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Book Section

Die Montessori-Bestrebungen im Kanton Zürich [Montessori Endeavors in the Canton of Zurich]

Book Title: Hundert Jahre Montessori-Pädagogik, 1907-2007: Eine Chronik der Montessori-Pädagogik in der Schweiz [One Hundred Years of Montessori Education, 1907-2007: A Chronicle of Montessori Education in Switzerland]

Pages: 117-134

Annette Güntensperger - Biographic sources, Europe, Hilde Steinemann-Stahli - Biographic sources, Marianna Augsburger-Käser - Biographic sources, Martha Meyer - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Selina Chönz-Meyer - Biographic sources, Switzerland, Western Europe

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Language: German

Published: Bern, Switzerland: Haupt Verlag, 2007

Edition: 1st edition

ISBN: 978-3-258-07092-6

Article

President Wilson's Daughter to Aid Mme. Montessori Show Her System

Available from: Library of Congress

Publication: The Sun (New York) (New York City, NY)

Pages: 6

Americas, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The Montessori movement, considered by many a radical departure from traditional educational methods, will receive new emphasis and publicity from the fact that visitors to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition will see during the months of August, September, October and November not only a demonstration of the Montessori system but will see it conducted by the talented woman herself. Associated with her will be Miss Margaret Wilson, daughter of the President, Dr. David Starr Jordan, chancellor of Leland Stanford Junior University, and other well known educators. The Montessori method has been summed up as 'freedom for development of the child under best conditions disturbing as little as possible but helping buy every means this development.' Any estimate of Mme. Montessori's work to be of practical value will involve a comparison between the Montessori method and that of the kindergarten, since the kindergarten is the only system of organizes educational work for young children that has so far received general recognition. In the middle of the last century the sensitive woman soul and philosophic mind of Froebel grasped the fundamental principle of development and say that the first six or seven years are the most important in the life of the individual. After years of study he embodied what he conceived to be the fundamental principles of the education of little children in what is known as the kindergarten, and his ideas of the best means for the application of these principles in his kindergarten program, materials and devices. The discovery of the kindergarten marked a new era in the history of the educational world. Though suppressed for years by government authority in Germany, and received with much suspicion elsewhere, the kindergarten has become an integral part of the public school system of many cities and States in our country. Its introduction into England was championed by Charles Dickens, and in America it found an advocate in the philosopher and educator Dr. William T. Harris. Concerning the kindergarten and the Montessori methods, Dr. P. P. Claxton, United States Commissioner of Education says: 'Though aims and principles are the same for both Froebel and Montessori, their different methods of approach have resulted in difference in emphasis, program and decides. For those who see no further than the form there is apparent conflict. Many cannot understand that the work of both Froebel and Montessori must finally lose each its distinctive characteristics in the larger whole of a more perfect knowledge of the nature of infancy and the means of educating young children.' It must be said of Dr. Montessori that she is first, last and always scientific in her work. Prolonged training in the sciences that relate to human life, vitalized by practical experience in their application to defective children, gave her a method which is the outcome of genius, training and experience. She swung into prominence, against her wish, in the following way: While serving as assistant doctor at the psychiatric clinic of the University of Rome, Italy, she founder herself differing from her colleagues in that she felt, as she says, 'that mental deficiency presented chiefly a pedagogic rather than mainly a medical problem.' The expression of these views in an address brought Dr. Montessori prominently before the Minister of Public Instruction, and her work from this on assumed a public character. Her belief that the methods employed with deficient children 'contained educational principles more rational than those in use and that if applied to normal children they would develop or set free their personality in a marvelous and surprising way,' became her controlling idea, and is the very heart of the Montessori system. The system of Mme. Montessori is indissolubly joined with her famous 'didactic material.' Among this will be found small wooden frames to which are attached pieces of cloth or leather on which are buttons and buttonholes, hooks and eyes, eyelets and lacing cords, and strings to be tied and untied. There are also boxes of cylindrical insets and other simple devices to develop 'man's mystery over nature.' Mme. Montessori is her best interpreter when she says, 'We are inclined to believe that children are like puppets and we wash them and feed them as if they were dolls. We do not stop to think that the child that does not do does not know how to do. Our duty is that of helping him to make a conquest of such useful acts as nature intended he should perform for himself. The mother who feeds her child without making the least effort to teach him to hold the spoon for himself and to try to find his mouth with it is not a wise mother. She treats her son as though he were a doll. We call an individual disciplined when he is master of himself and can regulate his own conduct when it shall be necessary to follow some rule of life. If any educational act is to be efficacious it is necessary rigorously to avoid the arrest of spontaneous movements and the imposition of arbitrary tasks. It is of course understood here that we do not speak of a useless or dangerous act; this must be suppressed, destroyed.' The Montessori doctrine is therefore in substance that the child's inner self or personalit cannot rightfully develop unless free to express itself undirected and unguided by another person. As a consequence Dr. Montessori insists that each child be allowed bodily freedom and have as much unhampered liberty of action as possible in order that he may fully express his inner life in outer activity. The classic illustration by which Dr. Montessori puts in concrete form her doctrine is the following: 'One day the children had gathered in a circle about a basin of water containing some floating toys. A little boy 2 1/2 years old had been left outside the circle. He drew near to the other children and tried to force his way among them, but he was not strong enough to do this. The expression of thought on his face was intensely interesting. His eyes then lighted upon a little chair and he had evidently made up his mind to place it behind the group of children and climb on it. As he began to move toward the chair, his face illuminated with hope, a teacher seized him in her arms, lifted him above the heads of the other children, showed him the basin of water, saying, 'Come poor little one you shall see too.' The child seeing the floating toys did not experience the joy that he was about to feel through conquering the obstacles with his own force. The teacher hindered the child in this case from educating himself. The little fellow was about to feel himself a conqueror, and instead he found himself held within two imprisoning arms impotent.' The now famous 'House of the Children' in Rome, under the patronage of Queen Margherita, faithfully reflects and demonstrates the Montessori principles and methods. It has been described as an old orphan asylum, whose gray outer walls give no idea of the two beautiful and luxuriant courtyards within. These latter are filled with beds of blossoming plans, and the pillars of the inner porch are covered with clinging vines. The schoolroom in which the class for the children is held opens with wide double doors into one of these lovely courtyards, where the children play during hours in which they are not engaged in their Montessori exercises. Miss Elizabeth Harrison, president of the National Kindergarten Union says of this 'House of the Children': 'On my first visit I found the children busy getting out the 'didactic material' with which they were to employ themselves for the next hour and a quarter. Some came forward to shake hands with me; some merely smiled and nodded and did not interrupt their work. All seemed busy, happy and free. I afterward saw as many as eighty visitors in the room where there were only a dozen children, but none of the children were in the least disturbed by or seemingly conscious of the presence of the visitors. Most of the children came from nearby tenement houses, yet even the youngest of them washed their own hands and faces, put on clean, neat calico aprons and looked as fresh and clean as children from well cared for homes.' Comparing the kindergarten and the Montessori systems, the following differences appear: The kindergarten stresses group activities, while the Montessori system emphasized almost exclusively the development of the individual. The kindergartners say that education in coordinating of muscles, the special training of the child's senses and all such phases of individual development are expected to come in the nursery. The Montessori system has no place for stories; the kindergartners are famous for them. Mme. Montessori objects to stories for young children on the theory that all activities of the mind are derived from the outside world and are dependent on sense impressions, and that therefore the child should be kept within the realm of his own personal experience until he is at least 7 or 8 years old. It is not necessary to add that two __ meet at this point of difference. The most remarkable features of the Montessori system, as well as one of its decided points of divergence from the kindergarten, lies in its ___ of definite attitude on religious training. Froebel, trained in an environment where instruction in religion is practically nationwide, says that while the child unconsciously manifests teh divine impuse within him he must follow it with conscious insights persisting in what he knows to do right and must needs have definite training of this kind. Montessori, on the other hand, with nuns as her assistants and attendants in her 'House of the Children,' acknowledges the importance of religious training for little children, 'but confesses that as yet it is an unsolved problem to her.' Miss Harrison, who spent some time in Rome with Mme. Montessori says, 'She [Montessori] seems to feel that a child's spiritual nature will ___ aright if freedom is given ....

Language: English

Article

Giuliana Sorge, Luigia Tincani e la diffusione del metodo Montessori / Giuliana Sorge, Luigia Tincani and Dissemination of Montessori Method

Available from: Rivista di Storia dell’Educazione

Publication: Rivista di Storia dell’Educazione, vol. 8, no. 2

Pages: 83-95

Aldo Agazzi - Biographic sources, Europe, Giuliana Sorge - Biographic sources, Italy, Luigia Tincani - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori movement, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: Giuliana Sorge (1903-1987) was one of Maria Montessori’s closest disciples. Many parts of her life are linked to the alternating vicissitudes of the spread of the Method in Italy. She is personally involved at the time of the breakdown of the relation between Maria Montessori and fascism. We find her in the immediate postwar period engaged in the reconstruction of the Montessori National Institution and in the dissemination of the Method in Italy. To do this, she weaves a network of relations with exponents of the political and ecclesiastical world assisted by the friendship of Luigia Tincani, a Catholic, Montessori’s friend, founder of what will become the Free University Maria SS. Assunta and a religious congregation. This emerges from an unpublished correspondence between these two women, which also contains interesting news relating to the hostility of prof. Aldo Agazzi towards the spread of the Montessori Method.

Language: Italian

DOI: 10.36253/rse-10374

ISSN: 2532-2818

Article

To Help Montessori Work; Washington Friends Form Chapter of Educational Association

Available from: ProQuest Historical Newspapers

Publication: Washington Post (Washington, D.C.)

Pages: 5

Alexander Graham Bell - Biographic sources, Americas, Anne E. George - Biographic sources, Mabel Bell - Biographic sources, Margaret Woodrow Wilson - Biographic sources, Montessori Educational Association (USA), North America, United States of America

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Language: English

Article

Explains Montessori Plan. Miss Bateman Tells Mothers About New Method to Teach Children

Available from: ProQuest Historical Newspapers

Publication: Washington Post (Washington, D.C.)

Pages: 5

Alexander Graham Bell - Biographic sources, Americas, Anne E. George - Biographic sources, Mabel Bell - Biographic sources, Margaret Woodrow Wilson - Biographic sources, Montessori Educational Association (USA), North America, United States of America

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Language: English

Doctoral Dissertation

The Roots and Legacies of Four Key Women Pioneers in Early Childhood Education: A Theorectical and Philosophical Discussion

Available from: British Librarty - EthOS

Margaret McMillan - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Rachel McMillan - Biographic sources, Susan Isaacs - Biographic sources

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Abstract/Notes: Philosophical, theoretical and scientific interest in early childhood has a very long history. The idea that the early years are the foundation of children's long term prospects is one of the most ancient, enduring and influencing themes shaping early childhood policy and provision today. The motivation and purpose for this study stems from a desire to de-familiarise that which is already known in order to reflect upon, and identify new understandings of early childhood education in relation to universal values and beliefs concerning young children's learning and development. Using an interpretative paradigm, which Habermas (1984, p.109) would describe as a "double hermeneutic" as the process involves striving to re- interpret the already interpreted world, I argue that the principles, practices and provision of early childhood education in the United Kingdom today have strong roots in the innovative pedagogies of four influential women of the 19th and 20th century: Margaret and Rachel McMillan, Maria Montessori and Susan Isaacs. This study adopts a historical stance and firstly examines how early childhood education began through exploring and reflecting upon the early philosophers of the past whose ideas, values and beliefs were influential in shaping the key women pioneers' thinking. The study then moves on to examines the roots and legacies of the four women and the contribution they each made to early childhood education today. The contribution of my thesis to current knowledge and understanding of early childhood education lies firstly in the way I have synthesised the lives and work of the four women who form the focus of this thesis and secondly, in my demonstration of the way much of what constitutes effective early childhood provision has been shaped through the course of history.

Language: English

Article

Introducing Our Contributors [A. M. Bernard, R. Joosten Chotzen, R. Chandra, B. N. Das, Dipti Devi, Joyce Goonesekera, Rajendra Gupta, A. M. Joosten, P. Lalkaka, A. M. Maccheroni, Mario M. Montessori, A. Patra, T. N. Siqueira, S. R. Swamy, K. E. Taraporewalla]

Available from: North American Montessori Teachers' Association (NAMTA)

Publication: Around the Child, vol. 2

Pages: 83-85

Albert Max Joosten - Biographic sources, Anna Maria Maccheroni - Biographic sources, Asia, India, Mario M. Montessori - Biographic sources, Rosy Joosten-Chotzen - Biographic sources, South Asia

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Language: English

ISSN: 0571-1142

Book Section

Die Anfänge der Montessori-Methode in der Schweiz [The Beginnings of the Montessori Method in Switzerland]

Book Title: Hundert Jahre Montessori-Pädagogik, 1907-2007: Eine Chronik der Montessori-Pädagogik in der Schweiz [One Hundred Years of Montessori Education, 1907-2007: A Chronicle of Montessori Education in Switzerland]

Pages: 25-88

Europe, Fascism, Giovannina Mattei-Alberti - Biographic sources, Maria Boschetti-Alberti - Biographic sources, Maria Valli - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Sister Irene Curti - Biographic sources, Switzerland, Teresa Bontempi - Biographic sources, Western Europe

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Language: German

Published: Bern, Switzerland: Haupt Verlag, 2007

Edition: 1st edition

ISBN: 978-3-258-07092-6

Doctoral Dissertation

Φύση και αγωγή στη διαδικασία διαμόρφωσης της προσωπικότητας: εξέταση των ιδεών των Ζ.Ζ. Ρουσσώ, Μ. Μοντεσσόρι, Κ. Ρότζερς και Λ. Βυγκότσκι [Nature and education in the process of personality development: an analysis of the ideas of J.J. Rousseau, M. Montessori, C. Rogers and L. Vygotsky]

Available from: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Carl Rogers - Biographic sources, Carl Rogers - Philosophy, Child development, Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Biographic sources, Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Philosophy, Lev Vygotsky - Biographic sources, Lev Vygotsky - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Maturation (Psychology), Student-centered learning

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Abstract/Notes: Η παρούσα διατριβή επιχειρεί τη διερεύνηση της διαμόρφωσης της προσωπικότητας υπό το πρίσμα της αλληλεπίδρασης μεταξύ των βιολογικών και των κοινωνικών συνιστωσών της ανάπτυξης του παιδιού, όπως την πραγματεύονται οι θεωρίες του Ζαν-Ζακ Ρουσσώ, της Μαρίας Μοντεσσόρι, του Καρλ Ρότζερς και του Λεβ Βυγκότσκι. Δεδομένου ότι η προσωπικότητα αποτελεί το επίκεντρο κάθε παιδαγωγικής θεωρίας συνιστώντας το ιδεώδες στο οποίο αποσκοπεί η αγωγή, εξετάζονται οι δυνατότητες και οι περιορισμοί της αγωγής όσον αφορά τη διαμόρφωση της προσωπικότητας των παιδιών μέσω της συγκριτικής ανάλυσης της πολιτισμικής-ιστορικής θεωρίας του Λ. Βυγκότσκι και της παιδοκεντρικής παράδοσης, όπως εκφράζεται στις θεωρίες του Ζ.Ζ. Ρουσσώ, της Μ. Μοντεσσόρι και οτου Κ. Ρότζερς. Στο πρώτο κεφάλαιο επιχειρείται η εννοιολόγηση του όρου προσωπικότητα όπως αποτυπώνεται στις κυριότερες θεωρίες προσωπικότητας και στα επόμενα κεφάλαια παρουσιάζονται και εξεταζονται κριτικά οι θεωρίες των τεσσάρων προαναφερθέντων στοχαστών. Τέλος, διατυπώνονται ορισμένα μεθοδολογικά συμπεράσματα σχετικά με τη διαλεκτική αλληλεπίδραση μεταξύ φύσης και αγωγής στη διαδικασία διαμόρφωσης της προσωπικότητας και αναδεικνύεται η συμβολή των τεσσάρων θεωριών που εξετάστηκαν στη διαμόρφωση της παιδαγωγικής σκέψης. Επιπλέον, προσεγγίζεται η έννοια της ολόπλευρα ανεπτυγμένης προσωπικότητας ως σκοπού της αγωγής. [The present thesis aims to study personality development in the light of the interaction between biological and social factors of child development as it is discussed in the theories of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Maria Montessori, Carl Rogers and Lev Vygotsky. Given the fact that personality development constitutes the centre of every pedagogical theory, being the ideal to which education aims, the potential and the limits of education with regard to the development of children’s personality are examined through the comperative analysis of L. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical theory, and the child-centred tradition as it is presented in the theories of J.J. Rousseau, M. Montessori, and C. Rogers. In the first chapter there is an attempt to conceptually delineate the term personality as it is outlined in the main personality theories, and in the following chapters the theories of the four thinkers mentioned above are presented and critically examined. Finally, some methodological conclusions concerning the dialectical interaction between nature and education in the process of personality development are put forth, and the contribution of the four theories which were investigated in the development of pedagogical thinking is highlighted. Furthermore, the notion of the wholly developed personality as the goal of education is approached.]

Language: Greek

Published: Thessaloniki, Greece, 2018

Book Section

A Study in Personality: Montessori and George, Naumburg, Parkhurst and Pyle

Available from: Springer Link

Book Title: America's Early Montessorians: Anne George, Margaret Naumburg, Helen Parkhurst and Adelia Pyle

Pages: 59-68

Adelia Pyle - Biographic sources, Americas, Anne E. George - Biographic sources, Helen Parkhurst - Biographic sources, Margaret Naumburg - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - History, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: This chapter analyzes the personal interactions of the principal characters—George, Naumburg, Parkhurst and Pyle—and an over-powering fifth woman, Maria Montessori. The analysis of the interplay, the personal relationships, and the tensions between these principals, is integrated with the institutional history of educational organizations, schools, and events. George, Naumburg, Parkhurst, and Pyle arrived at the Montessori training courses believing their instructor, the greatest educator in the world, was truly “an educational wonder worker.” A complex multidimensional person, Montessori, determined to control what she had created, expected total loyalty, almost fealty and submission, from her trainees. Montessori’s demanding personality caused tension with her four students that affected the establishment of her method in the United States.

Language: English

Published: Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020

ISBN: 978-3-030-54835-3

Series: Historical Studies in Education

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