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Doctoral Dissertation

The Growth of the Montessori Movement in the United States, 1909-1970

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Americas, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to examine the growth of the Montessori Movement in the United States during the periods 1909-1921 and 1952-1970. The Montessori system was viewed as an innovation in American education and special attention was directed to the leaders of the movement and the role they played in its growth. The primary sources used for the initial period were the papers of Mabel Bell kept in the Bell Room of the National Geographic Society and the McClure Manuscripts housed in the Lilly Library at Indiana University. For the latter period, the following sources were utilized: American Montessori Society files, files of Whitby School, tape recordings from the American Montessori Society, interviews with Nancy Rambusch, Cleo Monson, John McDermott and correspondence with Mario Montessori and Margaret Stephensen. In addition to visits to the original Casa dei Bambini in Rome and modern Case in Italy, many Montessori schools in the United States were observed. The background of Dr. Montessori was discussed and the influences, principles and contributions of her method were examined. The period from 1909-1921 was analyzed with reference to the leadership of Maria Montessori, S.S. McClure, Mabel Bell, Helen Parkhurst and William Kilpatrick. The social, educational, political, theoretical and communications problems were examined to determine possible reasons for the demise of Montessori education in that era. The renascance [sic] of Montessori education in the United States (1952-1970) was examined with emphasis on the leadership of Mario Montessori, Nancy Rambusch, Margaret Stephenson, Cleo Monson and John McDermott. The areas of social, educational, theoretical and communications were studied for likely reasons for the resurgence of Montessori education in America. A paradigmatic schema was used to compare the role of the leaders in each period: Policy maker- Maria Montessori and Mario Montessori; Promoter- S.S. McClure and Nancy Rambusch; Organizer- Mabel Bell and Cleo Monson; Disciple- Helen Parkhurst and Margaret Stephenson; Professional Educator- William Kilpatrick and John McDermott. The qualities of leadership which led to the original demise of the Montessori Movement were: 1) Mistrust and lack of direct contact with United States educators and Montessori promoters by Maria Montessori; 2) Withdrawal of lecture and film rights from S.S. McClure by Dr. Montessori; 3) Dissolution of Montessori organizations by Mabel Bell and Helen Parkhurst because of lack of confidence in them by Maria Montessori; 5) Strong influence by William Kilpatrick (who did not believe in the Montessori method) on kindergarten teachers. The rebirth of the Montessori Movement was influenced by: 1) Mario Montessori's strong adherence to the original ideas of Maria Montessori; 2) Nancy Rambusch's proper use of leadership and timing and the formation of the American Montessori Society by her; 3) The organized efforts of the American Montessori Society and its teacher-training and public relations function by Cleo Monson; 4) The loyalty and knowledge displayed by Margaret Stephenson in running the Association Montessori Internationale teacher-training course in Washington; 5) the efforts of John McDermott to put Montessori in an American cultural context in teacher-training and professionalization of Montessori education. The writer finds strong indications for the thesis that it was the leadership which effected the growth of the Montessori Movement in the United States and recommends further research into other educational innovations in the United States such as the British Infant School Movement and Headstart with attention to the leadership.

Language: English

Published: New York, 1971

Book Section

Die Montessori-Bestrebungen im Kanton Zürich [Montessori Endeavors in the Canton of Zurich]

Book Title: Hundert Jahre Montessori-Pädagogik, 1907-2007: Eine Chronik der Montessori-Pädagogik in der Schweiz [One Hundred Years of Montessori Education, 1907-2007: A Chronicle of Montessori Education in Switzerland]

Pages: 117-134

Annette Güntensperger - Biographic sources, Europe, Hilde Steinemann-Stahli - Biographic sources, Marianna Augsburger-Käser - Biographic sources, Martha Meyer - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Selina Chönz-Meyer - Biographic sources, Switzerland, Western Europe

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Language: German

Published: Bern, Switzerland: Haupt Verlag, 2007

Edition: 1st edition

ISBN: 978-3-258-07092-6

Book

America's Early Montessorians: Anne George, Margaret Naumburg, Helen Parkhurst, and Adelia Pyle

Available from: Springer Link

Adelia Pyle - Biographic sources, Americas, Anne E. George - Biographic sources, Helen Parkhurst - Biographic sources, Margaret Naumburg - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This book traces the early history of the Montessori movement in the United States through the lives and careers of four key American women: Anne George, Margaret Naumburg, Helen Parkhurst, and Adelia Pyle. Caught up in the Montessori craze sweeping the United States in the Progressive era, each played a significant role in the initial transference of Montessori education to America and its implementation from 1910 to 1920. Despite the continuing international recognition of Maria Montessori and the presence of Montessori schools world-wide, Montessori receives only cursory mention in the history of education, especially by recognized historians in the field and in courses in professional education and teacher preparation. The authors, in seeking to fill this historical void, integrate institutional history with analysis of the interplay and tensions between these four women to tell this educational story in an interesting—and often dramatic—way.

Language: English

Published: Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020

ISBN: 978-3-030-54834-6

Series: Historical Studies in Education

Article

In Memoriam [Eileen Roper Ast, Jane Dutcher, Hannelore Engelman, Dennis Schapiro, Hildegard Solzbacher]

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 26, no. 3

Pages: 20

Dennis Schapiro - Biographic sources, Eileen Roper Ast - Biographic sources, Hannelore Engelman - Biographic sources, Hildegard Solzbacher - Biographic sources, Jane Dutcher - Biographic sources, Obituaries

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Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Article

To Help Montessori Work; Washington Friends Form Chapter of Educational Association

Available from: ProQuest Historical Newspapers

Publication: Washington Post (Washington, D.C.)

Pages: 5

Alexander Graham Bell - Biographic sources, Americas, Anne E. George - Biographic sources, Mabel Bell - Biographic sources, Margaret Woodrow Wilson - Biographic sources, Montessori Educational Association (USA), North America, United States of America

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Language: English

Doctoral Dissertation

The Roots and Legacies of Four Key Women Pioneers in Early Childhood Education: A Theorectical and Philosophical Discussion

Available from: British Librarty - EthOS

Margaret McMillan - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Rachel McMillan - Biographic sources, Susan Isaacs - Biographic sources

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Abstract/Notes: Philosophical, theoretical and scientific interest in early childhood has a very long history. The idea that the early years are the foundation of children's long term prospects is one of the most ancient, enduring and influencing themes shaping early childhood policy and provision today. The motivation and purpose for this study stems from a desire to de-familiarise that which is already known in order to reflect upon, and identify new understandings of early childhood education in relation to universal values and beliefs concerning young children's learning and development. Using an interpretative paradigm, which Habermas (1984, p.109) would describe as a "double hermeneutic" as the process involves striving to re- interpret the already interpreted world, I argue that the principles, practices and provision of early childhood education in the United Kingdom today have strong roots in the innovative pedagogies of four influential women of the 19th and 20th century: Margaret and Rachel McMillan, Maria Montessori and Susan Isaacs. This study adopts a historical stance and firstly examines how early childhood education began through exploring and reflecting upon the early philosophers of the past whose ideas, values and beliefs were influential in shaping the key women pioneers' thinking. The study then moves on to examines the roots and legacies of the four women and the contribution they each made to early childhood education today. The contribution of my thesis to current knowledge and understanding of early childhood education lies firstly in the way I have synthesised the lives and work of the four women who form the focus of this thesis and secondly, in my demonstration of the way much of what constitutes effective early childhood provision has been shaped through the course of history.

Language: English

Book Section

Die Anfänge der Montessori-Methode in der Schweiz [The Beginnings of the Montessori Method in Switzerland]

Book Title: Hundert Jahre Montessori-Pädagogik, 1907-2007: Eine Chronik der Montessori-Pädagogik in der Schweiz [One Hundred Years of Montessori Education, 1907-2007: A Chronicle of Montessori Education in Switzerland]

Pages: 25-88

Europe, Fascism, Giovannina Mattei-Alberti - Biographic sources, Maria Boschetti-Alberti - Biographic sources, Maria Valli - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Sister Irene Curti - Biographic sources, Switzerland, Teresa Bontempi - Biographic sources, Western Europe

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Language: German

Published: Bern, Switzerland: Haupt Verlag, 2007

Edition: 1st edition

ISBN: 978-3-258-07092-6

Book Section

A Quartet of American Montessori Directresses

Available from: Springer Link

Book Title: America's Early Montessorians: Anne George, Margaret Naumburg, Helen Parkhurst and Adelia Pyle

Pages: 3-35

Adelia Pyle - Biographic sources, Americas, Anne E. George - Biographic sources, Helen Parkhurst - Biographic sources, Margaret Naumburg - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - History, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: America’s Early Montessorians tells the history of the introduction and implementation of Montessori education in the United States, through the careers of Anne George, Margaret Naumburg, Helen Parkhurst, and Adelia Pyle who Maria Montessori trained as directresses. The chapter provides parallel biographies of George, Pyle, Parkhurst, and Naumburg before their enrollment in Montessori’s training courses. Anne Everett George (1878–1973), the first American trained as a directress, was America’s pioneer Montessori educator. Born in Missouri, George became a private school teacher and taught in Maryland, New York, and Chicago’s Latin School. Adelia McAlpin Pyle (1888–1968) the daughter of a wealthy manufacturer, James Tolman Pyle, was born in New York and educated by private tutors. She was fluent in French, German, Italian, and Spanish. Helen Parkhurst (1886–1973), who was born in Wisconsin, earned her degree in education from the Wisconsin State Normal School in River Falls in 1909. Parkhurst taught in public elementary schools in Wisconsin and Washington and became the Director of Primary Training in Wisconsin’s State Normal School at Stevens Point. Margaret Naumburg (1890–1963), born in New York, received her elementary and secondary education in private schools including the Horace Mann School and the laboratory school at Columbia University’s Teachers College. She was awarded her B.A. degree in June 1912 from Barnard College and did graduate study at the London School of Economics.

Language: English

Published: Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020

ISBN: 978-3-030-54835-3

Series: Historical Studies in Education

Book Section

A Study in Personality: Montessori and George, Naumburg, Parkhurst and Pyle

Available from: Springer Link

Book Title: America's Early Montessorians: Anne George, Margaret Naumburg, Helen Parkhurst and Adelia Pyle

Pages: 59-68

Adelia Pyle - Biographic sources, Americas, Anne E. George - Biographic sources, Helen Parkhurst - Biographic sources, Margaret Naumburg - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - History, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This chapter analyzes the personal interactions of the principal characters—George, Naumburg, Parkhurst and Pyle—and an over-powering fifth woman, Maria Montessori. The analysis of the interplay, the personal relationships, and the tensions between these principals, is integrated with the institutional history of educational organizations, schools, and events. George, Naumburg, Parkhurst, and Pyle arrived at the Montessori training courses believing their instructor, the greatest educator in the world, was truly “an educational wonder worker.” A complex multidimensional person, Montessori, determined to control what she had created, expected total loyalty, almost fealty and submission, from her trainees. Montessori’s demanding personality caused tension with her four students that affected the establishment of her method in the United States.

Language: English

Published: Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020

ISBN: 978-3-030-54835-3

Series: Historical Studies in Education

Doctoral Dissertation

Φύση και αγωγή στη διαδικασία διαμόρφωσης της προσωπικότητας: εξέταση των ιδεών των Ζ.Ζ. Ρουσσώ, Μ. Μοντεσσόρι, Κ. Ρότζερς και Λ. Βυγκότσκι [Nature and education in the process of personality development: an analysis of the ideas of J.J. Rousseau, M. Montessori, C. Rogers and L. Vygotsky]

Available from: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Carl Rogers - Biographic sources, Carl Rogers - Philosophy, Child development, Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Biographic sources, Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Philosophy, Lev Vygotsky - Biographic sources, Lev Vygotsky - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Maturation (Psychology), Student-centered learning

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Abstract/Notes: Η παρούσα διατριβή επιχειρεί τη διερεύνηση της διαμόρφωσης της προσωπικότητας υπό το πρίσμα της αλληλεπίδρασης μεταξύ των βιολογικών και των κοινωνικών συνιστωσών της ανάπτυξης του παιδιού, όπως την πραγματεύονται οι θεωρίες του Ζαν-Ζακ Ρουσσώ, της Μαρίας Μοντεσσόρι, του Καρλ Ρότζερς και του Λεβ Βυγκότσκι. Δεδομένου ότι η προσωπικότητα αποτελεί το επίκεντρο κάθε παιδαγωγικής θεωρίας συνιστώντας το ιδεώδες στο οποίο αποσκοπεί η αγωγή, εξετάζονται οι δυνατότητες και οι περιορισμοί της αγωγής όσον αφορά τη διαμόρφωση της προσωπικότητας των παιδιών μέσω της συγκριτικής ανάλυσης της πολιτισμικής-ιστορικής θεωρίας του Λ. Βυγκότσκι και της παιδοκεντρικής παράδοσης, όπως εκφράζεται στις θεωρίες του Ζ.Ζ. Ρουσσώ, της Μ. Μοντεσσόρι και οτου Κ. Ρότζερς. Στο πρώτο κεφάλαιο επιχειρείται η εννοιολόγηση του όρου προσωπικότητα όπως αποτυπώνεται στις κυριότερες θεωρίες προσωπικότητας και στα επόμενα κεφάλαια παρουσιάζονται και εξεταζονται κριτικά οι θεωρίες των τεσσάρων προαναφερθέντων στοχαστών. Τέλος, διατυπώνονται ορισμένα μεθοδολογικά συμπεράσματα σχετικά με τη διαλεκτική αλληλεπίδραση μεταξύ φύσης και αγωγής στη διαδικασία διαμόρφωσης της προσωπικότητας και αναδεικνύεται η συμβολή των τεσσάρων θεωριών που εξετάστηκαν στη διαμόρφωση της παιδαγωγικής σκέψης. Επιπλέον, προσεγγίζεται η έννοια της ολόπλευρα ανεπτυγμένης προσωπικότητας ως σκοπού της αγωγής. [The present thesis aims to study personality development in the light of the interaction between biological and social factors of child development as it is discussed in the theories of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Maria Montessori, Carl Rogers and Lev Vygotsky. Given the fact that personality development constitutes the centre of every pedagogical theory, being the ideal to which education aims, the potential and the limits of education with regard to the development of children’s personality are examined through the comperative analysis of L. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical theory, and the child-centred tradition as it is presented in the theories of J.J. Rousseau, M. Montessori, and C. Rogers. In the first chapter there is an attempt to conceptually delineate the term personality as it is outlined in the main personality theories, and in the following chapters the theories of the four thinkers mentioned above are presented and critically examined. Finally, some methodological conclusions concerning the dialectical interaction between nature and education in the process of personality development are put forth, and the contribution of the four theories which were investigated in the development of pedagogical thinking is highlighted. Furthermore, the notion of the wholly developed personality as the goal of education is approached.]

Language: Greek

Published: Thessaloniki, Greece, 2018

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