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Article

The impact of high-stakes testing on teaching and learning: can this be predicted or controlled?

Available from: ScienceDirect

Publication: System, vol. 28, no. 4

Pages: 499-205

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Abstract/Notes: One of the issues which attracted the attention of language testers in the 1990s was the impact of high-stakes tests on the classroom: what kind of influence did such tests have on teaching and learning and what could educators do to ensure that this was beneficial rather than harmful? Some progress was made in defining notions such as ‘impact’ and ‘washback’, and a number of studies appeared which analysed the relationship between tests and teachers’ and learners’ attitudes and behaviour. There was a growing awareness of the importance of factors other than test design in determining whether tests would have the impact that was desired. These factors also appear in the literature of educational innovation, and it is to this field that some testers turned for guidance on whether test impact could be predicted or controlled. This paper summarises what language testers have learned about test impact in the last decade and discusses what one model of educational innovation has revealed about how tests interact with other factors in the testing situation. It concludes with a set of recommendations about the steps future test developers might take in order to assess the amount of risk involved in attempting to create change through testing.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1016/S0346-251X(00)00035-X

ISSN: 0346-251X, 1879-3282

Master's Thesis

Printing Peace: Cultural and Pedagogical Negotiation Through Children's Periodicals in Costa Rica, 1912-1947

Available from: University of Illinois - IDEALS

Americas, Carmen Lyra - Biographic sources, Central America, Costa Rica, Latin America and the Caribbean, Luisa González - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - History, Peace

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Abstract/Notes: At the turn of the twentieth century, in the context of the budding nation-state formation process throughout Latin America, liberalism, nationalism, and social reforms dominated Latin American intellectual political discourse in its relentless quest for modernity. Popular literacy movements and the expansion and centralization of the educational sphere, which was essential for cultivating national identities and reinforcing allegiance, proliferated throughout Latin America. In Costa Rica, the Olympians, a group of elite intellectuals intricately connected with the agro-export oligarchy, directed social and political reforms. The Olympians were overwhelmingly patriotic and patriarchal, and aimed to create a national culture that would reinforce existing economic, gender, and racial hierarchies. This project focuses on revolutionary feminists Carmen Lyra and Luisa González, who negotiated the cultural politics of education as intermediaries between students and the state through the publication of children’s periodicals. Specifically, this project analyzes the periodicals San Selerín (1912-1913, 1923-1924) and Triquitraque (1936-1947) to elucidate the ways in which these educators used children’s literature and Montessorian pedagogy to create a culture of inclusion and engagement rather than the patriotic and patriarchal pedagogy the Olympians. Contemporary memory has forgotten the revolutionary ideals of these educators, but this project affirms Carmen Lyra and Luisa González cannot be separated from their legacies as active members of the Costa Rican Communist Party, as fervent proletarian internationalists, and as revolutionary feminists. To do so would be to neutralize the potency of their memory.

Language: English

Published: Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, 2016

Book Section

A Comparison of Multi-Age and Homogeneous Age Grouping in Early Childhood Centers

Available from: ERIC

Book Title: Current Topics in Early Childhood Education

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Abstract/Notes: Studies from several countries are described in this review of literature pertinent to assigning day care children to multi-age or homogeneous age groups. Three issues are discussed in this regard: (1) What difference does it make how one groups children? The answer is that a profound difference to children, staff, and parents may occur in terms of social environment, curriculum design, success at school, and other factors. (2) What aspects of the child's development are affected by age grouping? The answer is that multi-age grouping positively influences social, emotional, and some learning outcomes, whereas homogeneous grouping seems to produce mastery of academic skills. Success of particular grouping choices depends on the end desired and on the skills of staff members. (3) How does age grouping affect the achievement of preschool goals? The answer to this question ultimately can be provided only by a center's staff and the families being served. Because research is still being conducted on the effects of grouping children under 6 years of age, the decision to place children in multi-age or homogeneous groups depends on program goals, client characteristics, center resources, and staff training and inclinations.

Language: English

Published: Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex, 1982

ISBN: 978-0-89391-109-6

Volume: 4

Article

Montessori All Day: Gracious Living with Children beyond the Hours of a Typical School Day

Available from: ERIC

Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 39, no. 2

Pages: 29-51

Child development, Early childhood education, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Connie Black takes a broad view as she makes the case for the all-day Montessori. She assembles Montessori historical literature to give authenticity to a full-day program that is true to Montessori's "aid to life." The Montessori prepared environment provides "care" day in and day out and includes a focus on practical life as routine. In the context of the whole community, the all-day program becomes embedded in the real life of a home. [This talk was presented at the NAMTA conference titled "Montessori from Birth to Six: In Search of Community Values," Minneapolis, MN, November 7-10, 2013.]

Language: English

ISSN: 1522-9734

Doctoral Dissertation

A Comparison of the Place Value Understanding of Montessori and Non-Montessori Elementary School Students

Available from: National Center for Montessori in the Public Sector (NCMPS)

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Abstract/Notes: Schools following the Montessori method use individual and small-group teaching methods and hands-on, concrete materials to provide a basis for deep learning of mathematical concepts. Schools with a mostly traditional approach to mathematics teaching mainly use large-group lecture methods with little use of manipulative materials. This study investigated the understanding of place value concepts and abilities of Montessori students by comparing task responses of 93 students in grades 1-3 in a Montessori school (n=47) and in a mostly traditional comparison school (n=46). Data collection included clinical interviews with each student. The theoretical framework used in the study was taken from Zoltan Dienes, a mathematician, who believed that mathematics is learned and created by forming layers of abstract generalizations. Interview tasks were both gathered from the literature and created by the researcher. Procedural tasks included those that asked students to count, to identify the value of digits in a number, and to use the standard addition algorithm for multidigit numbers. Conceptual tasks included those that required students to solve two-digit addition and missing addend questions with and without materials and to solve word problems involving three- and four-digit numbers. Some tasks included large numbers into the thousands because Dienes' framework calls for increasingly abstract generalizations, which for place value means larger and larger numbers.

Language: English

Published: Columbus, Ohio, 2000

Doctoral Dissertation

Identification of Competencies for the Professional Component of a Program for Training Nursery School Teachers in Guyana

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Americas, Guyana, Latin America and the Caribbean, South America

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this study was to identify competencies for the professional component of a program for preparing nursery school teachers in Guyana. It incorporated a definition of the purposes of the national Nursery Education Program in Guyana and a definition of the behaviors associated with teaching in the nursery schools through: (1) A review of the literature encompassing programs for young children; roles of teachers in programs for young children; competencies for teachers of young children and competency-based teacher education. (2) The development of an interview schedule to gather data about the purposes of nursery schools and the behaviors associated with teaching in the nursery schools in Guyana. (3) Use of the interview schedule to conduct personal interviews with uncertified teachers, certified teachers, supervisors, parents and lecturers attached to the Nursery Education Program in Guyana. (4) Content analysis of the responses to the interview questions. The data indicated that the respondents were aware of the purposes of nursery schools and what constitutes effective teaching in these schools. The information generated through the analysis provided the basis for the formulation of competencies for nursery school teachers in Guyana. The identified competencies are overarching; stated as behaviors to be demonstrated by certified nursery school teachers; and are categorized under the goals of the Guyana Nursery Education Program.

Language: English

Published: New York, 1982

Article

The Democratic School and the Pedagogy of Janusz Korczak: A Model of Early Twentieth Century Reform in Modern Israel

Available from: International Association of Educators (INASED)

Publication: International Journal of Progressive Education, vol. 9, no. 1

Pages: 119-132

Asia, Israel, Janusz Korczak - Biographic sources, Middle East, Western Asia, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: This article explores the history and pedagogy of Janusz Korczak within the context of his contemporary early Twentieth-Century European Innovative Educators which include Maria Montessori, Homer Lane, A.S. Neill, and Anton Semyonovitch Makarenko. The pedagogies of the aforementioned are compared and contrasted within the literature.

Language: English

ISSN: 1554-5210

Doctoral Dissertation

Longitudinal Academic Achievement Outcomes: Modeling the Growth Trajectories of Montessori Public Elementary School Students

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: Elementary education has theoretical underpinnings based on cognitive psychology. Ideas from cognitive psychologists such as James, Dewey, Piaget, and Vygotsky coalesce to form constructivism (Cooper, 1993; Yager, 2000; Yilmaz, 2011). Among others, the Montessori Method (1912/1964) is an exemplar of constructivism. Currently, public education in the United States is heavily impacted by the No Child Left Behind legislation (Paige, 2006) which emphasizes high stakes academic achievement testing. Absent from the literature is an examination of the academic achievement of Montessori students in public education. This study explores the academic achievement outcomes of public school students who completed varying numbers of years in Montessori elementary education. Singer and Willett's (2003) multilevel model of change serves as the statistical tool utilized to explore the academic achievement outcomes of a first grade cohort through their elementary and secondary school careers. Accrued years in Montessori did not account for significant variance amongst the trajectories, and gender and ethnicity, when considered without the interactions with accrued years, had minimal impact. Socioeconomic status, when the variable of accrued years in Montessori was removed from the equation, was a significant predictor of reading and math achievement.

Language: English

Published: Commerce, Texas, 2014

Article

Diseño de ambientes para el juego: práctica y reflexión en educación infantil / Design of environments for the game: Practice and reflection in early childhood education

Available from: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

Publication: RELAdEI (Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Infantil), vol. 5, no. 1

Pages: 85-96

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Abstract/Notes: Esta investigación parte del supuesto que girar la mirada hacia el diseño de ambientes como dispositivo para potenciar el juego en la primera infancia, implica un movimiento en la comprensión de las prácticas docentes que podría llevar a cuestionarse, entre otros: el rol del maestro, las características en el desarrollo de los niños y las niñas, su necesidad de actividad libre y autónoma y su juego dentro de ambientes diseñados para tal fin. Este estudiocuyo objetivo fuepromover y estudiar la reflexión sobre el diseño de ambientes para el juego, desde la práctica de un grupo de profesores; se fundamenta en una visión de la educación cuyo fin específico es potenciar el desarrollo infantil. Se inspira en algunos autores representativos en el campo de estudio, como Montessori, Decroly, más recientemente, Malajovich, Glanzer, Abad, Hoyuelos, Schön, entre otros. El marco metodológico escogido es la investigación-acción desarrollando los ciclos de planeación, acción, observación, reflexión, con el grupo de docentes involucrados en el trabajo. El resultado más destacado de esta investigación fuehacer visible el saber que surge a partir de la reflexión de la propia experiencia, en torno al diseño de ambientes para el juego. Además de lo anterior contribuyó a que los maestros se sintieran reconocidos y valorados en su quehacer docente y permitió contemplar institucionalmente tiempos y espacios para el encuentro y la reflexión del colectivo de maestras. / This research focuses on the design of environments as a device to enhance the game in early childhood which implies a movement to the understanding of teaching practices that could lead to question, among other matters: the teachers’ role, the features of children’s development, the need for free and independent activity of play environments designed for that purpose. This study aims to promote reflection and study on the design of environments for play, from the practice of a group of teachers. It is based on a vision of education whose specific purpose is to promote child’s development, having as activities of the early childhood, game, art, literature and exploration of the environment, as well as the possibilities of expression, communication, interaction and approach to the culture of early childhood. It draws on some important authors in the field of study, such as Montessori, Decroly, Garvey and more recently, Malajovich, Glanzer, Abad, Hoyuelos, Schön, among others. The methodological framework chosen is the action research, developing cycles of planning, action, observation, and reflection, with the group of teachers involved in the work. The most outstanding result of this research was to make visible the knowledge that comes from the reflection of their own experience about the design of environments for play. Besides, the teachers felt recognized and valued in their teaching work. After that the group of teachers was granted with time and space for meetings and reflection activities.

Language: Spanish

ISSN: 2255-0666

Doctoral Dissertation

Does Parental Involvement Matter? A Comparison of the Effects of Two Different Types of Parental Involvement on Urban Elementary Students' Academic Performance

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: This mixed method study seeks to utilize a comparative analysis to explore the impacts of two types of parental involvement in urban elementary school students’ academic performance. Epstein’s (1995) widely cited typology describes six different types of parental involvement, and this typology serves as a framework for this study. More specifically, this study compares learning at home and collaborating with community, as parent involvement types, to student academic performance. The study utilizes descriptive statistics and correlational analyses to compare parent-reported student performance via a survey instrument and semi-structured focus group interviews to collect narrative data. Parental involvement has been vigorously studied over the last two decades, however, not much data appears to address how collaborating with the community, as a form of involvement, influences student performance and other studies provide an ambiguous picture for learning at home as another parenting type. Furthermore, there is evidence that direct-action parent organizing, as a parental involvement form of collaborating with the community, may impact educational outcomes and this study examines these research areas. After analyzing the data, the researcher did not find evidence of a significant relationship between learning at home and parent-reported student academic performance. However, the study did reveal a significant association between parents who were collaborating with the community and the parent-reported academic performance of their children. This moderate correlation from an often overlooked parenting type, collaborating with the community, may harbor rich findings within the literature and point to the need for greater scrutiny herein. In fact, this provides a warrant for additional research to explore the “efficacy” of collaborating with community as a type of parental involvement that significantly influences positive student academic performance.

Language: English

Published: Baltimore, Maryland, 2018

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