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Article

The Toddler Years: A Time Of Exuberance And Joy

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 26, no. 2

Pages: 32-35

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: In this article the authors describe how Montessori teachers create environments that assist and support toddlers. For all Montessori children, especially toddlers, giving them opportunities to perceive and experience the world through their own unaided efforts is the central premise of their prepared environments. The caretakers prepare the environment to offer the child ample experiences of independence, at every point and level: from the layout, to the scale of the furnishings, to the materials themselves. From the size of the sinks to the size of the spoons, all is scaled to the toddler body. The Montessori toddler room has children from 18 months to 36 months. In infancy, the child moves from slithering to crawling to walking. In the toddler months, he needs freedom of movement to continue to develop physical coordination. In the Montessori classroom, the children are free to move throughout the environment. They are offered opportunities to engage all their muscles: to lift heavy objects and carry them from one place to another. There are several places inside to jump, spin, and experiment with balance: a small step to climb up and jump off; a "sit-n-spin" to twirl; a rocking seat to tip and right themselves--all motions helping to strengthen the core, learn balance, and develop large-muscle coordination. The environment is designed to meet each child at her particular stage of development, rather than to prepare her for the next stage of development. Toddlers are offered an environment that corresponds to what they naturally crave--activities and experiences to develop coordination, support independence, assist in taking care of self, and help in taking care of the environment. The adult carefully prepares an environment designed for the exploration of the senses, without overstimulation, to help create experiences that support and nurture the needs, natural growth, and development of the toddler. The adult in the Toddler environment must be a skilled observer: She watches and observes the children as they interact with the environment; she must balance ever-changing needs of freedom and limits, exploration and structure, stimuli and sanctuary.

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Doctoral Dissertation

The Historical Evolution and Contemporary Status of Montessori Schooling in New Zealand as an Example of the Adaptation of an Alternative Educational Ideal to a Particular National Context

Available from: Massey University - Theses and Dissertations

Australasia, Australia and New Zealand, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - History, New Zealand, Oceania

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Abstract/Notes: There have been two distinct phases of the Montessori method of education in New Zealand. The first began in 1912 and continued into the 1950s. The second phase, starting in 1975, has resulted in over one hundred Montessori early childhood centres being established throughout the country. In this thesis I examined the historical evolution and contemporary status of Montessori schooling in New Zealand, as an adaptation of an alternative educational ideal to a particular national context. To situate this study, the history of the Montessori movement was investigated, taking into consideration the particular character and personality of its founder, Dr. Maria Montessori (1870-1952). It is argued that the apparent contradictions of Montessori, who claimed to be both a scientific educator and a missionary, help explain the endurance of her method. The thesis further maintains that Montessori became a global educator whose philosophy and pedagogy transcends national boundaries. The middle section of this thesis examines the Montessori movement in New Zealand during the first phase and the second phase, highlighting the key role that individuals played in spreading Montessori's ideas. The major aim was to examine how Montessori education changes and adapts in different cultures and during different time frames. The thesis concentrates on New Zealand as a culturally specific example of a global phenomenon. The final section of the thesis is a case study of a Montessori early childhood centre examining the influence of Government policy and how the development of the centre supports the ongoing implementation of Montessori's ideas. The perceptions of Montessori teachers, former parents and students regarding the nature and value of Montessori education are also considered. Finally, observations carried out as part of the case study are analysed to further demonstrate the ways in which the original ideas of Montessori have been reworked to suit a different historical and societal context. It is concluded that Montessori is a global educator whose philosophy and pedagogy transcends national boundaries. Nonetheless, the integration of Montessori education within any country, including New Zealand, does result in a culturally specific Montessori education.

Language: English

Published: Palmerston North, New Zealand, 2004

Article

Culture, Race, Diversity: How Montessori Spells Success in Public Schools

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 18, no. 4

Pages: 9

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Addressing the many complex issues associated with culture, race, and diversity is tough under any circumstances. But such issues become even more complex in school settings where large numbers of students speak different languages and reflect diverse ethnicities and socioeconomic statuses. In this article, the author describes how the faculty members and the administrators at Fort Wayne Community Schools (FWCS) in Indiana found a balance between quality education and student diversity. FWCS offers a district-wide school choice program that features a number of different educational offerings. Interestingly, as the district's student population (nearly 32,000) has become increasingly diverse--it now has about 80 languages/dialects represented by students--its Montessori magnet program has grown more successful. The author also relates that FWCS' Montessori magnet program is superbly suited to prepare students to flourish in culturally and racially diverse environments. As such, it is highly in demand among parents.

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Article

Effects of Teaching Orientation on Social Interaction in Nursery School

Available from: APA PsycNET

Publication: Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 68, no. 6

Pages: 725-728

Americas, Comparative education, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: 53 4- and 5-yr-olds in traditional and Montessori nursery schools were observed for social interaction during free play. The schools differed on teaching orientation and grading but had the same child/adult ratio. Ss in both settings engaged in the same amount of social interaction, but Ss in the Montessori setting had longer mean durations of interactions and more verbal and less nonverbal interaction. Males interacted more than females and adults intervened with males more than with females. Results are discussed as they relate to child/adult ratio and differences across and within settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Language: English

DOI: 10.1037/0022-0663.68.6.725

ISSN: 1939-2176, 0022-0663

Article

Scaffolding for Discovery in the Third Plane

Available from: ERIC

Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 40, no. 3

Pages: 7-13

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Laurie Ewert-Krocker emphasizes the teacher's role in nature's prepared environment. Without directing or controlling the child's work, learning spaces can be maximized for concentration by connecting the adolescent's intrinsic learning to the beauty and order of the natural world. The most artful balance is the global understanding of the interdependent natural systems that can be integrated with the local array of daily detail and responsibilities to allow for the formation of comprehensive community values in the context of purposeful work. [This article is based on the talk presented at the NAMTA adolescent workshop titled "Adolescent Creativity, Collaboration, and Discovery," at the AMI/USA Refresher Course, Atlanta, GA, Feb 13-16, 2015.]

Language: English

ISSN: 1522-9734

Book Section

Learning for Peace: The Montessori Way

Available from: Springer Link

Book Title: Peace and War: Historical, Philosophical, and Anthropological Perspectives

Pages: 155-173

Cosmic education, Mahatma Gandhi, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Peace education, Rabindranath Tagore

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Abstract/Notes: Well into the 1930s, the Italian Maria Montessori stated at the European Congress for Peace in Brussels that ‘preventing conflicts is the work of politics; establishing peace is the work of education’. She explicitly linked peace to education and promoted a kind of learning that deviates from mainstream traditional education. Learning for peace was a way of showing that education is not simply about the teaching of literacy and numeracy skills but that it serves a larger purpose, a ‘public common good’. As we gradually approach the twenty-first century, there is a need to rethink about ways in which our educational system can respond to the global challenges. This chapter shows that there are possibilities to build on age-old legacies and theories to improve the quality of education and contribute to a more sustainable future. The focus is on Maria Montessori who somehow appears to be a rare name in the philosophy of education and peace literature.

Language: English

Published: Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020

ISBN: 978-3-030-48671-6

Article

Montessori à l’école publique

Available from: CAIRN

Publication: L'ecole des parents, vol. 629, no. 4

Pages: 52-55

Europe, France, Public Montessori, Western Europe

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Abstract/Notes: École maternelle Ambroise-Croizat, Vaulx-en-Velin. Il est 8 h 20, la classe est prête. Sur les petits meubles s’aligne harmonieusement le fameux matériel en bois imaginé par le médecin italien Maria Montessori : lettres rugueuses pour se familiariser avec le tracé, plateau de transvasement pour développer la motricité et l’attention, clochettes métalliques pour l’éveil musical, etc. Dans un coin sont enroulés les tapis individuels avec lesquels les élèves délimiteront leur espace de travail personnel. Du mobilier jusqu’aux balais et serpillières, tout ici est adapté aux mains enfantines. Ni bureau de maître, ni fenêtre à la vue inaccessible, ici ce sont les enfants qui accueillent les adultes. Pour original qu’il soit, ce matériel n’est pas hors de prix : « On pense souvent que le plus compliqué est de financer le matériel. En réalité, il est facile d’en construire une partie soi-même. Pour le reste, notre budget est le même que celui des classes ordinaires », explique Alexis Gascher, professeur des écoles. Pas d’étiquette pour les prénoms, pour éviter la lecture globale, déconseillée par les chercheurs en sciences cognitives ; pas de jouets d’imitation, conformément aux principes montessoriens, selon lesquels les enfants font « pour de faux » faute de pouvoir faire « pour de vrai ». Peu à peu, les élèves s’installent : ici, une enfant de petite section manipule les cubes de taille croissante de la « tour rose » ; là, un garçon de moyenne section tourne et retourne des barres de différentes longueurs… [Ambroise-Croizat nursery school, Vaulx-en-Velin. It's 8:20 a.m., the class is ready. On the small pieces of furniture, the famous wooden material imagined by the Italian doctor Maria Montessori is harmoniously aligned: rough letters to familiarize yourself with the layout, transfer tray to develop motor skills and attention, metal bells for musical awakening, etc. In one corner are rolled up individual mats with which the pupils will mark out their personal workspace. From furniture to brooms and mops, everything here is suitable for childish hands. Neither master's office, nor window with inaccessible view, here it is the children who welcome the adults. As original as it is, this material is not overpriced: "We often think that the most complicated is to finance the material. In fact, it's easy to build part of it yourself. For the rest, our budget is the same as that of ordinary classes,” explains Alexis Gascher, school teacher. No label for first names, to avoid global reading, not recommended by researchers in cognitive science; no imitation toys, in accordance with Montessori principles, according to which children do "for fake" because they cannot do "for real". Little by little, the pupils settle down: here, a child of small section handles the increasing size cubes of the "pink tower"; there, a middle section boy turns and turns bars of different lengths…]

Language: French

ISSN: 0424-2238

Article

Meng tai suo li jiaoyu bentu hua de tansuo / 蒙台梭利教育本土化的探索 [On the Localization of Montessori Education in Kindergarten]

Publication: Studies In Preschool Education, vol. 2016, no. 7

Pages: 64-66

Asia, China, East Asia, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Both Montessori education and Chinese kindergarten curriculum aim at promoting children's comprehensive and balanced development. The emphasis and difficulty of Montessori education's localization lie in the integration of curriculum content and approach. Our exploration showed that kindergarten should open basic courses to ensure children get comprehensive and balanced development and design development courses to complement art, P.E. and social studies which were the shortcomings of Montessori education and mainly rely on regional and daily life activities to implement the courses with process evaluation.

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 1007-8169

Article

De-Schooling Well-Being: Toward a Learning-Oriented Definition

Available from: SAGE Journals

Publication: ECNU Review of Education, vol. 3, no. 3

Pages: 1-18

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Abstract/Notes: Purpose:(1) Critique conventional schooling as detrimental to student well-being and learning. (2) Articulate an alternative that is more conducive to learning and well-being in classrooms, schools, and educational systems.Design/Approach/Methods:I review the historical functions of compulsory schooling, the main critiques to conventional schooling developed over the past century, emerging knowledge on the neuroscience of learning and well-being, and cases of large-scale pedagogical transformation from the Global South.Findings:I argue that conventional schooling is detrimental to well-being, that deep learning is a precursor of well-being, and that compulsory schooling is not designed to cultivate it. Well-being has to be de-schooled so that students thrive in schools: The grammar of schooling has to be replaced with the language of learning. This requires deep and widespread cultural change, and some movements of pedagogical renewal from the Global South offer important lessons on how to accomplish this.Originality/Value:Expanding the scope of existing debates about student well-being by questioning the assumption that compulsory schooling is inherently good and pointing out that unless the default culture of schooling is replaced with cultures of robust learning, student well-being efforts will simply reproduce the very problems they seek to solve.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1177/2096531120935472

ISSN: 2096-5311

Doctoral Dissertation

Evaluation of the Reorganization of Northboro Elementary School in Palm Beach County, Florida: A Ten-Year Perspective

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the reorganization of Northboro Elementary School from the academic years of 1991–1992 through 2000–2001. The study was designed to determine the effectiveness of achieving five objectives established for the reorganization in two-year increments of implementation from the perspectives of the administrative staff, teachers, paraprofessionals, and parents. The reorganization objectives were (1) to develop a physically and psychologically safe environment for all students; (2) to implement a public magnet program to racially balance the population with non-Black students; (3) to increase student achievement scores on the state assessment test in the areas of reading, writing, and mathematics; (4) to increase parent involvement at the school; and (5) to improve the quality and increase the amount of staff development. Utilizing the focus group method, the 35 participants represented, 4 administrative staff, 9 paraprofessionals, 4 reading teachers, 3 regular and 6 Montessori teachers, and 9 parents. The Levels of Use of the Innovation (LoU) (Hall, Loucks, Rutherford, & Newlove, 1975) was used for the assessment of all aspects of the reorganization. As a result of the evaluation, it was determined that all the objectives were met in accordance with the LoU model. The major findings were: (1) Using an effective reorganization tool, such as the Levels of Use, gave the leader clear direction for reorganization, from orienting, to managing, and finally to integrating the use of the innovation. (2) Parent participation in the reorganization process was essential for effective teaching and learning. Parent involvement was critical in promoting a sound physically and psychologically safe environment. (3) Implementing an innovative Montessori Magnet program reduced the racial balance, and drew racially, economically, and educationally diverse students. Based on the findings, it is recommended that additional evaluations be conducted to include: (1) Examining the extent race or age had on the overall success of the reorganization. (2) Determining if the Montessori, Reading Recovery, and Levels of Use strategies are only effective at the elementary level. (3) Assessing the academic achievement of eighth- and tenth-grade students who participated in the Reading Recovery Program.

Language: English

Published: Cincinnati, Ohio, 2004

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