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Article

Efficacy of Montessori and Traditional Method of Education on Self-Concept Development of Children

Available from: Journal Issues

Publication: International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review, vol. 3, no. 2

Pages: 29-35

Asia, India, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori is a method of education started by Maria Montessori in 1903 for the educationally backward children; after finding its efficacy on them it was thought that it even well suits for the normal children. It became very popular throughout the world in the 20th century and has been implemented both in private and public institutions. Based on certain principles it is evident in many of the researches conducted so far that the Montessori education is conducive for the overall development in social, emotional and cognitive components of children. With this background the present study was conducted to explore the effect of Montessori education on social development in terms of self-concept of the children as compared to the children of traditional method of education. Using descriptive and parametric tests for the obtained data it was found that the Montessori children have very high self-concept than the traditional children. Percentage result shows that the traditional children’s self-concept ranges from low to high category and the Montessori children’s self-concept ranges from high and very high, which indicated marked difference between them in self-concept. According to independent samples t-test results there was a statistical significant difference between the Montessori children group and the traditional children group, the Montessori children are found to have higher self-concept.

Language: English

DOI: 10.15739/IJEPRR.16.005

ISSN: 2360-7076

Article

Children’s Preference for Real Activities: Even Stronger in the Montessori Children’s House

Available from: University of Kansas Libraries

Publication: Journal of Montessori Research, vol. 4, no. 2

Pages: 1-9

Americas, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: In the United States, children are often given the opportunity to engage in pretend activities; many believe this kind of play benefits children’s development. Recent research has shown, though, that when children ages 4 to 6 are given a choice to do the pretend or the real version of 9 different activities, they would prefer the real one. The reasons children gave for preferring real activities often concerned their appreciation of the functionality; when children did prefer pretend activities, their reasons often cited being afraid of, not allowed to, or unable to do the real activity. Given that children in Montessori classrooms have more experience performing real, functional activities, in this study we asked if this preference for real activities is even stronger among children in Montessori schools. We also asked children to explain their preferences. The data are from 116 3- to 6-year-old children (M = 59.63 months, SD = 12.08 months; 68 female): 62 not in Montessori schools and 54 in Montessori schools. Children explained their preferences for pretendand real versions of 9 different activities. Children in Montessori schools preferred real activities even more than did children in other preschools, but all children explained their choices in similar ways. The implications of these results are discussed with regard to play in preschool classrooms.

Language: English

DOI: 10.17161/jomr.v4i2.7586

ISSN: 2378-3923

Article

Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

Available from: American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)

Publication: Pediatrics, vol. 129, no. 2

Pages: 265-274

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Abstract/Notes: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1542/peds.2011-2102

ISSN: 0031-4005, 1098-4275

Doctoral Dissertation

Development of the Early Childhood Curricular Beliefs Inventory: An Instrument to Identify Preservice Teachers' Early Childhood Curricular Orientation

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: The aim of this study was to develop and field test an instrument that provides an efficient and scholarly tool for exploring curricular beliefs of preservice teachers in the area of early childhood education. The Early Childhood Curricular Beliefs Inventory (ECCBI) was developed through procedures that evaluated the content validity of identified statements, explored the criterion and construct validity, and assessed the internal reliability of the instrument. Through a literature review, four predominant approaches to early childhood education (Developmental Interaction, Cognitive Developmental, Behavioral, and Sensory Cognitive) and four associated models of implementation were identified (Developmental Interaction, HighScope, Direct Instruction, and Montessori). Six areas, in which each of the above differed, were identified: the view of the child, role of the teacher, resources utilized, curricular emphasis, assessment methodology, and characteristics of the learning environment. The aim of this study was to develop and field test an instrument that provides an efficient and scholarly tool for exploring curricular beliefs of preservice teachers in the area of early childhood education. The Early Childhood Curricular Beliefs Inventory (ECCBI) was developed through procedures that evaluated the content validity of identified statements, explored the criterion and construct validity, and assessed the internal reliability of the instrument. Through a literature review, four predominant approaches to early childhood education (Developmental Interaction, Cognitive Developmental, Behavioral, and Sensory Cognitive) and four associated models of implementation were identified (Developmental Interaction, HighScope, Direct Instruction, and Montessori). Six areas, in which each of the above differed, were identified: the view of the child, role of the teacher, resources utilized, curricular emphasis, assessment methodology, and characteristics of the learning environment. A panel of experts classified and sorted a total of 182 statements, and 72 items were subsequently organized into an instrument consisting of four subtests corresponding to the identified curricular models. Scoring of the instrument included recording Likert-scale responses for each statement to a score key divided into four sections, or subtests, representing each curricular model. Scores for each section were added and compared. The subtest with the lowest score was deemed most representative of a respondent's curricular beliefs. Data gathered through field testing of the instrument with practitioners were used to explore further content validity through a factor analysis, criterion validity, and construct validity. Results of a second field test of preservice teachers and the results of the first field test (practitioners) were used to assess internal consistency reliability. Analyses appeared to support content, criterion, and construct validity as well as reliability of the 72-item ECCBI. In an effort to reduce the length of the instrument and to make it less cumbersome, results of the factor analysis were used to create a 24-item shortened version of the ECCBI. Six items representing each of the four subtests having the strongest factor loadings were identified as appropriate statements and were then organized into an alternative instrument. Data gathered through field testing of the instrument with practitioners were used to explore further content validity through a factor analysis, criterion validity, and construct validity. Results of a second field test of preservice teachers and the results of the first field test (practitioners) were used to assess internal consistency reliability. Analyses appeared to support content, criterion, and construct validity as well as reliability of the 72-item ECCBI. In an effort to reduce the length of the instrument and to make it less cumbersome, results of the factor analysis were used to create a 24-item shortened version of the ECCBI. Six items representing each of the four subtests having the strongest factor loadings were identified as appropriate statements and were then organized into an alternative instrument.

Language: English

Published: Tallahassee, Florida, 2004

Doctoral Dissertation

The Developmental Psychology of Maria Montessori (Italy)

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori is historically recognized for her contributions to early education. Her primary recognition derived from the comprehensive educational program which became known as the Montessori Method. Relatively little attention has focused on her background as physician, psychiatrist, and pedagogical psychologist, from which she developed a body of psychological knowledge which established the foundation of the well-known Method. Her pedagogical psychology was overshadowed by her pedagogical theory despite her secure position in the history of child psychiatry. Also contributing to the non-acceptance of Montessori's psychology was the psychological tenor of the times. In the forefront of the psychological movement in the early 1900's were psychometric testing, Freud's psycho-sexual stages, Thorndike's stimulus-response theory, and the emergence of behaviorism under the leadership of Watson, to name a few. This climate was not hospitable to Montessori's developmental-interactionist theory. In the 1960's through the research findings of psychologists and the availability of Federal funds to compensate the "cumulative deficits" of the disadvantaged child, interest was focused on early childhood education and consequently the Montessori Method. As psychologists embraced Piaget's developmental theory, resemblances in thinking between Piaget and Montessori were noted. While psychologists pointed to Montessori's developmental-interactionist ideas, nobody attempted to elaborate her developmental theory in toto. This study attempts to do so. For Montessori, the development of the child takes place in successive and qualitatively different stages, with each stage providing the foundation for succeeding stages. Within this framework, she clearly delineates cognitive, motor, language, socialization, personality, and character as developing through stages. Cognitive structures develop through the child's interaction with, and actions upon, objects in the environment. A thorough examination of her theory leaves no doubt that Montessori is a cognitive developmentalist. While at times she appears nativistic, and at other times an extreme environmentalist, her position on development is interactionist and constructivist. Montessori is historically recognized for her contributions to early education. Her primary recognition derived from the comprehensive educational program which became known as the Montessori Method. Relatively little attention has focused on her background as physician, psychiatrist, and pedagogical psychologist, from which she developed a body of psychological knowledge which established the foundation of the well-known Method. Her pedagogical psychology was overshadowed by her pedagogical theory despite her secure position in the history of child psychiatry. Also contributing to the non-acceptance of Montessori's psychology was the psychological tenor of the times. In the forefront of the psychological movement in the early 1900's were psychometric testing, Freud's psycho-sexual stages, Thorndike's stimulus-response theory, and the emergence of behaviorism under the leadership of Watson, to name a few. This climate was not hospitable to Montessori's developmental-interactionist theory. In the 1960's through the research findings of psychologists and the availability of Federal funds to compensate the "cumulative deficits" of the disadvantaged child, interest was focused on early childhood education and consequently the Montessori Method. As psychologists embraced Piaget's developmental theory, resemblances in thinking between Piaget and Montessori were noted. While psychologists pointed to Montessori's developmental-interactionist ideas, nobody attempted to elaborate her developmental theory in toto. This study attempts to do so. For Montessori, the development of the child takes place in successive and qualitatively different stages, with each stage providing the foundation for succeeding stages. Within this framework, she clearly delineates cognitive, motor, language, socialization, personality, and character as developing through stages. Cognitive structures develop through the child's interaction with, and actions upon, objects in the environment. A thorough examination of her theory leaves no doubt that Montessori is a cognitive developmentalist. While at times she appears nativistic, and at other times an extreme environmentalist, her position on development is interactionist and constructivist. In contemporary terms her "psychopedagogy" would be considered an action psychology, which basically precludes it from academic "respectibility". Her theory contains both strengths and weaknesses in light of present-day thinking; however, on balance, Montessori's theory is quite contemporary and remarkably ahead of most of the psychological thinking of her time.

Language: English

Published: New York, 1982

Master's Thesis

Glasba in gibanje: razvoj ritmičnih sposobnosti predšolskih otrok v vrtcih montessori [Music and Movement: The Development of Rhythmical Abilities of Children from Montessori Preschool]

Available from: Digital Library of the University of Maribor (DKUM)

Child development, Europe, Eurythmics, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Music education, Rhythm, Slovenia, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: V magistrski nalogi smo obravnavali področje razvoja glasbenih sposobnosti s poudarkom na ritmičnih sposobnostih v povezavi z glasbenimi dejavnostmi in izhodiščem pedagoškega koncepta montessori. Želeli smo proučiti učinek glasbeno-gibalnih dejavnosti po konceptu pedagogike montessori na razvoj glasbenih sposobnosti predšolskih otrok iz vrtca montessori. Na podlagi relevantne literature s področja gibanja ob glasbi po konceptu pedagogike montessori smo oblikovali dva eksperimentalna programa. Zanimalo nas je, kakšen bo učinek teh programov in ali bodo otroci teh dveh eksperimentalnih skupin bolje razvili ritmične sposobnosti kot kontrolna skupina ter kakšne bodo razlike med napredki skupin. Uporabili smo neslučajnostni namenski vzorec 59 predšolskih otrok druge starostne skupine iz treh enot vrtca montessori iz osrednjeslovenske regije ter za potrebe raziskave prilagodili tri teste ritmičnih sposobnosti, ki smo jih povzeli po že oblikovanih testih. Najprej smo s testiranjem razvitosti ritmičnih sposobnosti v začetnem stanju ugotovili, da med skupinami ni statistično pomembnih razlik, nato sta obe eksperimentalni skupini tri mesece po trikrat tedensko izvajali eksperimentalna programa. Po koncu eksperimenta smo ponovili testiranje in zaznali statistično pomembne razlike med skupinami v razvitosti ritmičnih sposobnosti. Izvajanje obeh eksperimentalnih programov je imelo pozitiven učinek na razvoj ritmičnih sposobnosti predšolskih otroknajvečji učinek smo opazili pri eksperimentalni skupini 1, pri kontrolni skupini pa učinka neaktivnosti nismo zaznali. [In the master thesis the development of musical abilities with emphasis on rhythmical abilities in connection with musical activities based on the Montessori pedagogy was discussed. The study focused on the effect of music-movement activities that are based on the concept of the Montessori educational method on the development of musical abilities of children from the Montessori preschool. In accordance with the relevant literature from the field of musical movement based on the concept of Montessori pedagogy two experimental programs were developed. The interest of the thesis lies in the effect of these programs, if the children of the two experimental groups would develop better rhythmical abilities than the control group and what the difference in development between the groups would be. A non-probability sample, in which 59 second-age-group preschool children from three Montessori preschool units from Central Slovenia were selected, was used. For the purposes of the study, three rhythmical- ability tests, which had been adapted from previously created tests, were adjusted. An initial test of rhythmical abilities established that there are no major statistical differences between the two groups. Following this, the two experimental groups carried out the workshops of the experimental program, three times per week for a period of three months. After ending the experiment, the testing was repeated and crucial statistical differences in the development of rhythmical abilities were noted between the two groups. The implementation of both experimental programs had a positive effect on the development of rhythmical abilities of preschool children. The biggest effect was noticed in the experimental group 1, while an effect of nonactivity was not detected in the control group.]

Language: Slovenian

Published: Maribor, Slovenia, 2020

Article

Transforming theories of childhood and early childhood education: Child study and the empirical assault on Froebelian rationalism

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education, vol. 45, no. 4

Pages: 585-604

Friedrich Fröbel, Positivism, positivism, scientific pedagogy

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Abstract/Notes: This article considers the possibility that one of the defining characteristics of the New Education, as it related to children in their early years, was its epistemological break with rationalist forms of knowledge and its embrace of empiricism and positivism. It considers, briefly, social theories that identify a similar process at a societal level before examining some of the polemics directed against theories of education based on rational forms of knowledge and, in particular, Froebel’s system. This theme is then pursued through a detailed consideration of the child study movement in England and its promotion of an empiricist project concerned with the production of knowledge about the child which drew upon the emergent fields of physiology, educational psychology, education and statistics. It is argued that child study helped to create the conditions for these sciences to distinguish themselves from the older philosophical currents from which they emerged. Consideration is then paid to how these transformations reacted on child study and on the Froebel movement. The article concludes that a break did indeed occur in the ways in which education was legitimised and that through the arrival of a new empirically based, scientific approach it became more closely aligned to reforming impulses. Nevertheless, the old philosophical, metaphysical foundations were not vanquished as in a violent rupture but were articulated in a new dialectical synthesis.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/00309230903100965

ISSN: 0030-9230, 1477-674X

Article

Comparison of Sudoku Solving Skills of Preschool Children Enrolled in the Montessori Approach and the National Education Programs

Available from: Red Fame

Publication: Journal of Education and Training Studies, vol. 8, no. 3

Pages: 32-47

Asia, Comparative education, Middle East, Turkey, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: According to Johnson-Laird (2010), sudoku, a mind game, is based on a pure deduction and reasoning processes. This study analyzed sudoku solving skills of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of Education preschool education program and the Montessori approach. Sudoku skills of children were analyzed by gender, age, duration of preschool attendance, mother’s and father’s education level and previous experience of playing sudoku using a 12-question Sudoku Skills Measurement Tool developed for this research study. The study sample of the study consisted of 118 children (57 girls, 61 boys) aged between 54-77 months. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in sudoku skills by gender. However, sudoku skills varied with age (54-65 months and 66-77 months) in favor of older groups. Children's sudoku skills were more developed with an increase in education level of either parent. Children who had been in preschool for longer had higher sudoku scores. A previous experience of playing sudoku did not impact sudoku scores. Sudoku skills of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to Ministry of National Education program.According to Johnson-Laird (2010), sudoku, a mind game, is based on a pure deduction and reasoning processes. This study analyzed sudoku solving skills of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of Education preschool education program and the Montessori approach. Sudoku skills of children were analyzed by gender, age, duration of preschool attendance, mother’s and father’s education level and previous experience of playing sudoku using a 12-question Sudoku Skills Measurement Tool developed for this research study. The study sample of the study consisted of 118 children (57 girls, 61 boys) aged between 54-77 months. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in sudoku skills by gender. However, sudoku skills varied with age (54-65 months and 66-77 months) in favor of older groups. Children's sudoku skills were more developed with an increase in education level of either parent. Children who had been in preschool for longer had higher sudoku scores. A previous experience of playing sudoku did not impact sudoku scores. Sudoku skills of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to Ministry of National Education program.

Language: English

DOI: 10.11114/jets.v8i3.4620

ISSN: 2324-8068

Article

Dr. Montessori Aims to Aid Poor: Italian Educator Says Their Children Are More Eager to Learn

Available from: Library of Congress

Publication: New York Tribune (New York City, NY)

Pages: 6

Americas, Margaret Naumburg - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: "Yesterday the Dottoressa Maria Montessori held the first conference with her pupils in America. It was at the Children's House, 520 East Seventy-seventh Street. The Children's House is one of the thirty Montessori schools which have sprung up in New York during the last three years. The conference was impressive. The great Italian teacher greeted her pupils, her disciples , if you like, with delight and apparent amazement at the development of her work in New York. "This beautiful house of the children!" She cried. "You have so much here; in Italy we cannot give the children all this, we have it not to give, but little is much when children are free." Her work is growing fast in Italy. In the districts which have been devastated by the earthquakes twelve schools have been established. "I have now developed a method of educating children from five to ten years old. By it they learn reading, writing, arithmetic very easily - but especially nature, science, the languages. Then they are ready to enter the high schools, I believe you call it. Two years are saved in the school life of every child. My elementary methods have been put into sixteen schools in Italy. Signorini Maccheroni is training teachers and opening our schools in Spain." Miss Anne E. George, who introduced Dr. Montessori's work into this community, asked how Montessori teachers in the United States could learn the methods for older pupils. "Signorina Fidele might come here and supervise the elementary classes which you form." "But you, Dottoressa," exclaimed Margaret Naumberg, "why won't you stay and help us?" Dr. Montessori didn't say she would, but I noticed particularly that she didn't say she wouldn't. She is now on her way to California, where she will give a four months' course in Montessori methods in Los Angeles and San Diego. Her latest book, describing her work with older children, will be published in the fall. "Now, that is all my news, and I want to hear what you are doing. I want always to keep in close touch with you and with your work. Tell me what you are doing." Mrs. A. Reno Margulies, of 534 West 187th Street, told of her work with deaf and backward children. Miss George spoke of hers. "Ah," said Dr. Montessori, "but are you not working with the children of the well-to-do? Tell me what you are doing for the children of the poor." Miss Zoé Bateman, secretary of the Montessori Association, explained that the Children's House in which the conference was held was a free school, supported by contributions. "It is very hard to get the work taken up by the public schools," said Margaret Naumberg. "We have just secured permission to establish a class in Public School 4. It was only possible because of the enthusiasm of the principal, Simon Hirsdansky, for Dr. Montessori's work. "Until the work is developed by the Board of Education it cannot be carried very far among the poor, for teachers must live as well as teach." "It is easier to teach the children of the poor," said Dr. Montessori. "They are more eager to learn." "Oh, no" cried her pupils in chorus, "The children who have better homes, better food and better care learn much faster than the poorer children." "I had a group of poor children last winter, and a group of well-to-do children this winter," said Margaret Naumberg, "and the latter learned in six weeks more than the former learned in a year.""

Language: English

ISSN: 1941-0646

Article

The Child Before Seven Years of Age; The Child After Seven Years of Age; and What Children Taught Dr. Montessori

Publication: NAMTA Journal, vol. 23, no. 2

Pages: 82-99

Mario M. Montessori - Writings, Renilde Montessori - Writings

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Abstract/Notes: The three lectures reprinted here, given in 1957 London Elementary course, integrate the Montessori perspective on the Elementary child and Cosmic Education: (1) differences between children before and after 7 years of age; (2) characteristics of children 7 years and older; and (3) the adult role in responding to children in the second stage of development. (Author)

Language: English

ISSN: 1522-9734

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