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386 results

Doctoral Dissertation

The Characteristics of Problem Solving Transfer in a Montessori Classroom

Available from: Baylor University Libraries

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of this case study was to examine the use of problem solving strategies and instruction within the Montessori model of learning and to determine if problem solving and transfer occurred. The following research questions were investigated: (1) What Montessori model characteristics are similar to the characteristics reported in the problem solving research which facilitate transfer? (2) In what ways does problem solving within the Montessori classroom transfer? (3) What are the factors that influence problem solving transfer in a Montessori classroom? The site for the study was a fourth through sixth grade level classroom in a private, non-profit Montessori school. Participating in the research were 16 students, two teachers, and a parent of each of the students. The study was conducted over a eight month time period. Data collection and analysis involved both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative data were gathered through video-taping of 24 classroom lessons, audio-taping interviews with the students, teachers, and parents and curriculum document analysis. Quantitative instruments included the TONI-3: Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, 3rd Edition, the Problem Solving and Thinking Processes scale, the Flanders Interaction Analysis Categories-Modified, and the Engagement Check. These are the findings: (a) as implemented in this study, the Montessori model of learning, did incorporate instructional strategies that facilitated problem solving and transfer; (b) instances of problem solving, problem solving transfer, and knowledge transfer did occur; and (c) six specific instructional and curriculum strategies influenced the opportunities for problem solving and transfer in the classroom. This research contributes to the field by studying transfer with elementary age students in the natural setting of a classroom and by providing a framework for examining the factors which encourage problem solving.

Language: English

Published: Waco, Texas, 2002

Doctoral Dissertation

Mind Over Matter: Contributing Factors to Self-Efficacy in Montessori Teachers

Available from: CU University Libraries

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Abstract/Notes: Interpreting Albert Bandura's term "self-efficacy" as the individual's belief in his own abilities to succeed in spite of the given circumstances, this study seeks to identify the influences which lead to self-efficacy in Montessori teachers. In order to evaluate perceptions of self-efficacy, 35 pre-service teachers in the United States were surveyed prior to beginning their Montessori teaching and again during the internship stage of their training. As Bandura asserted that self-efficacy stems from four possible sources: mastery experience; vicarious experience; verbal or social persuasion; and physiological state (1997), the same subjects were given an additional questionnaire to determine which factors most affected their efficacy. Multiple regression was then used to examine the relationship between those factors and the teachers' self-reported efficacy. Following this data collection, four teachers from the high self-efficacy group and four teachers from the low self-efficacy group were interviewed to reveal detailed qualitative information regarding the influences on their classroom efficacy. The research indicates that Montessori teachers with high levels of self-efficacy have strong mastery experiences that support their attitudes and desired professional goals. The quantitative results also show that an emotional state associated with past experiences is the second best contributor to self-efficacy. Considering that self-efficacy may be most malleable during the early stages of learning, the results of this study serve to enhance the teacher-training experience though the analysis of early obstacles.

Language: English

Published: Boulder, Colorado, 2012

Book

Empowering Staff to Support Organizational Objectives: Creating an Administrative Environment That Fosters Harmony, Loyalty and Teamwork

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Language: English

Published: Encinitas, California: Learning for Life, 1999

Article

Educational Gymnastics: The Effectiveness of Montessori Practical Life Activities in Developing Fine Motor Skills in Kindergartners

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Early Education and Development, vol. 26, no. 4

Pages: 594-607

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Abstract/Notes: Research Findings: A quasi-experiment was undertaken to test the effect of Montessori practical life activities on kindergarten children's fine motor development and hand dominance over an 8-month period. Participants were 50 children age 5 in 4 Montessori schools and 50 students age 5 in a kindergarten program in a high-performing suburban elementary school. Children were pre- and posttested on the Flag Posting Test, an individually administered test of fine motor skill requiring children to place tiny flags mounted on pins into preset pinholes. Students in the Montessori treatment group demonstrated significantly higher accuracy, speed, and consistent use of the dominant hand on the posttest, adjusted for pretest differences and gender. Effect sizes were moderate for accuracy and speed (ds = .53 and .37, respectively) and large for established hand dominance (▵R2 = .35). Longitudinal research on the effects of early childhood programs emphasizing the reciprocal interplay of cognitive and physical aspects of activity is recommended. Practice or Policy: The findings argue for a balanced approach to early childhood education that maintains the importance of physical activity and fine motor development in conjunction with cognitive skills. Montessori practical life activities involving eye–hand coordination and fine motor skills can be integrated into programs.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/10409289.2015.995454

ISSN: 1040-9289, 1556-6935

Article

Teaching Peace: A Dialogue on the Montessori Method

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Journal of Peace Education, vol. 3, no. 1

Pages: 39-53

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Abstract/Notes: Most educators are familiar with the principles of one of the founding mothers of peace education, Maria Montessori. Bringing an utterly fresh vision to notions of childhood and education, she re‐imagined the classroom as one in which children would explore and discover their own interests and passions. With regard to conflict resolution, she specifically stated that such an education made the continuation of man’s seemingly endless cycle of war and poverty more likely to continue: further, she argued that if education truly could develop ethically and socially conscious men and women, whose moral sense had been developed as fully as their ability to read and write, mankind could begin hoping for a more peaceful world. The following profiles of international Montessori schools should help clarify the processes an educational philosophy goes through when it is adopted by another culture—essential knowledge as education becomes increasingly global—as well as the contributions of today’s Montessori schools to the development of international‐mindedness in students and teachers alike.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/17400200500532128

ISSN: 1740-0201, 1740-021X

Article

The 200-Year Legacy of Infant Schools

Available from: JSTOR

Publication: YC - Young Children, vol. 70, no. 2

Pages: 102-105

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Abstract/Notes: The early childhood education field includes an array of curriculum models. In Approaches to Early Childhood Education, Roopnarine and Johnson (2013) describe nine specific approaches used in today's pre-schools, ranging from the US-basd HighScope model to approaches with European origins, such as Reggio Emilia and Montessori. However, as Milly Almy (1986) observed nearly 30 years ago in the inaugural issue of Early Childhood Education Quarterly, the early childhood education field can be characterized by uniformity. She quoted a colleague who had asked her, "Why is it that whether I go to Kenya, Israel, Bolivia, or Australia, the programs look and sound so much alike?" (7), despite the diversity of the children and families the programs serve. As David Weikart (2003) highlighted in his summary of the IEA Preprimary Project research involving 15 countries, "dependence on a whole group organization in early childhood care and education settings is international" (245). We believe the global trend emphasizing more structured programs for young children, particularly those from families with low incomes, has its roots in the past (Cleghorn & Prochner 2010), and we explain this by using a historical example and by drawing on Everett Rogers's (2003) diffusion of innovations theory.

Language: English

ISSN: 1538-6619

Article

Comparison of Preschool and First Grade Teachers' Views about School Readiness

Available from: ERIC

Publication: Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, vol. 13, no. 3

Pages: 1708-1713

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: School readiness is an important concern for parents and teachers because it is a multifaceted process which encompasses all the developmental areas and various skills of children rather than only focusing on cognitive and literacy skills. In particular, preschool and first grade teachers experience the positive and negative sides of the process of school readiness. In this study, basic qualitative research was used to compare teachers' views about school readiness. The participants were 35 preschool and 35 first grade teachers and a semi-structured interview protocol developed by the researchers was used to collect data. Qualitative analysis was performed at the end of the study and according to the findings, the following five main themes were determined: definition of school readiness, the effective people and institutions in the school readiness process, preschool education for school readiness, the difficulties encountered in the school readiness process and suggestions for effective school readiness. Also, the findings showed that preschool and first grade teachers tended to have similar views related school readiness.

Language: English

ISSN: 1303-0485

Book Section

Lo sviluppo del linguaggio nella prima infanzia

Book Title: L'importanza dell'educazione nei primi tre anni di vita del bambino: atti del Seminario di studi per genitori ed esperti della prima infanzia, Mantova, 15 gennaio 1994

Pages: 67-73

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Language: Italian

Published: Mantova: Amministrazione provinciale, 1995

Article

O viés americano do método Montessori em São Paulo: Ciridião Buarque e Mary Buarque

Available from: Universidade Federal de Goiás (Brazil)

Publication: Revista Inter Ação, vol. 43, no. 3

Pages: 864-880

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori constituiu, em 1907, em Roma, uma escola pública para crianças em situação de risco, a Casa dei Bambini, que difundida transnacionalmente configurou práticas e pensamento educacional inovadores. O objeto desta narrativa historiográfica foi estudar a institucionalização do Método Montessori no Brasil, problematizando a sua forma de apropriação e identificando por que o método é relacionado principalmente ao uso de materiais didáticos específicos e de mobiliário adequado ao tamanho das crianças. Foi constatado que a primeira escola montessoriana no Brasil atendeu ao público infantil, em São Paulo, no ano de 1915, num investimento particular de Ciridião Buarque e Mary Buarque. Esta pedagogia se irradiou por intermédio das apropriações realizadas pelos docentes da Escola Normal da Praça, e da legislação que indicava o uso de materiais didáticos de Montessori e de Froebel, mas de forma desarticulada de tais princípios pedagógicos. Evidências da utilização do Método Montessori em perspectiva não restrita ao uso de materiais didáticos foram encontradas nos programas infantis radiofônicos.

Language: Portuguese

DOI: 10.5216/ia.v43i3.50764

ISSN: 1981-8416

Article

Shadow Education in Denmark: In the Light of the Danish History of Pedagogy and the Skepticism Toward Competition

Available from: SAGE Journals

Publication: ECNU Review of Education, vol. 4, no. 3

Pages: 546-565

Denmark, Europe, Northern Europe, Scandinavia

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Abstract/Notes: Purpose: This article investigates the role of private supplementary tutoring in Denmark in light of the country's pedagogical traditions in schools and leisure spheres. Design/Approach/Methods: Although tutoring activities are increasing, the phenomenon is not as prevalent in Denmark as in many other countries. In this article, we look in to the history of Danish pedagogy for answers as to why this is the case. In the analytical sections of the article, we include research on parental values of child-rearing, as well as findings from a pilot study on Danish families purchasing private supplementary tutoring, the public debate about private tutoring, and contemporary youth research. Findings: With a solid emphasis on democracy and equality in Danish pedagogy, the conditions for increasing private supplementary tutoring in Denmark have been challenged. However, a current focus on global competition, formal competencies, and higher academic performance among children and young people suggests that providers of private tutoring perhaps face a brighter future also in Denmark. Originality/Value: This article addresses a new field of qualitative research on private supplementary tutoring in Denmark and may be a platform for further reflection and empirical research.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1177/2096531120983335

ISSN: 2096-5311

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