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A Comparative Analysis Between Montessori and Al-Ghazali’s Perspectives on Child Education [Analisis Komparatif Terhadap Prinsip-Prinsip Al-Ghazali dan Montessori Dalam Pendidikan Kanak-Kanak]

Available from: International Islamic University Malaysia - Institutional Repository

Publication: Journal of Islam in Asia, vol. 15, no. 2

Pages: 453-476

Asia, Comparative education, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Ghazzālī - Philosophy, Malaysia, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Childhood education goes with a lot of innocence, searching and exploring the environment that surrounds the young learners. The amount of energy and inquisitiveness displayed by children at this tender age is a marble to many parents and teachers alike. This small-scale research represents a sincere attempt to contrastively analyze Montessori and Al-Ghazali’s ideas on child education. The ideas of the two scholars, one from the West and the other from the East, till these days have great significance to their respective communities. In a way, this study should be seen as an initiative undertaken in the absence of a study discussing the differences and commonalities found in the ideas of the two scholars pertaining to child education. By employing the textual analysis method and using Montessori’s principles of child education as the framework, the researchers conducted a comparative analysis. In the course of analyzing the data, the researchers had identified six emerging themes in the ideas of Montessori and Al-Ghazali. The findings have also indicated that the principles of these two prominent scholars either intersect with each other or stand in total isolation. ********************************************************* Pendidikan kanak-kanak berlakumalalui proses pencariandan penerokaanterhadap persekitaran mereka. Keceriaan dan sifat ingin tahu yang dipamerkan oleh kanak-kanak dalam proses tersebut amatlah penting bagi para ibubapa dan guru Pandangan-pandangan Montessori dan Al-Ghazali tentang pendidikan kanak-kanak telah meninggalkan kesan yang amat penting dalam komuniti Barat dan Timur hingga ke hari ini. Kajian ini dilakukanuntuk membandingkan pandangan kedua-dua cendekiawan ini tentang pendidikan kanak-kanak. Secara tidak langsung, ia boleh dilihat sebagai usaha untuk mengisi kekurangan dalam bidang kajian. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah analisa tekstual dan prinsip pendidikan kanak-kanak Montessori sebagai rangka kajian. Daripada kajian ini, terdapat enam tema yang boleh digarapkan daripadapandangan kedua-dua cendekiawanyang didapati secara bersilang atau terpisah di antara satu sama lain.

Language: English

DOI: 10.31436/jia.v15i2.759

ISSN: 2289-8077


On Ki Hadjar Dewantara’s Philosophy of Education

Available from: Universitetsbiblioteket OsloMet

Publication: Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE), vol. 5, no. 2

Pages: 65-78

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Ki Hadjar Dewantara - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Southeast Asia, Taman Siswa

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Abstract/Notes: This comparative education article explores the purpose of education in the Indonesian context. My aim is to see if there are any differences between the purpose of education during the colonial era and present-day Indonesia. In order to do that, I draw mostly on the philosophy of Ki Hadjar Dewantara, who is regarded as the father of Indonesian education. This article is particularly relevant because the Indonesian government has recently started to critically re-examine two of the educational concepts proposed by Dewantara, which are "pendidikan karakter" (character education) and "merdeka belajar" (independent learning). In conceptualising education, Dewantara, who was influenced by Tagore, Montessori, and Fröbel, saw the importance of imparting local wisdom and values ignored by the colonial schools. Therefore, in this article, I will compare his educational views with the Dutch view of schooling during the colonial era. I will then look at Indonesia's current approach to education to find the similarities and differences of purpose relative to Dewantara's views of education. In this article, I argue that Dewantara's philosophy is still very much relevant today. I conclude that the Indonesian government should refer back to its history when defining education for its next generation.

Language: English

DOI: 10.7577/njcie.4156

ISSN: 2535-4051

Doctoral Dissertation

A Comparative Historical and Philosophical Study of the Educational Theories of John Amos Comenius (1592-1670), Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852), and Maria Montessori (1870-1952)

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: This dissertation was a comparative study from the perspectives of history and philosophy of the educational theories of John Amos Comenius, Friedrich Froebel, and Maria Montessori. The purpose of this dissertation was: 1 - to determine whether or not there were parallel ideas in the educational theories of Comenius, Froebel, and Montessori; 2 - to show to what extent these ideas were actually similar or divergent; and 3 - to consider the additional question of whether or not Froebel and Montessori recognized their theories as part of a sequence of thought originating with Comenius. Using the extant published works of the three educators, descriptions were given of their educational theories in relation to the following topics: the position and principles of methodology; the role of sense realism and the changes in emphasis each educator made in the use of the sense realist concepts of teaching; the role of the religious point of view; the manner of teaching moral values; the role of intellectual and social influences of their respective historical periods in the formation of their educational theories; and the insights of the three educators which can be considered important in the educational world of the latter half of the twentieth century. These descriptions were followed by comparisons of the similarities and differences of the three educators in relation to the above-mentioned topics. The conclusions of the dissertation were the following: 1 - There were parallel ideas present in the educational theories of the three educators. The Comenian concepts and educational emphases which seemed to find restatement most often in the works of Froebel and Montessori were the belief in the importance and the necessity of the use of the correct method of teaching; the theory that if the correct method were used, anything could be taught to nearly anyone; the basic position of the concepts of sense realism in the teaching methodology; and the supreme importance of a definite religious perspective as the groundwork and frame of reference for the whole educational system. 2 - There appeared to be no recognition of influence of the work of Comenius by Froebel and Montessori. In relation to Froebel's gifts or didactic apparatus and his principle of self-activity, there appeared to be a slight recognition of influence by Montessori in the creation of her didactic material and the formulation of her principle of spontaneous activity in a carefully prepared environment. 3 - Concerning the insights of the three educators which may be considered important for education in this century, Comenius was cited for his outstanding ability to systematize knowledge, his championship of the humanitarian ideal of freedom, and his pansophic ideal of universal knowledge through a universal college system with uniform textbooks in a universal auxiliary language. The study of Froebel's work can provide more insights into the educational possibilities of the preschool age child obtained through self-activity. The study of the work of Montessori provides help in the greater educational use of the period of postnatal infancy, and the greater application of the disciplines of anthropology, physiology, and psychology to education. Montessori's work can also prove to be significant in the search for more effective means of education for the culturally deprived child. All three educators seemed to possess an ability to synthesize - to see things in their whole relationships. Specifically they applied this insight to means of educating all facets of human personality.

Language: English

Published: Denver, Colorado, 1970


Cosmic Education in Maria Montessori: Arts and Sciences as Resources for Human Development

Available from: Università Degli Studi Firenze

Publication: Studi sulla Formazione / Open Journal of Education, vol. 21, no. 2

Pages: 249-260

Cosmic education, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, ⚠️ Invalid DOI

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Abstract/Notes: This article reflects on the concept of cosmic education set out by Maria Montessori in strict correlation to those of cosmic vision and cosmic plan. Cosmic education is considered here as a fundamental direction within the original core of the thought of Maria Montessori since the early twentieth century. Among the different orders of consideration that support the actuality of cosmic education, two are the object of analysis. The first concerns the content plan that aims to create interactions with the various disciplinary fields (scientific, historical and geographical education, etc.) as a unitary vision and development of knowledge. The second concerns the existential level: it embraces and summarizes the concepts of “ecological education”, “education for peace”, and “education for the world” in themselves to the point of recalling implications of ethical and aesthetic education.

Language: English

DOI: 10.13128/Studi_Formaz-24669

ISSN: 2036-6981


Care and Education in Early Childhood: A Student's Guide to Theory and Practice

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

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Abstract/Notes: The authors draw on their extensive early years experience to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the key issues in the field of early childhood

Language: English

Published: New York: Routledge, 2009

Edition: 2nd

ISBN: 978-1-315-83201-2 978-0-415-45757-6 978-1-138-41107-4

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

Communication and Conflict Resolution in Early Childhood

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research

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Abstract/Notes: The importance of teaching communication and conflict resolution skills in early childhood is explored in this action research. Previous research suggests that young children are capable of learning conflict resolution skills from an early age. After observing that conflict resolution was not successfully addressed in many different classroom environments, the need to research and model clear, compassionate language was apparent. This study was conducted in a Montessori classroom of 21 children, ages three to six. Within the framework of Nonviolent Communication (NVC), the children learned to voice their feelings, hear others, and have their personal needs met. I recorded reports on each conflict, along with a daily tally of conflicts and a daily self-reflection. During this intervention, the children were only beginning to show the ability to solve conflicts independently. Results showed an increase in conflicts successfully resolved. As the environment continues to practice NVC, the children would likely continue to expand their capacity to communicate clearly and resolve conflicts without the aid of an adult.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2016


Montessori Education in the Context of Childhood Educational Trends in Japan

Publication: Montessori Education, vol. 41

Pages: 41-57

Asia, East Asia, Japan, Kimiko Kai - Writings, Montessori method of education

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Abstract/Notes: This is an article from Montessori Education, a Japanese language periodical published by the Japan Association Montessori.

Language: Japanese

ISSN: 1354-1498

Conference Paper

Maria Montessori’s Philosophy of Education: An Early Beginning of Embodied Education

Available from: University Colleges Knowledge database (Denmark)

18th International Network of Philosophers of Education Conference: Pedagogical Forms in Times of Pandemic (Copenhagen, Denmark, 17-20 August 2022)

Comparative education, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: For a century Montessori’s philosophy of education has been understood in separation from Dewey’s philosophy of education. According to Thayer-Bacon [1], a plausible explanation is that Kilpatrick, Dewey’s influential student, rejected Montessori’s system of education [2]. His main objection was that her educational system was founded on an outdated psychology. In contrast, this paper suggests, Montessori’s educational systems is founded on a psychology which, like Dewey’s, was markedly ahead of her time by putting purely embodied interactions with the environment as the foundation of human understanding. By comparing Montessori’s psychology [3; 4] to Dewey’s [5; 6] this paper shows their compatibility. The developed pragmatism of Sellars [5;6] and the interactivism of Bickhard [7] further enables us to explain how the prelinguistic human-environment interactions (or transactions), central to Dewey and Montessori, are pure processes [8]. The pure process ontology enables us to see how more complex processes emerge from simpler ones and how learning in the mere causal domain of bodily human-environment interactions can grow into the linguistic and conceptual domain of education. The ambition is to show that a flourishing interaction between Montessori and pragmatism is possible and preferable if we are to understand the proper role of the body in education. [1] Thayer-Bacon, Barbara (2012). Maria Montessori, John Dewey, and William H. Kilpatrick. Education and Culture, 28, 1, 3-20. [2] Kilpatrick, W. H. (1914). The Montessori system examined. Cambridge, Mass.; The Riverside Press [3] Montessori, M. (1912). The Montessori method. NY: Frederick A. Stokes Company [4] Montessori. M. (1949). The absorbent mind. Adyar: The Theosophical Publishing House [5] Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. NY: The Macmillan Company [6] Dewey, J. (1925) Experience and nature. Chicago: Open Court Publishing Company [7] Sellars, W. (1960). Being and Being Known. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association, 34, 28-49. [8] Sellars, W. (1981). Foundations for a metaphysics of pure process: The Carus lectures of Wilfrid Sellars. The Monist 64 (1):3-90. [9] Bickhard, M. H. (2009). The interactivist model. Synthese, 166, 3, 547-591. [10] Seibt, Johanna (2016). How to Naturalize Intentionality and Sensory Consciousness within a Process Monism with Gradient Normativity—A Reading of Sellars. In James O'Shea (ed.), Sellars and His Legacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 186-222.

Language: English

Published: Copenhagen, Denmark: International Network of Philosophers of Education, 2022


The Comparison of the Intuitive Mathematic Skills of Preschool Children Who Take Education According to Ministry of National Education Preschool Education Program and Montessori Approach

Available from: IISTE - International Knowledge Sharing Platform

Publication: International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research, vol. 6, no. 6

Pages: 167

Asia, Comparative education, Mathematics education, Middle East, Montessori method of education, Preschool children, Preschool education, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: This study analyzed intuitive mathematics abilities of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) preschool education program and the Montessori approach. It was also examined whether the intuitive mathematics abilities of the children who were educated according to the MoNE program and Montessori approach showed a significant difference according to variables of gender, duration of pre-school education, and educational levels of parents. The study sample of the study consisted of 121 children (56 girls, 65 boys) aged between 60-72 months. The data was collected via “Personal Information Form” and “Intuitive Mathematics Ability Scale” developed by Güven (2001). Intuitive mathematical abilities of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to MoNE program. There was no significant difference in intuitive mathematical abilities according to duration of preschool education, education levels of parents. As a result of the study, a significant difference was observed in the intuitive math abilities of the children trained according to the MoNE program in favor of the girls, whereas no significant difference was observed trained according to the Montessori approach. The results are discussed in light of the relevant literature.

Language: Turkish

DOI: 10.7176/JSTR/6-06-12

ISSN: 2422-8702


History of the Reception of Montessori Education in Japan

Available from: Espacio, Tiempo y Educación

Publication: Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, vol. 5, no. 2

Asia, East Asia, Japan, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - History

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Abstract/Notes: This paper focuses on the history of the reception of Montessori Education, and sheds light on the development of childhood education in Japan. From its first adoption in the 1910s until today, the Montessori style of Education has been both praised and criticised. Nevertheless, this period has seen three distinct phases of theory and practice. The first stage (1910s-1930s) saw, from its initial adoption, a rapid acceptance of Montessori Education, due to its promise of early education and new teaching methods promoting freedom for children. However, the method soon lost popularity because some educators criticized the weakness of Montessori’s theory. In the second stage (1930s-post-World War II), interest in the method continued to grow, albeit gradually, and several books published on the Montessori Method in Europe and America were translated into Japanese. The third stage (1950s-present) saw the so-called «Montessori revival», in which the method caught on again with many educators. Many original works were translated, numerous studies on Montessori appeared, and the number of kindergartens and nursery schools using the Montessori Method increased. Much has been said both for and against Montessori’s concept of «freedom for children». Recently, however «learning from the environment» has become an important topic in early childhood education in Japan. Montessori attaches importance to children’s freedom to interact with each other and their environment, leading to a renewed interest in the Montessori method and the theory behind it. This paper seeks to clarify the transitions in the popularity of Montessori Education and analyse its value to Japan.

Language: English

DOI: 10.14516/ete.227

ISSN: 2340-7263

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