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451 results

Article

Using Mathematics Strategies in Early Childhood Education as a Basis for Culturally Responsive Teaching in India

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: International Journal of Early Years Education, vol. 14, no. 1

Pages: 15-34

Asia, Culturally relevant pedagogy, India, South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: The objective of this small study was to elicit responses from early childhood teachers in India on mathematics learning strategies and to measure the extent of finger counting technique adopted by the teachers in teaching young children. Specifically, the research focused on the effective ways of teaching mathematics to children in India, and examined teachers’ approach to number counting. In India, children were taught by their parents or by their teachers to use fingers to count. The qualitative study conducted by the researcher further enriched the topic with first‐hand comments by the teachers. Although the finger counting method was not the only process that teachers would adopt, it was embedded in the culture and taken into consideration while infusing mathematics skills. The teachers confirmed adopting the Indian method of finger counting in their teaching strategy; some specified that the method helped children to undertake addition and subtraction of carrying and borrowing, as counting by objects could not be available all the time. Although the study is limited by its small sample to the unique mathematics learning experience in India, it provides readers with a glimpse of culturally responsive teaching methods and an alternative mathematics teaching strategy.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/09669760500446374

ISSN: 0966-9760

Article

Teaching Mathematics in a Multiage Classroom

Publication: Dimensions of Early Childhood, vol. 27, no. 3

Pages: 3-10

Classroom environment, Mathematics - Achievement, Mathematics education, Mathematics education, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Multiage grouping, based on the belief that children benefit from engaging in learning environments that accommodate at least two age groups, allows for marked improvements in children's enthusiasm for learning mathematics. Children are challenged and stimulated by their interactions with multiage peers, and assessment information indicates they are developing mathematical sense, skills, and concepts from their experiences. (LBT)

Language: English

ISSN: 1068-6177

Article

Differences in Mathematics Scores Between Students Who Receive Traditional Montessori Instruction and Students Who Receive Music Enriched Montessori Instruction

Available from: University of California eScholarship

Publication: Journal for Learning Through the Arts, vol. 3, no. 1

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Abstract/Notes: While a growing body of research reveals the beneficial effects of music on education performance the value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized. If research of students in the school system indicates that learning through the arts can benefit the ‘whole’ child, that math achievement scores are significantly higher for those students studying music, and if Montessori education produces a more academically accomplished child, then what is the potential for the child when Montessori includes an enriched music curriculum? The decision to support music cannot be made without knowing music’s effect on academic achievement and its contribution to a student’s education. This study was an experimental design using a two-group post-test comparison. A sample of 200 Montessori students aged 3-5 years-old were selected and randomly placed in one of two groups. The experimental treatment was an “in-house” music enriched Montessori program and children participated in 3 half-hour sessions weekly, for 6 months. The instrument used to measure mathematical achievement was the Test of Early Mathematics Ability-3 (Barody & Ginsburg) to determine if the independent variable, music instruction had any effect on students’ math test scores. The results showed that subjects who received music enriched Montessori instruction had significantly higher math scores and when compared by age group, 3 year-old students had higher scores than either the 4 year-old or 5 year-old children. This study shows that an arts-rich curriculum has a significant positive effect on young students academic achievement.This comprehensive research presents developmentally appropriate early education curriculum for children from 2 through 6 years old and addresses some of the most compelling questions about early experience, such as how important music is to early brain development. Contemporary theories and practices of music education including strategies for developing pitch, vocal, rhythmic, instrumental, listening, movement and creative responses in children are presented. It explores the interrelationship of music and academic development in children, and demonstrates how music can enhance and accelerate the learning process. This study combines the best of research and practical knowledge to give teachers the necessary tools to educate tomorrow's musicians. It is essential reading for all students and teachers of young children.

Language: English

DOI: 10.21977/D93110059

ISSN: 1932-7528

Doctoral Dissertation

Comparison of the Academic Achievement of Primary School Students in Multiage and Traditional Classrooms

Available from: East Tennessee State University

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether students in a kindergarten/first-grade multiage class achieve at a different level than students enrolled in a traditional kindergarten or first-grade class in a selected primary school in East Tennessee. The question of the interaction between gender and type of instruction was also analyzed. The causal comparative quantitative research method was used to analyze data differentiating between students enrolled in multiage and traditional classes, retrospectively. A t-test was used to determine the level of performance the students demonstrated on the BRIGANCE K Screen at the beginning of the study. The number of mastered first-grade reading skills and mathematics skills, the score on the system-wide first-grade reading test and mathematics test, and gender interaction with type of instruction in each area were analyzed using ANCOVAs. Statistically significant results (pBRIGANCE 1 Screen(ANCOVA). In 1998, the combined males scored significantly higher than the combined females. In 1999, multiage males had significantly higher means than traditional males. ANCOVA results showed statistically significant difference in the number of mastered reading skills of the multiage students in 1998 as well as with the combination of all three years. The multiage mean was the higher of the two groups all three years. For the number of mastered mathematics skills, ANCOVA results showed a statistically significant difference in 1999 with the multiage scores higher than the traditional group. ANCOVA results showed no significant difference between the groups on the standardized reading and mathematics tests analyzed. Findings indicate that kindergarten students may benefit from kindergarten classes in a multiage setting, and that first-grade students may benefit from multiage settings in mastering skills in reading and mathematics but that benefit is not necessarily demonstrated by standardized test scores.

Language: English

Published: Johnson City, Tennessee, 2001

Article

Achievement and Self-Concept in Multiage Classrooms

Publication: Educational Research Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 2

Pages: 69-75

Academic achievement, Americas, Comparative education, Elementary education, Language arts, Mathematics education - Achievement, Nongraded schools, North America, Reading - Academic achievement, Self-perception, United States of America, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Effects of multiage grouping on achievement and self-concept were explored. No significant differences were found between children in multiage and single-age classrooms on any of the achievement measures. Multiage classrooms had higher mean scores on one of the six factors of the self-concept scale, Happiness and Satisfaction.

Language: English

ISSN: 0196-5042

Doctoral Dissertation

An Exploratory Study on the Effectiveness of Montessori Constructs and Traditional Teaching Methodology as Change Agents to Increase Academic Achievement of Elementary Black Students

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Academic achievement, African American children, African American community, Americas, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Black students consistently underachieve academically in comparison to White students. To minimize the achievement gap between Black students and White students, some experts advocate the use of differentiated instruction as an alternative methodology to teach underachieving students. Differentiated instruction is predicated on teaching students based on their learning abilities and/or learning preferences. The differentiated instructional model examined in this study combined traditional teaching methodology with specific Montessori stage two and stage three constructs. This exploratory qualitative study examined the impact that Montessori constructs combined with traditional teaching methods had on academic achievement of Black students in grades four and five in an inner city school in Dallas County, Texas. The study further explored the sample’s perceptions of and preferences for the combined teaching methodology. The sample group had been exposed to the differentiated teaching model evaluated in the study. Disaggregated 2007 and 2008 TAKS results from the Texas Education Agency were obtained to compare the school’s fourth and fifth grade Black students’ achievement to their cohort groups in the district and in the state. The TAKS data comparisons found variability in performance among the groups in each of the subject areas assessed by TAKS. Qualitative data from a Likert Scale, multiple choice questions, questionnaires, written essay, and interviews were obtained from the participants to examine the students’ perceptions of and preferences for the combined teaching methodology. Data responses were analyzed and themes were developed to determine black students’ preferences for teaching, learning, and factors that contribute to learning. The findings of this study imply that future use of a differentiated instructional model that combines traditional teaching methodology and specific Montessori constructs and principles might be effective in improving Black student achievement.

Language: English

Published: Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2009

Article

School Environment and Methods of Teaching as Correlates of Language Skills Achievement of Pre–Primary School Pupils in Edo State Nigeria

Available from: Asian Institute of Research

Publication: Education Quarterly Reviews, vol. 4, no. 3

Pages: 243-251

Africa, Comparative education, Montessori method of education, Nigeria, Sub-Saharan Africa, West Africa

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Abstract/Notes: The study investigated the effects of school environment and methods of teaching on language skills achievement of pre – primary school pupils in Edo State. It also investigated the interaction effects of Montessori and played methods and urban and rural environments on pupils' achievement in listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Three urban and three rural areas which were selected from two Local Government Areas (LGAs) were used for the study. Six pre - primary schools were purposively selected for the study. A total of 228 kindergartens 2 pupils intact classes were used for the study which lasted for eight weeks. The study was a pretest, posttest, quasi- experimental control group design with independent variables as methods and school location while achievement in Language Skills Achievement Test (LSAT) was the dependent variable. Descriptive statistics and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) were used to analyze the data obtained while the Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) was used as post-hoc test for further significance. Three research questions were answered with three hypotheses, tested at 0.05 level of significance. Results showed that the Montessori Method of teaching pre –primary pupils was more effective than the play method. Similarly, urban school pupils achieved higher than their rural counterparts. There was also a significant interaction effect of methods and school location on pupils' academic achievement in Language skills. It was therefore recommended that the Nigerian Government should adopt the Montessori Method as a dominant method of teaching pre – primary school pupils and that pre – primary school owners should provide materials adequately for teaching and learning.

Language: English

DOI: 10.31014/aior.1993.04.03.335

ISSN: 2621-5799, 2657-215X

Doctoral Dissertation

Longitudinal Academic Achievement Outcomes: Modeling the Growth Trajectories of Montessori Public Elementary School Students

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: Elementary education has theoretical underpinnings based on cognitive psychology. Ideas from cognitive psychologists such as James, Dewey, Piaget, and Vygotsky coalesce to form constructivism (Cooper, 1993; Yager, 2000; Yilmaz, 2011). Among others, the Montessori Method (1912/1964) is an exemplar of constructivism. Currently, public education in the United States is heavily impacted by the No Child Left Behind legislation (Paige, 2006) which emphasizes high stakes academic achievement testing. Absent from the literature is an examination of the academic achievement of Montessori students in public education. This study explores the academic achievement outcomes of public school students who completed varying numbers of years in Montessori elementary education. Singer and Willett's (2003) multilevel model of change serves as the statistical tool utilized to explore the academic achievement outcomes of a first grade cohort through their elementary and secondary school careers. Accrued years in Montessori did not account for significant variance amongst the trajectories, and gender and ethnicity, when considered without the interactions with accrued years, had minimal impact. Socioeconomic status, when the variable of accrued years in Montessori was removed from the equation, was a significant predictor of reading and math achievement.

Language: English

Published: Commerce, Texas, 2014

Article

Back to the Future? Children Living in Poverty, Early Childhood Centres and Mathematics Education

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: ZDM (Zentralblatt für Didaktik der Mathematik), vol. 46, no. 7

Pages: 999-1011

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Abstract/Notes: The present call for structured mathematics programmes in preschools continues a trend from the nineteenth century, in which young children’s lack of mathematical knowledge was considered to have a detrimental effect on their individual futures and those of the wider society. In this paper, an investigation of the philosophies behind several early childhood programmes shows that there is a long-standing acceptance that those not living in poverty should make decisions about the education, including the mathematics education, that children who are living in poverty should engage in. Consequently, the philosophies behind these programmes, and with them the advocated mathematics education, contribute to a homogenised view of the child. This fails to recognise the attributes that children and their communities have and situates those living in poverty as being deviant. The strong promotion in this century of structured mathematics education programmes is solidifying this homogenising process in a manner not seen in previous early childhood programmes.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/s11858-014-0578-y

ISSN: 1863-9704

Article

Pedagogical Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics in Montessori Schools

Available from: International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education

Publication: International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, vol. 16, no. 3

Pages: Article em0646

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Abstract/Notes: Teacher knowledge needed for teaching is widely studied to characterize its key categories. We report findings from a study on teachers’ knowledge for mathematics in the Montessori schools. In Montessori accredited schools, teachers learn to teach mathematics in ways different from the teachers themselves experienced in non-Montessori schools. We ask: What knowledge do teachers learn? and how do they continue to refine this knowledge in teaching in classrooms? We draw from a teacher knowledge framework based on cross-national studies to interpret mixed data from a case study. We aim to inform research on teacher characteristics needed for consistent implementation of instructional reform. Major findings from this study are that for K-6 Montessori teachers to thrive in teaching mathematics in Montessori classrooms, they need teacher knowledge on Montessori materials, on lesson and the presentation of content according to Montessori’s philosophy and pedagogy; as well as on the process of independently understanding concepts to be presented. The findings contribute to further theorizing on teacher knowledge which has implications is designed to teacher training opportunities in three subcategories; namely teaching, learning, and professional competence knowledge.

Language: English

DOI: 10.29333/iejme/11005

ISSN: 1306-3030

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