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Report

The Evaluation and Implications of Research with Young Handicapped and Low-Income Children at the Institute for Research on Exceptional Children at the University of Illinois

Available from: ERIC

Americas, Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, North America, Poor children, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This study to determine effects of preschool training of mentally retarded children from low-income families asks three major questions: 1. Does preschool training displace the rate of development of such children? 2. Does rate of growth continue at an accelerated rate, or does it return to the original rate of development during primary school years? 3. Are the results similar for children living in different environments? Five intervention programs are outlined: 1. Traditional nursery school; 2. Community Integrated program; 3. The Montessori method; 4. Karnes structured cognitive plan; and 5. The Bereiter-Englemann(B-E). As a result of the program, some children in the demonstration center no longer function in the retarded range. Behavior has improved and several have entered a public school or preschool for normal children. It is suggested that mothers of infants might accomplish more at home with guidance, since professional tutoring is not feasibly practical, and children with higher IQ need special early programming to attain their potential. (RG)

Language: English

Published: Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, 1973

Article

Movement and the African Child: A Practice Going Astray

Available from: African Journals Online

Publication: African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences, vol. 14

Pages: 41-50

Africa, ⚠️ Invalid DOI

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Abstract/Notes: Movement is life and the power for growth and development for healthy lifestyle. Poor motion or inactivity is the basis for poor development in children and morbidity and mortality in adulthood. As children grow, it is expected that certain developmental dimensions such as physical, socio-emotional and cognitive will develop. These dimensions form a very important aspect of the human life and need to be nurtured to develop appropriately. One of the means through which these dimensions could be nurtured is through body movement involving locomotive and non-locomotive motions. For proper development children need to be taken through conscious steps that will help their all-round development which primarily has been part of African communal settings for cultural integration and development. Era of technology has brought several challenges facing the active lifestyle of African Children thereby predisposing them to sedentary living and its disease risks. Some of these include mass movement from rural setting to urban settlements, use of technology and also social media, fear of the environment and security issues amongst others. There is the need to appraise the cultural effect of technology on active lifestyle of African children and reactivate a balance between technology and re-integration of cultural mediums of training and development in children’s education. To promote adequate physical movement among children, curriculum should integrate healthy cultural/physical activities in the school, and parent should encourage their children to do domestic activities and reduce the use of electronic gadgets such as electronic games, TV and labour saving devices.

Language: English

DOI: 10.4314/ajesms.v14i0

ISSN: 2508-1128

Article

Immersion and Identity: Experiences of an African American Preschool Child

Available from: International Journal of Multicultural Education

Publication: International Journal of Multicultural Education, vol. 12, no. 2

African American community, African Americans, Americas, Bilingualism, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This article explores the benefits and challenges of a Spanish language immersion preschool from the perspective of a non-Spanish speaking African American family.  Data explored include the decision to enroll, reactions from peers and family, home-school communication issues, language development, and family involvement.  In addition, recommendations for families considering this bilingual option are considered. The primary data used for this article come from 127 journal entries written by the mother of the child from the beginning of the preschool admissions process until the end of preschool.

Language: English

DOI: 10.18251/ijme.v12i2.306

ISSN: 1934-5267

Article

Making Room for Children's Autonomy: Maria Montessori's Case for Seeing Children's Incapacity for Autonomy as an External Failing

Available from: Wiley Online Library

Publication: Journal of Philosophy of Education, vol. 50, no. 3

Pages: 332-350

Maria Montessori - Philosophy

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Abstract/Notes: This article draws on Martha Nussbaum's distinction between basic, internal, and external (or combined) capacities to better specify possible locations for children's ‘incapacity’ for autonomy. I then examine Maria Montessori's work on what she calls ‘normalization’, which involves a release of children's capacities for autonomy and self-governance made possible by being provided with the right kind of environment. Using Montessori, I argue that, in contrast to many ordinary and philosophical assumptions, children's incapacities for autonomy are best understood as consequences of an absence of external conditions necessary for children to exercise capacities they already have internally, rather than intrinsic limitations based on their stage of life. In a closing section, I show how Montessori proposes a model wherein both children and adults have autonomy, power, and responsibility, but over different spheres, and suggest implications of these differences for who has responsibility for establishing the conditions under which children can flourish.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1111/1467-9752.12134

ISSN: 1467-9752

Article

Efficacy of Montessori and Traditional Method of Education on Self-Concept Development of Children

Available from: Journal Issues

Publication: International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review, vol. 3, no. 2

Pages: 29-35

Asia, India, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori is a method of education started by Maria Montessori in 1903 for the educationally backward children; after finding its efficacy on them it was thought that it even well suits for the normal children. It became very popular throughout the world in the 20th century and has been implemented both in private and public institutions. Based on certain principles it is evident in many of the researches conducted so far that the Montessori education is conducive for the overall development in social, emotional and cognitive components of children. With this background the present study was conducted to explore the effect of Montessori education on social development in terms of self-concept of the children as compared to the children of traditional method of education. Using descriptive and parametric tests for the obtained data it was found that the Montessori children have very high self-concept than the traditional children. Percentage result shows that the traditional children’s self-concept ranges from low to high category and the Montessori children’s self-concept ranges from high and very high, which indicated marked difference between them in self-concept. According to independent samples t-test results there was a statistical significant difference between the Montessori children group and the traditional children group, the Montessori children are found to have higher self-concept.

Language: English

DOI: 10.15739/IJEPRR.16.005

ISSN: 2360-7076

Article

The Benefits of Mixed-Age Grouping

Available from: ERIC

Publication: ERIC Digest

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: The intention of mixed-age grouping in early childhood settings is to increase the heterogeneity of the group so as to capitalize on the differences in the experience, knowledge, and abilities of the children. One of the benefits of mixed-age groups is that they provide a context in which older children's dispositions to nurture can be strengthened. Other benefits relate to ways of learning. Whereas single-age groups create pressures on children and teachers to expect the same knowledge and skills from all children, in groups of children with a wide age span, the range of behavior and performance likely to be accepted is wider. Results of experiments in which children worked in same-age or mixed-age groups of three have shown that in the latter, older children spontaneously facilitated other children's behavior. In a single-age triad, however, the same children became domineering. Mixed-age groups also provide social and intellectual benefits. In mixed-age groups, younger children are capable of contributing to far more complex activities than they could working by themselves. Both older and younger children benefit from discussions centering on tasks which one understands better than the other. Along with these benefits, there are risks related to mixed-age groups. Younger children might be overwhelmed or pestered by older children, or older children might gloat over their superior skills. Teachers can alleviate these risks by encouraging children to turn to each other for explanations and comfort, showing younger children how to protect themselves, and encouraging older children to read to or write down text for younger children. (BC)

Language: English

Article

Teaching to Be American: The Quest for Integrating the Italian-American Child

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: History of Education, vol. 44, no. 5

Pages: 651-666

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Abstract/Notes: In the early years of the twentieth century, the great structural, social and cultural changes in American society included a growing number of immigrants arriving from the poorest regions of Europe. For the first time, the issues of immigration, assimilation and social integration became the most important problems facing American society. In the optimistic climate of the so-called progressive era, social reformers thought that these problems could be solved by the science of pedagogy, as applied to the educational needs of foreign immigrants. This essay centres on the pedagogical efforts of Italian-American educator Angelo Patri, who attempted to integrate Italian-American children into the fabric of American society through education. It starts by assessing Patri’s early writings, such as A Schoolmaster of the Great City, and his private and professional papers. In doing so, his work is situated in the debate on progressive education alongside pedagogue Maria Montessori, demonstrating his central role in the debate on integration through education. Within this analysis, particular attention is paid to the notion of learning by doing, and it is argued that both educators were influenced by this particular aspect of progressive education.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/0046760X.2015.1063710

ISSN: 0046-760X, 1464-5130

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

You Don’t Need to Speak to be Heard: The Effects of Using American Sign Language with Hearing Lower Elementary Montessori Children

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research, American Sign Language (ASL), Language acquisition, Montessori method of education

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Abstract/Notes: Our research introduced the use of ASL signs with hearing elementary children and examined if this intervention affected the noise level produced in the classroom. The project was performed in two Montessori lower elementary classrooms (1st-3rd grade); one at a Maine private Montessori school, with 28 hearing children, and one at a Wisconsin public Montessori school, with 34 hearing children. In Wisconsin the researcher was a teacher in the classroom, in Maine the researcher was not. Data was measured using four tools: a decibel measuring app, observation form, tally sheet, and a structured discussion. In both classrooms, the change in noise level was minimal, decreasing by 2% overall. Qualitative results, however, indicate the project was worthwhile. The children responded positively to instructions given using ASL and their enthusiasm of learning signs justified the intervention. The intervention granted the children opportunities to discuss exceptionalities. We recognized the importance in such conversations and encouraged this dialogue.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2019

Undergraduate Thesis

Implementasi metode montessori dalam pembelajaran Matematika anak usia 3-4 tahun di PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi [Implementation of the Montessori method in learning Mathematics for children aged 3-4 years at PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi]

Available from: Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel Surabaya Digital Library

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Penelitian ini dilatar belakangi oleh kemampuan matematika anak usia 3-4 tahun di PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi, dengan kemampuan matematika yang dimiliki anak lain, secara umum anak masih bergantung pada orang tua atau guru dalam memahami pembelajaran yang diberikan guru. Jika dilihat pada anak usia 3-4 tahun yang ada di PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi, mereka sudah memperlihatkan kemampuan yang dimilikinya mulai dari mengenal bilangan melalui jumlah benda sampai dengan anak mampu menyelesaikan tugas yang diberikan guru. Pada dasarnya dengan memberikan kesempatan kepada anak untuk mencari pengalaman secara langsung dapat menambah kemampuan matematika pada diri anak. Maka metode pembelajaran seperti apakah yang dilakukan di PG-TK Ar-Raudhah sehingga kemampuan matematika anak usia 3-4 tahun dapat berkembang dengan baik. Rumusan masalah penelitian ini adalah (1) Bagaimana kemampuan matematika anak usia 3-4 tahun PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi Waru Sidoarjo, (2) Bagaimana Implementasi metode Montessori dalam kemampuan matematika anak usia 3-4 tahun di PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi Waru Sidoarjo. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dan pengambilan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi. Analisa yang digunakan yakni model Miles dan Huberman dimana dalam proses analisanya dimulai dari mereduksi data, kemudian menyajikan dan verifikasi. Teknik keabsahan data yang digunakan yakni metode triangulasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa implementasi metode Montessori dalam pembelajaran matematika khususnya di PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi berkembang cukup bagus karena anak mulai mampu mengenal bilangan sampai dengan memahami konsep dan mampu menyelesaikan tugas yang diberikan guru dengan sedikit atau tanpa bantuan sama sekali, hal ini menunjukkan bahwa startegi guru dalam menerapkan metode montessori dalam meningkatkan kemampuan matematika yang dimiliki anak sudah mulai berkembang dengan baik. Begitu juga dengan implementasi yang telah dilaksanakan di lembaga PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi sudah sesuai dengan tahapan yang ada pada metode Montessori mulai dari tahapan menunjukkan bilangan, tahapan mengenalkan dengan media pembelajaran kongkret sampai dengan tahapan mengingat kembali pembelajaran matematika yang sudah diberikan guru sebelumnya, sehingga anak dapat meningkatkan kemampuan matematika yang dimilikinya dengan baik. [This research is motivated by the mathematical ability of children aged 3-4 years in PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi, with the mathematical abilities of other children, in general children still depend on their parents or teachers in understanding the learning given by the teacher. If you look at children aged 3-4 years in PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi, they have shown their abilities ranging from recognizing numbers through the number of objects until the child is able to complete the tasks given by the teacher. Basically, by providing opportunities for children to seek direct experience, they can increase their mathematical abilities. So what kind of learning method is used in PG-TK Ar-Raudhah so that the mathematical abilities of children aged 3-4 years can develop well. The formulation of the research problem is (1) How is the mathematical ability of children aged 3-4 years at PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi Waru Sidoarjo, (2) How is the implementation of the Montessori method in the mathematical abilities of children aged 3-4 years at PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi Waru Sidoarjo. This study used a qualitative approach and data collection was carried out using the methods of observation, interviews, and documentation. The analysis used is the Miles and Huberman model where the analysis process starts from reducing data, then presenting and verifying. The data validity technique used is the triangulation method. The results showed that the implementation of the Montessori method in learning mathematics, especially in PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi developed quite well because children began to be able to recognize numbers to understand concepts and were able to complete tasks given by the teacher with little or no help, this shows that the teacher's strategy in applying the Montessori method in improving children's mathematical abilities has begun to develop well. Likewise, the implementation that has been carried out at the PG-TK Ar-Raudhah Pepelegi institution is in accordance with the stages in the Montessori method starting from the stage of showing numbers, the stage of introducing concrete learning media to the stage of recalling mathematics learning that has been given by the previous teacher, so that children can improve their mathematical abilities well.]

Language: English

Published: Surubaya, Indonesia, 2020

Article

The Montessori Model in Puebla, Mexico: How One Nonprofit Is Helping Children

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 20, no. 1

Pages: 20-25

Americas, Central America, Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: In this article, the author discusses how the JUCONI Foundation in Puebla, Mexico is helping children. (JUCONI is an acronym for "Junto con los Ninos", or "Together with the Children)." This Mexican nongovernmental organization (NGO) has been successfully working with distressed families and children in Puebla since 1989. For the JUCONI Foundation, success means breaking destructive cycles of poverty and abuse, and reintegrating children and parents into society, where it is possible for them to attain education and steady jobs. With a success rate greater than 80 percent, JUCONI has been recognized for its innovative work by such organizations as UNESCO, the World Bank, the European Union, the British government, and the International Youth Foundation. The JUCONI Foundation helps 350 children and 150 families a year. The JUCONI Day Center offers educational and therapeutic services to families and children (up to age 13) working in the markets and provides a Montessori model of education for children ages 18 months to 5 years. Children attend a child-friendly center where they engage in activities designed to foster their creativity, curiosity, and independence. Based upon the guiding principle of fostering a love of learning in children through self- and teacher-initiated experiences, the JUCONI Day Center benefited from the teachings of an experienced guide who played a key role in the implementation of the Montessori model. The Montessori model for the younger children prepares them for the challenges of public education. It is an integrated program designed to help the children realize their emotional, cognitive, social, and physical potential, so they can benefit more from the services available to them.

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

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