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The Effect of Iteration on the Design Performance of Primary School Children
Publication: International Journal of Technology and Design Education
Abstract/Notes: Iteration during the design process is an essential element. Engineers optimize their design by iteration. Research on iteration in Primary Design Education is however scarce; possibly teachers believe they do not have enough time for iteration in daily classroom practices. Spontaneous playing behavior of children indicates that iteration fits in a natural way of learning. To demonstrate the importance of iteration for the design performance and understand what occurs in an optimized situation a study was conducted in a Dutch Montessori school. Four conditions were chosen to shape the design assignment; iteration, freedom of choice, collaboration and presentation. The choice for these conditions was inspired by the work of Montessori, and because of the positive effects on design performance during previous design and technology projects. This led to a concrete assignment, suitable for 6–8 years old, “Fold a piece of aluminum foil so it can hold the weight of marbles when it lies on the water. The more marbles it can hold the better.” Self correction was possible as the challenge lays in the ease to improve countable results. Clear results of iteration could be determined; an increasing sense of control and detailed insight in what to do for maximum results were found amongst the pupils. Additional literature about capability development and metacognition confirmed the value of the four conditions in relation to the observed results.
Equity, Diversity and Inclusion: Practitioners' Perspectives Toward Reforming Early Childhood Curriculum in Saudi Arabia
Available from: Research Gate
Publication: International Journal of Special Education, vol. 37, no. 3
Asia, Early childhood care and education, Early childhood education, Educational change, Inclusive education, Middle East, Montessori method of education, Reggio Emilia approach (Early childhood education), Saudi Arabia, Special education, Western Asia
Abstract/Notes: Early childhood (EC) is the right period to start emphasizing on teaching young children about diversity, equity and inclusion. The new vision of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2030 target to boost educational system through continuous invest in and teachers' education and professional training focused on integrating multicultural education into the curricula. The current study dealt with two main dimensions: The first dimension revealed the different curricula, teaching strategies, and assessment of children's learning in kindergartens in the public and private sectors. The second dimension focused on investigating how these applied curricula take into account the principles of diversity, equity and inclusion for children from different cultural backgrounds. The current study used the descriptive analytical approach through the application of the questionnaire, which targeted a number of government and private kindergartens in various major cities in the Kingdom. The results revealed the interest of private kindergartens in applying modern and diverse curricula in terms of teaching and assessment strategies and in terms of respect for diversity, equity and inclusion for all children, which meets their different needs. Teachers in private kindergartens expressed their confidence and competence to teach children from different cultures, and that the applied curricula ensure respect for their cultural backgrounds in terms of teaching methods that are free of racism in any form. Continuous professional training and the employment of teachers from different cultures contributed to raising the cultural awareness of children in private kindergartens compared to government ones. The current study recommended decision-makers to update the curricula in government kindergartens in line with the global trend towards integrating children from different cultures and backgrounds in the classroom.
ISSN: 0827-3383, 1917-7844
Implementation of Montessori Curriculum Management in Improving the Quality of Learning in Askara Montessori Kindergarten
Available from: Bajang Institute
Publication: International Journal of Social Science (IJSS), vol. 2, no. 3
Date: Oct 2022
Academic achievement, Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Southeast Asia
Abstract/Notes: This study aims to determine the implementation of Montessori curriculum management along with the supporting and inhibiting factors for the implementation of Montessori curriculum management in improving the quality of learning in Askara Montessori Kindergarten, Kramatjati, East Jakarta. This study uses a descriptive qualitative approach by using data collection methods of observation, interviews and documentation. The data analysis technique stage includes data reduction, data presentation and data verification, while checking the reliability of the data is carried out by extending participation, observing accuracy, triangulation and consulting with supervisors. The results of his research indicate that the implementation of Montessori curriculum management in improving the quality of learning, namely planning includes making a training schedule for teachers, both bringing in experts and attending training outside of making head work plans / annual programs, making supervision guidelines. Then the implementation includes: supervising learning planning including RPPH, RPPM and RPPS, monitoring and evaluating by fostering teachers with motivation. Evaluation includes reporting the results of supervision starting from planning, implementing and evaluating learning, then reporting the results of child development to parents. While the driving factors for change management strategies in improving teacher performance include infrastructure and facilities that include quite complete Montessori tools.
ISSN: 2798-3463, 2798-4079
Autonomy, Spontaneity and Creativity in Research with Children. a Study of Experience and Participation, in Central Italy and North West England
Available from: Taylor and Francis Online
Publication: International Journal of Social Research Methodology, vol. 23, no. 1
Autonomy in children, Creative ability in children, Creative thinking in children, England, Europe, Great Britain, Italy, Montessori method of education, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Spontaneity (Personality trait), United Kingdom
Abstract/Notes: Research involving children, deemed to have difficulties with conventional means of communication, can perpetuate reductive forms of representation of children’s knowledges and experiences. This article focuses on the possibilities and opportunities that visual and creative methods can offer to researching with children. Children advance their views in and through spontaneous and concrete forms of participation. Autonomy in aesthetic acts is central to this methodology; to explore practices that produce and reproduce presuppositions deriving from societal attitudes affecting research with children, their agency and self-presentation. This cross-cultural study was conducted in Central Italy and North West England: children contributed their perspectives and experiences through participation in a series of creative encounters resulting in aesthetic and embodied outcomes of sociological and educational significance. The study contributes to the debate on children’s autonomy and the value and quality of participation through artistic practice. Examples from the corpus of data, which includes a series of artefacts and over 900 photographs from each geo-cultural context, are presented. The study shows that it is possible to harmonise power imbalances in spaces of creative freedom, in research and education, where children’s choices and agency are respected.
The Comparison of the Intuitive Mathematic Skills of Preschool Children Who Take Education According to Ministry of National Education Preschool Education Program and Montessori Approach
Available from: IISTE - International Knowledge Sharing Platform
Publication: International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research, vol. 6, no. 6
Asia, Comparative education, Mathematics education, Middle East, Montessori method of education, Preschool children, Preschool education, Turkey, Western Asia
Abstract/Notes: This study analyzed intuitive mathematics abilities of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) preschool education program and the Montessori approach. It was also examined whether the intuitive mathematics abilities of the children who were educated according to the MoNE program and Montessori approach showed a significant difference according to variables of gender, duration of pre-school education, and educational levels of parents. The study sample of the study consisted of 121 children (56 girls, 65 boys) aged between 60-72 months. The data was collected via “Personal Information Form” and “Intuitive Mathematics Ability Scale” developed by Güven (2001). Intuitive mathematical abilities of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to MoNE program. There was no significant difference in intuitive mathematical abilities according to duration of preschool education, education levels of parents. As a result of the study, a significant difference was observed in the intuitive math abilities of the children trained according to the MoNE program in favor of the girls, whereas no significant difference was observed trained according to the Montessori approach. The results are discussed in light of the relevant literature.
Demands in Early Childhood Education: Montessori Pedagogy, Prepared Environment, and Teacher Training
Available from: International Journal of Research in Education and Science
Publication: International Journal of Research in Education and Science, vol. 7, no. 1
Abstract/Notes: Recognizing the inherent attention in examining how educational practices affect our future, there is little known about society's demands related to early childhood education. This paper aims to analyze the current preschool enrolment situation in the Euro-Western world and the demands of society, focusing attention on the characteristics needed in the prepared environment and in teacher training practices that inclusive education offers. Different socio-cultural theories have been analyzed, and practices regarding human development have been presented as they guarantee an integral development of the child, one which respects infant developmental stages and offers the right scaffolding and environment to stimulate a child's interest and potential. All these aspects are claimed in society, and are reflected in the Montessori Pedagogy principles, where thanks to the observation and knowledge regarding children's needs, educators can prepare stimulating environments that lead to personal formative development.
Integral Education in Ancient India from Vedas and Upanishads to Vedanta
Available from: International Journal of Research - Granthaalayah
Publication: International Journal of Research - Granthaalayah, vol. 6, no. 6
Abstract/Notes: Western scholarship usually ignores the contributions from other civilizations, India for instance. At the same time, contemporary India seems to have forgotten to some extent the deepest achievements of its own tradition. Moreover, modern culture has often produced some kind of despise against ancient traditions as opposed to the freedom and emancipation of the modern world. This paper tries to unveil all the depth and beauty of Indian philosophy of education, especially through major traditions such as Vedas, Upanishads and Vedanta. It also tries to show that the pedagogic message of the sages of modern India revives all the depth of the ancient tradition. This long history of holistic education in India through 35 centuries may enrich the Western insights with figures such as Steiner, Montessori or Dewey, aware that intercultural dialogue will be one of the major challenges of the XXIst century. It becomes crystal clear through this paper that the vision of integral education in Indian culture was inseparable from the spiritual/ mystical dimension, or to put in reverse terms, the spiritual domain constituted the very foundation of the educational process in Indian philosophy of education, a fundamental point that would be again emphasized by Indian modern philosophers such as Vivekananda, Aurobindo and even Krishnamurti.
ISSN: 2394-3629, 2350-0530
Advantages of Mixed-age Free Play in Elementary School: Perceptions of Students, Teachers, and Parents
Available from: Taylor and Francis Online
Publication: International Journal of Play, vol. 10, no. 1
Abstract/Notes: Mixed-age groups have been shown to be effective in classroom settings, but only a handful of studies have explored mixed-age grouping in play. This research is a case study of one New York public elementary school that places great value on recess and mixed-age groupings. The school has implemented Let Grow Play Club before school one day per week for students in kindergarten through fifth grade. We use child interviews, teacher interviews, and parent surveys to examine the perceptions of mixed-age, outdoor play provided in Play Club and the school more generally. Across the different types of data, stakeholders expressed their support for cross-age interactions in mixed-age groupings. This play was perceived as valuable for helping build friendships and developing social skills, as older children become role models to younger ones. As suggested by Vygotsky’s (1978) theories, children are learning from one another and enhancing their development through unstructured play.
The Democratic School and the Pedagogy of Janusz Korczak: A Model of Early Twentieth Century Reform in Modern Israel
Available from: International Association of Educators (INASED)
Publication: International Journal of Progressive Education, vol. 9, no. 1
Asia, Israel, Janusz Korczak - Biographic sources, Middle East, Western Asia
Abstract/Notes: This article explores the history and pedagogy of Janusz Korczak within the context of his contemporary early Twentieth-Century European Innovative Educators which include Maria Montessori, Homer Lane, A.S. Neill, and Anton Semyonovitch Makarenko. The pedagogies of the aforementioned are compared and contrasted within the literature.
The New Curriculum of Education in Kenya: a Linguistic and Education Paradigm Shift
Available from: eRepository at University of Nairobi, Kenya
Publication: International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning, vol. 5, no. 1
Africa, East Africa, Kenya, Sub-Saharan Africa
Abstract/Notes: The current system of education in Kenya is the 8-4-4 structure, where children study for eight years of Basic (primary) education, four years of Secondary education and four years of University education. This system was introduced in 1985 to promote man-power capable of performing blue collar jobs, as compared to the former 7-6-3 system that targeted developing a local workforce to replace the British workforce who largely held white collar jobs in the new, independent Kenya. However, over the years, the 8-4-4 curriculum has been widely criticised for a myriad of reasons. The criticisms against this curriculum are that it is too heavily loaded with content, purely examinations-oriented, and generally violating the Rights of the Child by placing undue physical and psychological pressure on learners. In order to address this problem therefore, a new curriculum was hastily crafted and taken through a rushed pilot drive in April 2017 and is expected to replace the current 8-4-4 system by January 2018. Admittedly, this new education system addresses some of the weaknesses of the current 8-4-4 education system, since it is competency-based and focuses more on skills acquisition as opposed to a purely knowledge-based acquisition system. The issues addressed in this paper is how this new and hurriedly crafted curriculum (as well as the introduction of Free Secondary School Education) will be implemented by teachers who are yet to come to terms with the new paradigm shift of teaching and learning. The second issue addressed is whether the crafters of this system took into consideration children’s rights, or whether at all, the system was crafted from a child-centred perspective. The concerns are that apart from the manner in which this syllabus was been crafted and planned for implementation, if not reviewed comprehensively may not only violate the rights of future generations of children, but also enhance negative ethnicity from a linguistic perspective