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A Comparison of Two Approaches Used Within a Multi-tiered System of Supports That Enhance Students' Academic Achievement
Available from: Bethel University - Institutional Repository
Abstract/Notes: While students are receiving a high-quality education within the classroom, some students face difficulty performing adequately on assessments. These students typically receive intervention support to assist in increasing their skill deficits. However, many schools are unaware of the different approaches they can implement within a Multi-Tiered System of Supports framework. While utilizing a standard protocol has been the preferred method, many schools are currently implementing the problem-solving approach because it targets one skill the student is struggling with. Little research has been conducted comparing or combining the two approaches leading schools to be clueless about which one will provide more positive results. A synthesis of articles implementing one or both approaches was conducted to determine which approach would work best in a Montessori school. Results showed an individualized approach might assist students more based on higher effect sizes. However, some researchers who compared the two approaches indicate both approaches are comparable in yielding positive results. To implement interventions effectively, educators must use an evidence-based intervention that’s explicit and structured, screen and monitor progress to make informed decisions, and implement the intervention with fidelity.
Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2023
A utilização do Método Montessori como ferramenta para contribuição do desenvolvimento socioemocional na primeira infância / The use of the Montessori Method as a tool to contribute to early childhood socio-emotional development
Available from: European Publications
Publication: Cuadernos de Educación y Desarrollo, vol. 15, no. 9
Abstract/Notes: When intrapersonal conflicts are observed in the resolution of everyday setbacks in most children who are experiencing early childhood (2 to 6 (two to six years)), there was a need to elaborate this research in order to find ways that can contribute to the processes of building socio-emotional knowledge. Therefore, we want to analyze whether and how the Montessori Method can contribute to this development of the subject when it needs to resolve conflicts. In view of this, the application of the Montessori method may be a methodology capable of helping to alleviate, or even to resolve, the problem. This method seeks to make children more independent as to the mastery of their emotional and social stability. The general objective of this article is to analyze the contribution of the Montessori Method to the independence of children, in the area of their socio-emotional aspects. The specific objectives are: to clarify what intrapersonal conflicts are and to exemplify situations; to understand the Montessori Method when it comes to autonomy and independence in childhood and to ratify the contribution of the method to socio-emotional development. The sequence of discussion sessions of the article deals with subjects that can clarify the aforementioned objectives, which are called: Intra-personal conflicts and example of situations; Montessori method - autonomy and independence of children and contribution of the Montessori method to socioemotional development in early childhood. The methodology used for this research is qualitative and bibliographic, since concepts and reflections that already exist on the theme will be analyzed. The expectation of the authors is that adults who read this article can promote actions and behaviors that contribute to the independence and autonomy of children, mainly in relation to the domain of emotional stability, so that children learn to deal with their intrapersonal conflicts in a natural, reflective, calm and direct way; demonstrating the possible contribution of the method in the maturation of this domain. / Ao serem observados conflitos intrapessoais na resolução de contratempos cotidianos em grande parte das crianças que estão vivenciando a primeira infância (2 a 6 (dois a seis anos)), houve a necessidade de elaborar esta pesquisa a fim de encontrar maneiras que possam contribuir para os processos de construção de conhecimentos socioemocionais. Portanto deseja-se analisar se, e como, o Método Montessori pode contribuir para este desenvolvimento do sujeito quando este necessita resolver conflitos. Em vista disso, a aplicação do Método Montessori pode ser uma metodologia capaz de contribuir para amenizar, ou até mesmo, para uma possível resolução da problemática. Este método procura tornar as crianças mais independentes quanto ao domínio de suas estabilidades emocionais e sociais. O objetivo geral deste artigo consiste em analisar a contribuição do Método Montessori para a independência das crianças, quanto ao domínio dos seus aspectos socioemocionais. Quanto aos objetivos específicos destaca-se: esclarecer o que são os conflitos intrapessoais e exemplificar situações; compreender o Método Montessori quando se trata de autonomia e independência na infância e ratificar a contribuição do método para o desenvolvimento socioemocional. A sequência de sessões de discussão do artigo trata de assuntos que possam esclarecer os objetivos supracitados, os quais são denominados: Conflitos intrapessoais e exemplo de situações; Método Montessori – autonomia e independência infantil e contribuição do Método Montessori para o desenvolvimento socioemocional na primeira infância. A metodologia utilizada para esta pesquisa é qualitativa e bibliográfica, pois serão analisados conceitos e reflexões que já existem a respeito do tema. A expectativa das autoras é que os adultos que lerem este artigo possam promover ações e condutas que contribuam para a independência e autonomia das crianças, principalmente, com relação ao domínio da estabilidade emocional, para que as crianças aprendam a lidar com seus conflitos intrapessoais de maneira natural, reflexiva, calma e direta; demonstrando a possível contribuição do método na maturação deste domínio.
Exploring New Approaches to Youth Sports Programs: Montessori Motor Development
Available from: Taylor and Francis Online
Publication: Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, vol. 94, no. 7
Abstract/Notes: Children are being introduced to organized sports programs at younger ages today. The first experience sets the stage for how they may view their physical competency and acceptance within a group. In these experiences, frequently, the coach is a well-intended parent who may not have any background in coaching or physical education training. Dr. Maria Montessori is widely known for her contributions to experiential learning for young children. Although Montessori addressed motor development through her pedagogical approach, it is rarely associated with physical education or sports. This article aims to provide some insight to educators, physical education teachers, coaches, and parents with an alternative approach to sport introduction through a Montessori theoretical lens which may allow children to develop a love for physical activity and/or future athletes.
Montessori Educational Thought and Its Implications for Family Education
Available from: Clausius Scientific Press
Publication: Applied & Educational Psychology, vol. 4, no. 8
Abstract/Notes: The aim of this paper is to study and analyze Montessori's educational ideas and their implications for family education. Through the study of representative works such as The Complete Montessori Book of Early Education, The Montessori Handbook of Sensitive Periods for Children, The Montessori Family Program, The Montessori Method of Early Education, The Secret of Childhood and The Absorbent Mind, we have come to the following conclusions. Firstly, Montessori's educational philosophy emphasizes the creation of a home environment that matches the child. This includes providing an orderly, quiet, warm and inspiring environment, and parents should be supporters and observers of children's development, respecting their individual interests and needs. Secondly, Montessori emphasized grasping the child's sensitive periods. She observed that children are more sensitive to certain experiences and skills at certain ages and learn best during this period. Finally, Montessori's educational ideas provide theoretical and practical implications for preschool education. She emphasizes the development of children's self-discipline, self-confidence, independent thinking and problem-solving skills. Encouraging children to actively participate in daily life activities, developing good social skills and emotional development, and providing appropriate learning experiences lay a solid foundation for children's preschool education. In summary, Montessori's educational ideas give important insights in the area of family education. Creating a family environment adapted to children, grasping sensitive periods, and developing various abilities are insights that provide theoretical and practical implications for preschool education.
Investigating the Effect of Cognitive Rehabilitation on the Memory Improvement of Patients With Alzheimer
Available from: University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (Iran)
Publication: Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, vol. 21, no. 2
Date: Jun 2023
Abstract/Notes: Objectives: Alzheimer's is the most prevalent cognitive disturbance, with a high spread among the elderly. The current research aims to investigate the impact of cognitive rehabilitation on the memory improvement of Alzheimer's disease patients. | Methods: The current research used a semi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test designs. The statistical population in Baghdad in 2021 included 60 patients with Alzheimer's illness, all considered a statistical sample and separated into two experimental and control groups (30 people in each group). The patient's cognitive abilities were assessed prior to the intervention (pre-test), straightly after the intervention (post-test), and two months later (follow-up). The experimental group had twenty-eight 45-minute sessions of training based on the Montessori Method (two sessions per week). The data were analyzed in SPSS version 19 using the independent t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results have a P-value of less than 0.05. | Results: The findings of the independent t-test demonstrated that there is no significant differ between the scores of the both groups during the pre-test stage (P>0.05) but that this difference is significant during the post-test and follow-up stages (P<0.001). In addition, the findings of repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significant differ between the both groups' mean scores in post-test and follow-up (P<0.001). | Conclusion: Cognitive rehabilitation can help patients with memory disorders and positively affect their memory performance.
ISSN: 1735-3602, 1735-3610
Learning by Heart or with Heart: Brain Asymmetry Reflects Pedagogical Practices
Available from: MDPI
Publication: Brain Sciences, vol. 13, no. 9
Abstract/Notes: Brain hemispheres develop rather symmetrically, except in the case of pathology or intense training. As school experience is a form of training, the current study tested the influence of pedagogy on morphological development through the cortical thickness (CTh) asymmetry index (AI). First, we compared the CTh AI of 111 students aged 4 to 18 with 77 adults aged > 20. Second, we investigated the CTh AI of the students as a function of schooling background (Montessori or traditional). At the whole-brain level, CTh AI was not different between the adult and student groups, even when controlling for age. However, pedagogical experience was found to impact CTh AI in the temporal lobe, within the parahippocampal (PHC) region. The PHC region has a functional lateralization, with the right PHC region having a stronger involvement in spatiotemporal context encoding, while the left PHC region is involved in semantic encoding. We observed CTh asymmetry toward the left PHC region for participants enrolled in Montessori schools and toward the right for participants enrolled in traditional schools. As these participants were matched on age, intelligence, home-life and socioeconomic conditions, we interpret this effect found in memory-related brain regions to reflect differences in learning strategies. Pedagogy modulates how new concepts are encoded, with possible long-term effects on knowledge transfer.
"Follow Your Heart": Heart-to-Brain-Driven Interplay Relates to Self-Congruency
Available from: Research Square
Abstract/Notes: When emotions, thoughts, and actions align, this is referred to as “self-congruency”. Therefore, this study aimed to determine how temporal covariance of the heart and brain signals were related to self-congruency. Thirty-eight healthy adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to obtain neural markers of variability, whereas heart rate variability (HRV) was measured using photoplethysmography. Participants were also asked to report their level of self-congruency with a graphic rating scale. A cross-covariance analysis (CCA) was performed to assess the temporal covariance of signals arising from both organs, which was then correlated with self-congruency scores. Overall, the CCA results revealed brain-to-heart-driven interplay in brain regions involved in the neurovisceral integration model (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and in emotion regulation (e.g., anterior cingulate). However, higher self-congruency scores were related to heart-to-brain-driven interplay in brain regions involved in emotion regulation and empathy. Together, the present findings suggest that, while global brain-to-heart-driven interplay occurs on average, it is heart-to-brain-driven interplay that reflects higher self-congruency. Given the impact of heart-brain interplay and self-congruency on mental health, further investigations on each concept could be interesting in developing tools for early intervention.
Published: Aug 30, 2023
The Effects of Mild but Chronic Stress at School on Brain Development: A Comparative Morphometric Study Between Traditionally and Montessori-schooled Children
Available from: Research Square
Abstract/Notes: While many children suffer from stress due to school-related factors, some alternative schooling systems, such as the Montessori pedagogy, emphasize stress-free learning environments (e.g., no grades, no tests, peer-peer learning). This study compared brain markers of stress, i.e., hippocampus, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) volumes, as a function of school experience. A cross-sectional comparative morphometric study was run between 45 traditionally schooled children and 44 Montessori-schooled children (3-12 years). While both groups were comparable in terms of cognitive abilities, socio-economic environment, and anxiety levels, volumetric values within their hippocampus and their mPFC differed. While there was hippocampal growth across development for all participants, there was a higher gain for Montessori-schooled children. Furthermore, female traditionally schooled children showed a loss in hippocampal and mPFC volume across age, while female Montessori-schooled children showed a gain. It seems that traditional pedagogical approaches induce mild but chronic stress, affecting underlying brain structures.
Published: Jun 22, 2023
Archival Material Or Collection
Grace Gallatin Seton-Thompson papers
Abstract/Notes: The collection includes biographical articles and clippings, correspondence, published writings and typescripts, memorabilia, notes, photographs, and organization files. Correspondence (1903-40) pertains to her travels, publications, and involvement in feminist and social organizations. Organizational files include minutes, agendas and reports relating to the International Council of Women (1915-26),the National Council of Women, and the Montessori Education Association of New York. Her work for the International Writers Conclave (Chicago, 1933) brought occasional correspondence from women authors around the world. Typescripts of articles and addresses including an essay on Chinese medicine and information on Dr. Mary Stone, medical missionary, China (n.d.). Material related to her world travels includes writings, correspondence, travel literature, maps and notes. Individuals represented include May Wright Sewall, Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman, Lena Madesin Phillips, and Kate Douglas Smith Wiggin.
The Urgent Need for an Early Years Workforce Strategy
Available from: MAG Online Library
Publication: Early Years Educator, vol. 24, no. 3
Date: Oct 2023
Abstract/Notes: Statistics published by the DfE in July show the proportion of staff working in the the early years sector with a relevant early years qualification has fallen since 2020. Dr Nathan Archer, director of the International Montessori Institute, outlines his thoughts on how the government could tackle the recruitment and retention crisis and the need for a workforce strategy.
ISSN: 1465-931X, 2052-4617
The Social Liberation of the Child ([Los Angeles] Lecture 3, 4: 27 May, 9 June 1915)
Book Title: The California Lectures of Maria Montessori, 1915: Collected Speeches and Writings by Maria Montessori
Published: Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company, 2018
Series: The Montessori Series , 15
Montessori in India 1915–2021: Adapted, Competing and Contested Framings
Available from: Cambridge University Press
Publication: History of Education Quarterly, vol. 62, no. 4
Abstract/Notes: The long history of Montessori education in India dates to 1915, and it was expanded through Maria and Mario Montessori's work in India between 1939 to 1946 and 1947 to 1949. The article characterizes a century of Montessori education in India as a series of adapted, competing, and contested framings with key disputes over Montessori education's intended purpose, audience, and how much it could be adapted. First, from 1915 to 1939, Montessori education was connected to the Indian independence movement as nation-building education, but it was eclipsed by a parallel rise of elite, private Montessori schools, a framing reinforced by Maria Montessori's insistence on fidelity to her method. Starting in the 1950s, other Indian educators adapted Montessori for poor children, an emphasis that continues today with government and foundation-funded schools. Finally, in the last thirty years, India's new middle class has driven demand for early childhood education, leading to branded Montessori franchises, some bearing little resemblance to Montessori's original pedagogy.
ISSN: 0018-2680, 1748-5959
Report of the Conference on New Ideals in Education Held at Stratford-on-Avon August 14-21, 1915
Published: London, England: Women's Printing Society, 1915
Educación infantil y oficio de maestra-jardinera, Medellín-Colombia: 1915-1930
Available from: Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia
Publication: Historia y Memoria, no. 16
Abstract/Notes: El artículo tiene como propósito analizar históricamente la producción de un saber escolar que permitió la educación de los párvulos y la formación de la maestra-jardinera al interior del Colegio María Auxiliadora de Medellín, a partir de la apropiación de Pestalozzi, Fröebel y Montessori. Metodológicamente se empleó el enfoque histórico de la práctica pedagógica y como método algunas herramientas arqueogenealógicas. El contenido del texto se desarrolla en tres momentos: el primero analiza la emergencia de la maestrajardinera, el segundo da cuenta de la institucionalización de la enseñanza infantil como el primer nivel de instrucción y un tercer momento reescribe los discursos y prácticas para llevar a cabo la educación infantil y la formación de la maestrajardinera. Se presentan como resultados las tensiones de saberpoder que acontecieron en el marco de la pedagogía católica, los saberes para educar a los párvulos y la configuración de la cátedra de pedagogía infantil para la formación de la maestra-jardinera. Como conclusiones se exponen algunos usos de la experiencia educativa del kindergarten salesiano en el presente, recurriendo a la noción de memoria activa del saber pedagógico que permita, hacia futuro, llevar a cabo la reconceptualización de la educación inicial. [This paper analyzes the historical production of a kind of school knowledge that enabled the education of preschoolers and the formation of the preschool or nursery school teacher at Colegio María Auxiliadora of Medellin, by means of the appropriation of Pestalozzi, Fröebel and Montessori methods. Methodologically, this pedagogical practice was studied from a historical approach; additionally, some archeogenealogical tools were used. The contents of the text are developed in three moments: the first analyzes the emergence of the nursery school teacher, the second examines the institutionalization of early childhood teaching as the first instructional level, and a third moment rewrites the discourses and practices of early childhood education and preschool teacher training. The findings include the power-knowledge tensions that occurred in the context of catholic pedagogy, a characterization of the knowledge considered necessary for the education of preschoolers, and the configuration of the Early Childhood Pedagogy Program for the training of preschool teachers. In conclusion, some uses of the educational experience of the present Salesian kindergarten are related, recurring to the notion of active memory of pedagogical knowledge, that will allow the future reconceptualization of early education.]
Science and Culture Around the Montessori's First “Children's Houses” in Rome (1907–1915)
Available from: Wiley Online Library
Publication: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, vol. 44, no. 3
Abstract/Notes: Between 1907 and 1908, Maria Montessori's (1870–1952) educational method was elaborated at the Children's Houses of the San Lorenzo district in Rome. This pioneering experience was the basis for the international fame that came to Montessori after the publication of her 1909 volume dedicated to her “Method.” The “Montessori Method” was considered by some to be scientific, liberal, and revolutionary. The present article focuses upon the complex contexts of the method's elaboration. It shows how the Children's Houses developed in relation to a particular scientific and cultural eclecticism. It describes the factors that both favored and hindered the method's elaboration, by paying attention to the complex network of social, institutional, and scientific relationships revolving around the figure of Maria Montessori. A number of “contradictory” dimensions of Montessori's experience are also examined with a view to helping to revise her myth and offering the image of a scholar who was a real early-twentieth-century prototype of a “multiple” behavioral scientist.
In Memoriam: Margaret E. (Betty) Stephenson (1915-2003)
Available from: ProQuest
Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 15, no. 4
Date: Fall 2003
Challenging the Gaze: The Subject of Attention and a 1915 Montessori Demonstration Classroom (Bilingual edition: English/Portuguese)
Available from: Cadernos de História da Educação
Publication: Cadernos de História da Educação, vol. 15, no. 1
Abstract/Notes: The child's attention, how this attention is reasoned about, and how attention works as a surface for pedagogical intervention are central to understanding modern schooling. This article examines “attention” as an object of knowledge related to the organization and management of individuals. I address what we might learn about attention by studying one specific Montessori classroom, the glass-walled public demonstration set up at the 1915 San Francisco World's Fair. The pedagogy of attention on display and the spectatorship of the classroom provide an opportunity to rethink how power and subjectivity play in the formation of human attractions. I argue that thinking through Montessori offers important and relevant suggestions for present-day examinations of attention. The 1915 demonstration classroom can help us theorize the relation of attention to normalizing and governmentalizing practices. This specific study of how attention operates in one locale has implications for tactile learning theories and for the analytics of power to be used in studies of attention.
Language: English, Portuguese
Challenging the Gaze: The Subject of Attention and a 1915 Montessori Demonstration Classroom
Available from: Wiley Online Library
Publication: Educational Theory, vol. 54, no. 3
Americas, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - History, North America, Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915, San Francisco, California), United States of America
Abstract/Notes: The child's attention, how this attention is reasoned about, and how attention works as a surface for pedagogical intervention are central to understanding modern schooling. This article examines attention as an object of knowledge related to the organization and management of individuals. I address what we might learn about attention by studying one specific Montessori classroom, the glasswalled public demonstration set up at the 1915 San Francisco World's Fair. The pedagogy of attention on display and the spectatorship of the classroom provide an opportunity to rethink how power and subjectivity play in the formation of human attractions. I argue that thinking through Montessori offers important and relevant suggestions for present-day examinations of attention. The 1915 demonstration classroom can help us theorize the relation of attention to normalizing and governmentalizing practices. This specific study of how attention operates in one locale has implications for tactile learning theories and for the analytics of power to be used in studies of attention. -- ERIC
ISSN: 0013-2004, 1741-5446
This Year 90 Years Ago... Focus on Important Events of 1915
Publication: Communications (Association Montessori Internationale, 195?-2008), vol. 2005, no. 1
Mrs. Maria Reed: An Appreciation (1915-2007)
Publication: AMI/USA News, vol. 20, no. 3
Date: May 2007