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A Gyógypedagógia két Meghatározó Máriája: Maria Montessori és Hári Mária [Two Determining Marias of the Special Education: Maria Montessori and Mária Hári]

Available from: University of Debrecen Publishing Platform

Publication: Különleges Bánásmód - Interdiszciplináris folyóirat, vol. 2, no. 4

Pages: 35-47

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Abstract/Notes: This study presents the decisive pedagogy of two Marias: Dr. Montessori and Dr. Hári. Dr. Montessori was the first woman in Italy who received a medical degree and it was many years later when she did pedagogical studies as well. Dr. Hári was a young medical student when she started to work with Professor Pető who had laid down the basics of Conductive Education. Dr. Montessori and Dr. Hári had a lot in common: not just their profession was the same but thanks to their hard work both pedagogy became famous internationally. Through their personality, the reader will have a glance into their educational methods as well. The topic is relevant because both educational systems make it possible for people with disabilities to integrate into society and live meaningful lives. [ This study presents the decisive pedagogy of two Marias: Dr. Montessori and Dr. Hári. Dr. Montessori was the first woman in Italy who received a medical degree and it was many years later when she did pedagogical studies as well. Dr. Hári was a young medical student when she started to work with Professor Pető who had laid down the basics of Conductive Education. Dr. Montessori and Dr. Hári had a lot in common: not just their profession was the same but thanks to their hard work both pedagogy became famous internationally. Through their personality, the reader will have a glance into their educational methods as well. The topic is relevant because both educational systems make it possible for people with disabilities to integrate into society and live meaningful lives.]

Language: Hungarian

DOI: 10.18458/KB.2016.4.35

ISSN: 2498-5368


La grande bellezza: María Montessori e la Pedagogia al Femminile / La gran belleza: María Montessori y la Pedagogía en Femenino / The Great Beauty: Maria Montessori and Feminine Pedagogy

Available from: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

Publication: RELAdEI (Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Infantil), vol. 3, no. 3

Pages: 109-116

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Abstract/Notes: A través de algunos flash, dar luz a los horizontes del pensamiento pedagógico oculto de María Montessori. En particular, vamos a entregar a los lectores un conjunto de "islas" de su inabissabile inexplorado - porque inmortal - archipiélago de niño de la educación. Reforzar el teorema. En las siguientes líneas, illumineremo una cara de luna Montessori se mantuvo en gran medida en las sombras. Hablamos de su mirada problemática y dialéctico de puntos con pensamientos débiles.

Language: Spanish

ISSN: 2255-0666


Views on Montessori approach by teachers serving at schools applying the Montessori approach [Montessori yaklaşımını uygulayan okullarda çalışan öğretmenlerin Montessori yaklaşımına ilişkin görüşleri]

Available from: Eurasian Journal of Educational Research

Publication: Eurasian Journal of Educational Research [Egitim Arastirmalari], no. 66

Pages: 123-138

Asia, Middle East, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Problem Statement: Further studies on Montessori teachers are required on the grounds that the Montessori approach, which, having been applied throughout the world, holds an important place in the alternative education field. Yet it is novel for Turkey, and there are only a limited number of studies on Montessori teachers in Turkey. Purpose of Study: The aim was to investigate views on the Montessori approach by the teachers who serve at the schools applying the Montessori approach. Methods: Research data was collected by the basic qualitative research, one of the qualitative research methods. Descriptive analysis method was used in analysis of the qualitative data. Nine teachers serving at three different schools in Ankara province applying Montessori approach were interviewed. Findings and Results: Eight main themes were determined upon data analysis; namely, education on Montessori approach, basic qualities required for teachers applying Montessori approach, adequacy of education on Montessori approach, in-service training on the challenges experienced by Montessori teachers, plans of teachers for self-development, following existing studies in Turkey on Montessori approach, views on studies on Montessori approach, and views on the criticisms towards Montessori approach. Conclusions and Recommendations: All teachers confirmed that they internalized the approach upon training in line with Montessori philosophy. They emphasized that they received training covering all the educational fields, yet the implementation dimension was inadequate due to training without the involvement of children. Furthermore, they suggested that all the schools in Turkey were opened by commercial motives, and as such these schools failed to comply with the standards of the institutions providing education on the basis of Montessori approach. They asserted that all criticisms towards Montessori approach would be proved to be groundless upon implementation of the approach. It was seen that experienced supervisors, in-service training, and scientific studies on Montessori approach were required.

Language: English, Turkish

ISSN: 1302-597X, 2528-8911


Pemikiran Ki Hajar Dewantara dan Maria Montessori tentang Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini [The Thoughts of Ki Hajar Dewantara and Maria Montessori About Early Childhood Education]

Available from: Universitas PGRI Semarang (Indonesia)

Publication: PAUDIA: Jurnal Penelitian dalam Bidang Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini [Research Journal in the Field of Early Childhood Education], vol. 9, no. 1

Pages: 17-35

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Ki Hadjar Dewantara - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Southeast Asia, Taman Siswa

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Abstract/Notes: Mendalami ilmu pendidikan anak usia dini tidak dapat dilakukan apabila hanya mengkaji pemikiran satu tokoh saja. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui (1) pemikiran, (2) persamaan dan perbedaan pemikiran Ki Hajar Dewantara dan Maria Montessori tentang pendidikan anak usia dini. Metode yang digunakan kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian kepustakaan yang mengkomparasikan pemikiran kedua tokoh. Data dianalisis dengan pendekatan deskriptif. Penelitian dilaksanakan selama dua bulan mulai januari sampai februari 2020. Sumber data terdiri dari data primer dan sekunder. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan (1) pemikiran pendidikan anak usia dini menurut Ki Hajar Dewantara adalah pendidikan yang diberikan pada anak 0-7 tahun dengan pemberian pendidikan yang memperhatikan unsur alami anak dengan materi melatih panca indera menggunakan metode lahiriah dan batiniah dilakukan di lingkungan keluarga, sekolah dan masyarakat dengan tujuan mengembangkan cipta, rasa dan karsa pada anak. Menurut Maria Montessori pendidikan anak usia dini adalah pendidikan yang diberikan untuk anak 0-6 tahun dilakukannya dilingkungan sekolah dengan materi keterampilan sehari-hari menggunakan metode lahiriah dan batiniah yang memberikan kebebasan anak untuk memilih aktivitas dan media yang ingin digunakan. (2) persamaan dan perbedaan pemikiran Ki Hajar Dewantara dan Maria Montessori tentang anak usia dini terletak dari aspek nama dan filosofi sekolah, setting lingkungan, dasar pemikiran PAUD, metode dan tugas pendidik. [The science of early childhood education cannot be understood from one’s thought. This research intended to know (1) the thoughts (2) the similarities and differences of early childhood education thoughts by Ki Hajar Dewantara and Maria Montessori. The method used was qualitative with library research which compared two experts’ thoughts. The data was analyzed by descriptive approach. This research was done within two months, january to february 2020. The data were from primary and secondary data. The results revealed (1) Ki Hajar Dewantara states that early childhood education is an education given to 0-7 year old children and emphasizes on natural factors by training five senses through outward and inward method around family, school and community environments to develop creativity, feeling and intention. While Maria Montessori says that early childhood education is an education given to 0-6 year old children through daily skills in school environment and uses outward and inward method which let them choose activity and media they want. (2) the similarities and differences of Ki Hajar Dewantara and Maria Montessori thoughts were school’s name and philosopy, environment, ECE basic thoughts, learning method and educator’s duties.]

Language: Indonesian

DOI: 10.26877/paudia.v9i1.5610

ISSN: 2598-4047, 2089-1431


The Montessori Method: The Origins of an Educational Innovation, Including an Abridged and Annotated Edition of Maria Montessori's 'The Montessori Method'

Available from: Internet Archive

Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Writings, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - History

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Abstract/Notes: An essential resource for all students and scholars of early childhood education, this book offers a rich array of material about Maria Montessori and the Montessori Method. Distinguished education scholar Gerald Gutek begins with an in-depth biography of Montessori, exploring how a determined young woman overcame the obstacles that blocked her educational and career opportunities in Italy during the late Victorian age. The author then analyzes the sources and influences that shaped the Montessori philosophy of education. After laying the foundation for Montessori's development, Gutek presents an annotated and abridged edition of The Montessori Method (1912), the seminal work that introduced her educational innovations to a U.S. audience. The book concludes with key historical documents, including disciple Anne E. George's notes on the Montessori lectures and William H. Kilpatrick's critique of the Montessori method. Preserving the historical context of Montessori's contribution, Gutek also shows the continuing relevance of her thought to educational reform in the twenty-first century.

Language: English

Published: Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2004

ISBN: 978-0-7425-1911-4 978-0-7425-1912-1


Modernost pedagoške koncepcije Marije Montessori [The contemporariness of Maria Montessori’s pedagogical concept / Modernität der pädagogischen Konzeption von Maria Montessori]

Available from: Hrčak - Portal of Croatian scientific and professional journals

Publication: Pedagogijska istraživanja, vol. 8, no. 2

Pages: 205-216

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: U zadnjim desetljećima sve veći broj znanstvenika i pedagoga praktičara pokazuje interes za Montessori pedagogiju, provjerava je u praksi i potvrđuje da je riječ o modernoj, vremenu primjerenoj pedagogiji koja odgovara na razvojne potrebe suvremene djece i mladih. Brojna istraživanja pokazuju kako djeca iz Montessori škola, u usporedbi s djecom iz standardnih škola, pokazuju bolju motivaciju za učenje, višestruke interese, samostalnost i pozitivan odnos prema učenju te veću odgovornost prema zajednici. Istraživanja euroznanosti i razvojne psihologije potvrđuju postavke Montessori pedagogije o individualnom planu razvoja, koji prolazi određene stupnjeve (senzibilna razdoblja, prozori učenja) te o potrebi didaktički obliko vanog okruženja kao pomoći u individualnom razvoju. Zahtjev za slobodom, samostalnosti i samoaktivnosti Montessori je, za razliku od emancipatorske pedagogije i sociokonstruktivizma, postavila u okvire razvojne i moralne slobode i jasno defi nirala uvjete slobode i pretpostavke samostalnosti djeteta. Sloboda shvaćena kao izgradnja kompetencija za djelovanje – cilj je, ali i put, koji dijete prolazi u svome razvoju i na kojemu treba sigurnost, zaštićenost, praćenje i pomoć odraslih. Modernost Montessori pedagogije treba tražiti u znanstveno utemeljenoj psihologiji razvoja, u pedagoški oblikovanoj ponudi učenja i u pedagoškom etosu odgajatelja. [In recent decades an increasing number of scholars and pedagogues have been showing interest in the educational approach developed by Maria Montessori, applying it in practice and arguing that it is a modern and timely pedagogy that responds to the developmental needs of contemporary children and youth. Numerous surveys show that children educated in Montessori schools, in comparison to children educated in standard schools, demonstrate a greater motivation to learn, have a multiplicity of interests, display independence and a positive stance towards learning, as well as an increased sense of responsibility towards the community. Research in neuroscience and developmental psychology confi rms the hypotheses laid down by Montessori pedagogy about the individual development plan as evolving through certain stages (sensitive periods, learning windows) and about the need to have a didactically formulated environment that will support individual development. Unlike the emancipatory pedagogy and socio-constructivism, Montessori has placed the requirement for freedom, autonomy and self-activity within the bounds of a developmental and moral freedom and clearly defi ned the conditions of the freedom and the assumptions of the child’s autonomy. Freedom interpreted as a development of competencies for action represents the aim, but also the journey a child goes through during the development period when it needs safety, protection, attention and support from the adults. The contemporariness of Montessori pedagogy is to be found in scientifically-based developmental psychology, in pedagogically formulated teaching and in the pedagogical ethos of the teacher. / In den letzten Jahrzehnten wächst die Zahl von Wissenschaft lern und pädagogischen Praktikern, die sich mit der Montessori-Pädagogik beschäft igen, ihre Th esen in der Praxis überprüfen und die Meinung vertreten, dass es um eine moderne, zeitgemäße Pädagogik handelt, die auf Entwicklungsbedürfnisse der heutigen Kinder und Jugendlichen antwortet. Zahlreiche Untersuchungen bestätigen, dass die Kinder aus den Montessori-Schulen im Vergleich mit den Kindern aus den Standardschulen eine höhere Lernmotivation, vielfältigere Interessen, Selbständigkeit und positives Verhältnis zum Lernen sowie eine größere Verantwortung gegenüber der Gemeinschaft besitzen. Die im Rahmen von Neurowissenschaft en und Entwicklungspsychologie unternommenen Untersuchungen bestätigen die Hypothesen der Montessori-Pädagogik über den individuellen Entwicklungsplan, der bestimmte Stufen durchläuft (sensible Etappen, Lernfenster) sowie die Notwendigkeit einer didaktisch gestalteten Umwelt als individueller Entwicklungshilfe. Die Forderung nach der Freiheit, Selbständigkeit und Selbstaktivität stellte Montessori, im Unterschied zu emanzipatorischer Pädagogik und sozialem Konstruktivismus in den Rahmen der moralischen und Entwicklungsfreiheit und defi nierte klar die Voraussetzungen für die Freiheit und Selbständigkeit des Kindes. Die Freiheit, begriff en als Aufb au von Handlungskompetenzen, stellt das Ziel, aber auch den Weg dar, den das Kind in seiner Entwicklung zurücklegt und auf dem es Sicherheit, Geborgenheit, Hilfe und Aufsicht durch Erwachsene benötigt. Die Modernität der Montessori-Pädagogik ist in der wissenschaft lich begründeten Entwicklungspsychologie, in den pädagogisch aufb ereiteten Lernangeboten und dem pädagogischen Ethos der Erzieher zu suchen.]

Language: Croatian

ISSN: 1334-7888


Clara Grunwald und Maria Montessori die Entwicklung der Montessori-Pädagogik in Berlin

Clara Grunwald - Biographic sources, Clara Grunwald - Philosophy, Europe, Germany, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - History, Montessori movement, Montessori schools, Western Europe

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Abstract/Notes: The study presents the life and work of Clara Grunwald and Maria Montessori, on the special background of the development of the Montessori movement in Berlin from the 1920s until the Nazis came to power in 1933 and their consequences. In this study, the effectiveness of Clara Grunwald for Montessori pedagogy in Germany, explicitly in Berlin during the Weimar Republic, is made clear. Here their intention, their influence and their commitment to the establishment of Montessori pedagogy and the development of the Montessori movement in Berlin are described. In addition, the emerging conflict between Maria Montessori and Clara Grunwald is viewed in several layers, as various factors influenced the development and spread of Montessori pedagogy. The conflict between the two women shows fateful effects on the person and work of Clara Grunwald, as well as on the Montessori movement in Berlin. The seizure of power by the National Socialists in 1933 also had serious effects on the work of Clara Grunwald and on Montessori pedagogy in Germany, which resulted in the decline of Montessori pedagogy. Against this historical background, the development of Montessori pedagogy after the end of the Second World War up to the present is examined and briefly outlined. (This is a published version of the author's thesis/dissertation.)

Language: German

Published: Hamburg, Germany: Diplomica Verlag, 2008

ISBN: 978-3-8366-6522-3 3-8366-6522-0


Studien zur Montessori-Pädagogik I: Maria Montessori und die "reform-pädagogische Bewegung" [Studies on Montessori Education I: Maria Montessori and the "New Education Movement"]

Europe, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., New Education Fellowship, New Education Movement, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Language: German

Published: Freiburg, Germany: Herder, 1986

ISBN: 978-3-451-20919-2


L’educazione morale e religiosa nell’opera di Maria Montessori: Alcuni studi del Laboratorio Montessori di Roma [Moral and religious education in the work of Maria Montessori: Some studies of the Montessori Laboratory in Rome]

Available from: Università di Macerata

Publication: History of Education and Children's Literature (HECL), vol. 6, no. 2

Pages: 159-168

Europe, Italy, Moral education, Religious education, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: L’articolo illustra il programma di ricerche del Laboratorio Montessori di Roma, un’as- sociazione che raccoglie ricercatori di varia provenienza impegnati nello studio della storia del metodo Montessori. Particolare attenzione è rivolta a due tematiche: da una parte, la formazione del carattere, che è stata oggetto di approfondite ricerche negli ultimi vent’anni (si vedano le ricerche di Angeline Stoll Lillard); e, dall’altra, l’educazione religiosa – temati- ca alla quale la Montessori si dedicò profondamente, mantenendo fino alla fine la radicata convinzione che il proprio metodo potesse essere utile all’insegnamento religioso e della religione cattolica in particolare. [This paper presents the research program of the Laboratory Montessori in Rome. The Laboratory is an association which brings together scholars from various countries to carry out research projects on the history of the Montessori movement. In 2011, the association has explored character education according to the Montessori method and special attention will be devoted to religious education. The character education has been studied with par- ticular attention in the last twenty years, and some research (for example, those of Angeline Stoll Lillard) have demonstrated the validity of the Montessori method. Religious education has been the subject of much discussion since Montessori had intense relationships with other cultures and religious figures from around the world. The author argues that Montes- sori devoted himself to Catholic education; she was linked to this confession until the end of his work and his life.]

Language: Italian

ISSN: 1971-1093, 1971-1131


Montessori Eğitim Yönteminin Rousseaucu Kökenleri / The Rousseauian Roots of Montessori Education Method

Available from: The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies

Publication: Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, vol. 14, no. 86

Pages: 535-556

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Abstract/Notes: Bu çalışmada eğitim felsefesinde adı çokça zikredilen Fransız filozof Jean-Jacquez Rousseau’nun, Maria Montessori tarafından kurulan ve kendi adıyla anılan Montessori eğitim yöntemi üzerindeki etkisi incelenecektir. Rousseau’nun meşhur Emile kitabı, eğitimin amacı ve işlevi meselesine dair ayrıntılı bir izah içerir. Onun eğitim konusuna yaklaşımı kimi zaman sert tartışmalara sebep olmuş kimi zaman da ilham kaynağı olmuştur. İtalya’nın ilk kadın doktoru olarak da bilinen Maria Montessori onun fikirlerinden olumlu yönde etkilenen bir isimdir. Montessori, yaşama uzanan yardım eli yaklaşımına indirgediği eğitim meselesini aldığı tıp, felsefe ve antropoloji eğitimi sayesinde geniş bir bakış açısıyla inceler. Bu sayede daha sistemli ve bilimsel temeli olan bir eğitim modeli sunar. Rousseau ise kelimenin tam anlamıyla sistematik olmaktansa doğal gidişata göre hareket etmeyi ve kendi gözlemlerinden faydalanmayı tercih eder. Bu tercihinden dolayı kendisine ağır eleştirilerin yapıldığı da bir gerçektir. Rousseau’nun ve Maria Montessori’nin eğitim alanındaki fikirleri pek çok tartışmayı beraberinde getirse de her iki ismin pedagoji alanındaki etkisi görmezden gelinemez. Ancak Rousseau’nun bu alandaki düşüncelerinin bir eğitim tasarısı ya da eğitime dair yapılan bir yorum düzeyinde kaldığı söylenebilir. Rousseau’nun aksine Maria Montessori’nin fikirlerinin ise pek çok ülkede benimsendiği ve bu fikir doğrultusunda pek çok eğitim kurumunun açıldığı görülür. Her ne kadar somut alanda aralarında bu denli fark olsa da çıkış noktaları ve eğitim alanındaki bazı tasavvurları benzerlik göstermektedir. Bu çalışmada söz konusu benzerlik kavramsal bir çerçeve doğrultusunda ele alınacaktır. Böylece Rousseau’nun Maria Montessori üzerindeki etkisi irdelenip onun eğitim alanında bir romandan fazlasını yazdığı sonucuna ulaşılacaktır. / In this study, the effect of the French philosopher Jean-Jacquez Rousseau, whose name is mentioned a lot in educational philosophy, on the Montessori education method established by Maria Montessori and named after her will be examined. Rousseau’s famous book Emile contains a detailed explanation on the goal and function of the education. Sometimes, his approach to education caused very significant discussions and sometimes it was a source of inspiration. Maria Montessori, who is also known as Italy’s first female doctor was one of the names who was affected from his opinion in a positive way. Montessori examines the issue of education considered as helping hand approach to life from a wide perspective thanks to her education in medicine, philosophy and anthropology. In this way, she presents a more systematic and scientific based education model. On the other hand, Rousseau prefers to act according to the natural course and uses his own observations rather than being systematic in the strictest sense of the world. It is a fact that he was heavily criticized for this preference. Even though Rousseau and Maria Montessori’s ideas on the education field bring a lot of debate, the effect of both names in pedagogy cannot be ignored. However, it can be noted that Rousseau’s ideas in the field stayed only as an education design or a comment made on education. Unlike Rousseau, it is seen that Maria Montessori’s ideas were adopted in many countries and a lot of educational institutions were established in the direction of this idea. Although there is such a difference between them in the concrete field, their starting points and some of their imaginations in the field of education are similar. These similarities in the direction of a conceptual frame will be addressed in the study. Thus, Rousseau’s influence on Maria Montessori will be examined and it will be concluded that he wrote more than a novel in the field of education.

Language: Turkish

DOI: 10.29228/JASSS.50020

ISSN: 2148-4163

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