executive Function Skills

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 25, no. 1

Pages: 14-18

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Educational philosophy in elementary and secondary schools has often centered on creating a "product," full of content knowledge and basic skills (Bagby, 2002). However, no longer is academic achievement in the classroom considered the sole gauge of lifelong success. Meltzer (2010) suggested that the development of executive functioning skills utilized to reach academic achievement is equally important--skills such as prioritizing, planning, self-checking, and setting short-term and long-term goals. Being able to plan, organize, and monitor one's time are crucial skills in today's world. These three competencies are only a few of the elements of "executive function," an umbrella term referring to the cognitive processes that guide, direct, and manage thinking, emotional responses, and behavior. Dawson and Guare (2010) provided an overview of how executive function skills operate to maximize student success. The authors will consider three of these skills--planning, organization, and time management--and will illustrate how each is developed through Montessori practices.

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Doctoral Dissertation

Multiple Measures of the Effectiveness of Public School Montessori Education in the Third Grade

Available from: University of North Texas Digital Library

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Abstract/Notes: The problem of this study was to measure the effectiveness of a public school Montessori program. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare student academic achievement and self-concept, attendance and promotion rates, and level of parental involvement in the schools of students enrolled in public school Montessori and traditional programs. The 95 subjects in this study were third-grade subjects selected from the student populations in Montessori and traditional school sites. The Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) was used as the pre-test scores, and the Norm-referenced Assessment Program for Texas (NAPT) was used as the post-test scores to compare academic achievement in reading and mathematics. Multiple regression was used to compare the levels of academic achievement and self-concept. Multiple regression was also used to test for possible relationship between the Montessori and traditional programs and gender and ethnicity. The findings of the study were as follows: (1) There were no significant differences in the adjusted mean reading scores between the Montessori group and the traditional group in the third grade. (2) There were no significant differences in the adjusted mean mathematics scores between the Montessori group and the traditional group in the third grade. (3) There were no significant differences in the attendance rate of third-grade subjects participating in a public school Montessori program and third-grade subjects participating in a public school traditional program. (4) There were no significant differences in the promotion rate of third-grade subjects participating in a public school Montessori program and third-grade subjects participating in a public school traditional program. (5) There were no significant differences in the adjusted mean scores in the self-concept measure of third-grade subjects in both programs. (6) There were no differences in the nature and magnitude of parental involvement in school activities.

Language: English

Published: Denton, Texas, 1994

Report

Longitudinal Findings for Early Childhood Programs: Focus on Direct Instruction

Academic achievement, Americas, Comparative education, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Longitudinal studies, Montessori method of education, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This paper reports short- and long-term outcomes of the Direct Instruction Head Start and Follow Through program model. Based on the premise that positive reinforcement is essential to maximum academic success, the Direct Instruction program was developed from an academic preschool model which specified exactly what children needed in order to succeed academically and dictated how teachers should modify children's behavior. The Follow Through program was developed to provide programs for kindergarten through 3rd grade that would help maintain gains made in Head Start or other preschool programs. In 1983 the Follow Through program could be found in 60 American cities and a number of foreign countries. Research suggested that the Direct Instruction/Follow Through program had a positive effect on reading and mathematics achievement. However, third-graders who received direct instruction, more often than comparison children, attributed academic success to external factors and failure to themselves. They also scored lower than children receiving cognitive developmental instruction on a test of nonverbal problem-solving. Longitudinal findings suggested that students receiving direct instruction had lower grade retention and higher attendance and graduation rates. Longitudinal comparison of direct instruction, Montessori, DARCEE, and traditional preschool programs revealed positive outcomes for children who received direct instruction: Follow Through children achieved at grade level when they were in the ninth grade. (RH)

Language: English

Article

Beyond Executive Functions, Creativity Skills Benefit Academic Outcomes: Insights from Montessori Education

Available from: PLoS Journals

Publication: PLoS ONE, vol. 14, no. 11

Neuroscience

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Abstract/Notes: Studies have shown scholastic, creative, and social benefits of Montessori education, benefits that were hypothesized to result from better executive functioning on the part of those so educated. As these previous studies have not reported consistent outcomes supporting this idea, we therefore evaluated scholastic development in a cross-sectional study of kindergarten and elementary school-age students, with an emphasis on the three core executive measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory update, and selective attention (inhibition). Two hundred and one (201) children underwent a complete assessment: half of the participants were from Montessori settings, while the other half were controls from traditional schools. The results confirmed that Montessori participants outperformed peers from traditional schools both in academic outcomes and in creativity skills across age groups and in self-reported well-being at school at kindergarten age. No differences were found in global executive functions, except working memory. Moreover, a multiple mediations model revealed a significant impact of creative skills on academic outcomes influenced by the school experience. These results shed light on the possibly overestimated contribution of executive functions as the main contributor to scholastic success of Montessori students and call for further investigation. Here, we propose that Montessori school-age children benefit instead from a more balanced development stemming from self-directed creative execution.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225319

ISSN: 1932-6203

Article

School Enrolment and Executive Functioning: A Longitudinal Perspective on Developmental Changes, the Influence of Learning Context, and the Prediction of Pre-Academic Skills

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, vol. 8, no. 5

Pages: 526-540

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Abstract/Notes: The present two-year longitudinal study addressed developmental changes in different aspects of executive functioning (i.e., inhibition, updating, and cognitive flexibility) in a sample of 264 children aged between 5 and 7 years. Of special interest were issues of developmental progression over time, the influence of learning context and the predictive power of executive functions and school context for emerging academic skills. The results revealed pronounced improvements in all executive measures, both over time and as a function of age. For the learning context, small and age-dependent effects on executive skills were found. Inhibition uniquely contributed to the prediction of aspects of emerging academic skills, over and above chronological age and language skills.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/17405629.2011.571841

ISSN: 1740-5610, 1740-5629

Article

Italian Academic Pedagogical Magazines in the History of Education in the XX Century

Available from: Pedagógiatörténeti Szemle

Publication: Pedagógiatörténeti Szemle, vol. 1, no. 4

Pages: 1-22

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Abstract/Notes: This paper aims to reconstruct the main strands of Italian educational thought using academic pedagogical magazines as a mirror for scientific and political developments through the years. I shall follow a chronological order, indicating the main changes which have occurred in Italy since its unification, concentrating on cultural turns and academic shifts. Pedagogical and school magazines have been the object of quite a number of extensive historical works, followed by other studies on school and educational publishing houses. Giorgio Chiosso has been the leading figure in this research for many years, having directed national projects in pedagogical journals and publishing houses, which have provided important historical tools, such as the catalogues of Italian school and educational magazines 1820-1945 (Chiosso, 1989, 1992, 1993, 1997) and the catalogues of Italian pedagogical publishing houses in the XIX and XX centuries (Chiosso, 2003a, 2008). Whilst the pedagogical magazines before and after unification have been carefully catalogued, the educational journals of Republican Italy have yet to be researched. An updated short biography and bibliography of the quoted educationalists can be found in the recent biographical dictionary directed by Chiosso and Sani (2013).

Language: English

DOI: 10.22309/PTSZEMLE.2015.4.1

ISSN: 2415-9093

Doctoral Dissertation

Evaluation of the Reorganization of Northboro Elementary School in Palm Beach County, Florida: A Ten-Year Perspective

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the reorganization of Northboro Elementary School from the academic years of 1991–1992 through 2000–2001. The study was designed to determine the effectiveness of achieving five objectives established for the reorganization in two-year increments of implementation from the perspectives of the administrative staff, teachers, paraprofessionals, and parents. The reorganization objectives were (1) to develop a physically and psychologically safe environment for all students; (2) to implement a public magnet program to racially balance the population with non-Black students; (3) to increase student achievement scores on the state assessment test in the areas of reading, writing, and mathematics; (4) to increase parent involvement at the school; and (5) to improve the quality and increase the amount of staff development. Utilizing the focus group method, the 35 participants represented, 4 administrative staff, 9 paraprofessionals, 4 reading teachers, 3 regular and 6 Montessori teachers, and 9 parents. The Levels of Use of the Innovation (LoU) (Hall, Loucks, Rutherford, & Newlove, 1975) was used for the assessment of all aspects of the reorganization. As a result of the evaluation, it was determined that all the objectives were met in accordance with the LoU model. The major findings were: (1) Using an effective reorganization tool, such as the Levels of Use, gave the leader clear direction for reorganization, from orienting, to managing, and finally to integrating the use of the innovation. (2) Parent participation in the reorganization process was essential for effective teaching and learning. Parent involvement was critical in promoting a sound physically and psychologically safe environment. (3) Implementing an innovative Montessori Magnet program reduced the racial balance, and drew racially, economically, and educationally diverse students. Based on the findings, it is recommended that additional evaluations be conducted to include: (1) Examining the extent race or age had on the overall success of the reorganization. (2) Determining if the Montessori, Reading Recovery, and Levels of Use strategies are only effective at the elementary level. (3) Assessing the academic achievement of eighth- and tenth-grade students who participated in the Reading Recovery Program.

Language: English

Published: Cincinnati, Ohio, 2004

Article

The Montessori Preschool: Preparation for Writing and Reading

Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 25, no. 1

Pages: 79-98

Child development, Children with disabilities, Classroom environment, Early childhood education, Literacy, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Prepared environment, Reading - Academic achievement, Special education, Writing - Achievement

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Abstract/Notes: Discusses guidelines for the use of the Montessori prepared environment in addressing special needs students, focusing on writing and reading difficulties. Examines the value of Montessori's motor and sensory education as a bridge for both typically and atypically developing children. (JPB)

Language: English

ISSN: 1522-9734

Article

Analisis Metode Montessori Dalam Meningkatkan Kemampuan Membaca Permulaan Siswa SD/MI Kelas Rendah [Analysis of the Montessori Method in Improving the Beginning Reading Ability of Low Grade SD/MI Students]

Available from: Al-Aulad: Journal of Islamic Primary Education

Publication: Al-Aulad: Journal of Islamic Primary Education, vol. 3, no. 2

Pages: 69-77

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Metode Montessori merupakan metode yang dirumuskan berdasarkan teori montessori yang dapat digunakan dalam ranah pendidikan anak  dan disusun berdasarkan teori tentang perkembangan anak.  Karakteristik yang  paling terlihat dari metode ini yaitu menekankan pada aktivitas yang dimunculkan oleh diri anak dengan menekankan pada proses adaptasi lingkungan belajar anak yang dibentuk sesuai dengan tahap perkembangannya menggunakan peran dari aktivitas fisik dalam menyerap konsep pembelajaran untuk memiliki kemampuan yang praktis. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan bagaimanakah metode Montessori dalam meningkatakan kemampuan membaca permulaan. Penelitian ini merupakan studi kepustakaan (library research), pembahasan dianalisis dengan menggunakan metode analisa isi (analysis content). Sumber yang digunakan dalam tulisan ini merupakan tulisan-tuliasan Maria yang telah diterjemahkan kedalam bahasa Indonesia. Hasil Penelitian trekait penerapan metode montessori menggunakan aktivitas rangsangan sesuai dengan prinsip maria montessori ternyata dalam pembelajaran dapat meningkatkan kemampuan membaca siswa dan dapat mengatasi keterbatasan siswa dalam pengenalan huruf-huruf. Maka dengan menggunakan metode Montessori untuk belajar membaca diupayakan dapat membantu peserta didik dalam mengembangkan kemampuan kognitif, psikomotor, dan afektif yang terdapat pada diri peserta didik, dengan membuat anak dapat belajar sesuai dengan tingkat perkembangannya. [The Montessori method is a method formulated based on the montessori theory which can be used in the realm of children's education and is compiled based on the theory of child development. The most visible characteristic of this method is that it emphasizes the activities brought up by the child by emphasizing the adaptation process of the child's learning environment which is formed according to their development stage using the role of physical activity in absorbing the concept of learning to have practical abilities. This paper aims to describe how the Montessori method is to improve pre-reading skills. This research is a library research, the discussion is analyzed using the content analysis method (content analysis). The source used in this paper is Maria's writings which have been translated into Indonesian. The results of this research concerning the application of the montessori method using stimulation activities in accordance with the principle of maria montessori, it turns out that learning can improve students 'reading skills and can overcome students' limitations in recognizing letters. So by using the Montessori method to learn to read, it is endeavored to help students develop cognitive, psychomotor, and affective abilities that are found in students, by enabling children to learn according to their level of development.]

Language: Indonesian

DOI: 10.15575/al-aulad.v3i2.7917

ISSN: 2620-5238

Article

Montessori and Early Reading

Publication: Reading News Report [Reading Newsreport], vol. 7

Pages: 4-6, 8

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Language: English

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