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In Memoriam [Eileen Roper Ast, Jane Dutcher, Hannelore Engelman, Dennis Schapiro, Hildegard Solzbacher]

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 26, no. 3

Pages: 20

Dennis Schapiro - Biographic sources, Eileen Roper Ast - Biographic sources, Hannelore Engelman - Biographic sources, Hildegard Solzbacher - Biographic sources, Jane Dutcher - Biographic sources, Obituaries

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Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Book Section

Helen Parkhurst: Montessori’s American Surrogate, Dalton School, Progressive Educator

Available from: Springer Link

Book Title: America's Early Montessorians: Anne George, Margaret Naumburg, Helen Parkhurst and Adelia Pyle

Pages: 145-183

Americas, Dalton laboratory plan, Helen Parkhurst - Biographic sources, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The chapter addresses how the relationship between Maria Montessori and Helen Parkhurst redirected the Montessori movement in the United States. In 1915, Parkhurst was an assistant to Maria Montessori who was lecturing at the Panama–Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco. Parkhurst designed and served as directress of the highly popular glass-walled Montessori demonstration classroom exhibit at the Exposition. Supplanting the Montessori Educational Association, Montessori established the Montessori Promotion Fund to publicize her method, manufacture and market her materials, and finance her travel to America. When Montessori returned to Europe, she designated Parkhurst to supervise all aspects of Montessori education in the United States, overseeing all Montessori schools, and establishing college programs to prepare Montessori teachers for certification in public school systems. Parkhurst worked as Montessori’s American surrogate for four years but in 1919 decided to pursue her own independent career path. She devised a progressive innovation featuring instruction in education laboratories which became known as the Dalton Plan.

Language: English

Published: Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020

ISBN: 978-3-030-54835-3

Series: Historical Studies in Education


President Wilson's Daughter to Aid Mme. Montessori Show Her System

Available from: Library of Congress

Publication: The Sun (New York) (New York City, NY)

Pages: 6

Americas, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The Montessori movement, considered by many a radical departure from traditional educational methods, will receive new emphasis and publicity from the fact that visitors to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition will see during the months of August, September, October and November not only a demonstration of the Montessori system but will see it conducted by the talented woman herself. Associated with her will be Miss Margaret Wilson, daughter of the President, Dr. David Starr Jordan, chancellor of Leland Stanford Junior University, and other well known educators. The Montessori method has been summed up as 'freedom for development of the child under best conditions disturbing as little as possible but helping buy every means this development.' Any estimate of Mme. Montessori's work to be of practical value will involve a comparison between the Montessori method and that of the kindergarten, since the kindergarten is the only system of organizes educational work for young children that has so far received general recognition. In the middle of the last century the sensitive woman soul and philosophic mind of Froebel grasped the fundamental principle of development and say that the first six or seven years are the most important in the life of the individual. After years of study he embodied what he conceived to be the fundamental principles of the education of little children in what is known as the kindergarten, and his ideas of the best means for the application of these principles in his kindergarten program, materials and devices. The discovery of the kindergarten marked a new era in the history of the educational world. Though suppressed for years by government authority in Germany, and received with much suspicion elsewhere, the kindergarten has become an integral part of the public school system of many cities and States in our country. Its introduction into England was championed by Charles Dickens, and in America it found an advocate in the philosopher and educator Dr. William T. Harris. Concerning the kindergarten and the Montessori methods, Dr. P. P. Claxton, United States Commissioner of Education says: 'Though aims and principles are the same for both Froebel and Montessori, their different methods of approach have resulted in difference in emphasis, program and decides. For those who see no further than the form there is apparent conflict. Many cannot understand that the work of both Froebel and Montessori must finally lose each its distinctive characteristics in the larger whole of a more perfect knowledge of the nature of infancy and the means of educating young children.' It must be said of Dr. Montessori that she is first, last and always scientific in her work. Prolonged training in the sciences that relate to human life, vitalized by practical experience in their application to defective children, gave her a method which is the outcome of genius, training and experience. She swung into prominence, against her wish, in the following way: While serving as assistant doctor at the psychiatric clinic of the University of Rome, Italy, she founder herself differing from her colleagues in that she felt, as she says, 'that mental deficiency presented chiefly a pedagogic rather than mainly a medical problem.' The expression of these views in an address brought Dr. Montessori prominently before the Minister of Public Instruction, and her work from this on assumed a public character. Her belief that the methods employed with deficient children 'contained educational principles more rational than those in use and that if applied to normal children they would develop or set free their personality in a marvelous and surprising way,' became her controlling idea, and is the very heart of the Montessori system. The system of Mme. Montessori is indissolubly joined with her famous 'didactic material.' Among this will be found small wooden frames to which are attached pieces of cloth or leather on which are buttons and buttonholes, hooks and eyes, eyelets and lacing cords, and strings to be tied and untied. There are also boxes of cylindrical insets and other simple devices to develop 'man's mystery over nature.' Mme. Montessori is her best interpreter when she says, 'We are inclined to believe that children are like puppets and we wash them and feed them as if they were dolls. We do not stop to think that the child that does not do does not know how to do. Our duty is that of helping him to make a conquest of such useful acts as nature intended he should perform for himself. The mother who feeds her child without making the least effort to teach him to hold the spoon for himself and to try to find his mouth with it is not a wise mother. She treats her son as though he were a doll. We call an individual disciplined when he is master of himself and can regulate his own conduct when it shall be necessary to follow some rule of life. If any educational act is to be efficacious it is necessary rigorously to avoid the arrest of spontaneous movements and the imposition of arbitrary tasks. It is of course understood here that we do not speak of a useless or dangerous act; this must be suppressed, destroyed.' The Montessori doctrine is therefore in substance that the child's inner self or personalit cannot rightfully develop unless free to express itself undirected and unguided by another person. As a consequence Dr. Montessori insists that each child be allowed bodily freedom and have as much unhampered liberty of action as possible in order that he may fully express his inner life in outer activity. The classic illustration by which Dr. Montessori puts in concrete form her doctrine is the following: 'One day the children had gathered in a circle about a basin of water containing some floating toys. A little boy 2 1/2 years old had been left outside the circle. He drew near to the other children and tried to force his way among them, but he was not strong enough to do this. The expression of thought on his face was intensely interesting. His eyes then lighted upon a little chair and he had evidently made up his mind to place it behind the group of children and climb on it. As he began to move toward the chair, his face illuminated with hope, a teacher seized him in her arms, lifted him above the heads of the other children, showed him the basin of water, saying, 'Come poor little one you shall see too.' The child seeing the floating toys did not experience the joy that he was about to feel through conquering the obstacles with his own force. The teacher hindered the child in this case from educating himself. The little fellow was about to feel himself a conqueror, and instead he found himself held within two imprisoning arms impotent.' The now famous 'House of the Children' in Rome, under the patronage of Queen Margherita, faithfully reflects and demonstrates the Montessori principles and methods. It has been described as an old orphan asylum, whose gray outer walls give no idea of the two beautiful and luxuriant courtyards within. These latter are filled with beds of blossoming plans, and the pillars of the inner porch are covered with clinging vines. The schoolroom in which the class for the children is held opens with wide double doors into one of these lovely courtyards, where the children play during hours in which they are not engaged in their Montessori exercises. Miss Elizabeth Harrison, president of the National Kindergarten Union says of this 'House of the Children': 'On my first visit I found the children busy getting out the 'didactic material' with which they were to employ themselves for the next hour and a quarter. Some came forward to shake hands with me; some merely smiled and nodded and did not interrupt their work. All seemed busy, happy and free. I afterward saw as many as eighty visitors in the room where there were only a dozen children, but none of the children were in the least disturbed by or seemingly conscious of the presence of the visitors. Most of the children came from nearby tenement houses, yet even the youngest of them washed their own hands and faces, put on clean, neat calico aprons and looked as fresh and clean as children from well cared for homes.' Comparing the kindergarten and the Montessori systems, the following differences appear: The kindergarten stresses group activities, while the Montessori system emphasized almost exclusively the development of the individual. The kindergartners say that education in coordinating of muscles, the special training of the child's senses and all such phases of individual development are expected to come in the nursery. The Montessori system has no place for stories; the kindergartners are famous for them. Mme. Montessori objects to stories for young children on the theory that all activities of the mind are derived from the outside world and are dependent on sense impressions, and that therefore the child should be kept within the realm of his own personal experience until he is at least 7 or 8 years old. It is not necessary to add that two __ meet at this point of difference. The most remarkable features of the Montessori system, as well as one of its decided points of divergence from the kindergarten, lies in its ___ of definite attitude on religious training. Froebel, trained in an environment where instruction in religion is practically nationwide, says that while the child unconsciously manifests teh divine impuse within him he must follow it with conscious insights persisting in what he knows to do right and must needs have definite training of this kind. Montessori, on the other hand, with nuns as her assistants and attendants in her 'House of the Children,' acknowledges the importance of religious training for little children, 'but confesses that as yet it is an unsolved problem to her.' Miss Harrison, who spent some time in Rome with Mme. Montessori says, 'She [Montessori] seems to feel that a child's spiritual nature will ___ aright if freedom is given ....

Language: English


The Development of the Dalton Plan and the Growth of the Thought of Helen Parkhurst

Available from: J-Stage

Publication: Studies in the History of Education, vol. 42

Pages: 132-148

Americas, Dalton laboratory plan - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Helen Parkhurst - Biographic sources, Helen Parkhurst - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, North America, United States of America

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Language: Japanese

DOI: 10.15062/kyouikushigaku.42.0_132

ISSN: 2189-4458, 0386-8982


Fourth Lecture on Montessori System: Miss Helen Parkhurst Explains Italian Educator's Didactic Material

Available from: Columbia Spectator Archive

Publication: Columbia Spectator, vol. 59, no. 196

Pages: 4

Americas, Helen Parkhurst - Biographic sources, Montessori materials, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori movement, North America, United States of America

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Language: English


In Memoriam [Helene Helming]

Publication: Communications (Association Montessori Internationale, 195?-2008), vol. 1977, no. 3/4

Pages: 43

Helene Helming - Biographic sources, Obituaries

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Language: English

ISSN: 0519-0959


In Memoriam [Helen Smart]

Publication: Communications (Association Montessori Internationale, 195?-2008), vol. 1956, no. 3

Pages: 17

Helen Smart - Biographic sources, Obituaries

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Language: English

ISSN: 0519-0959


Formare il «nuovo Maestro» secondo Maria Montessori / Formar al «nuevo Maestro» según Maria Montessori / Training the «new Teacher» according to Maria Montessori

Available from: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

Publication: RELAdEI (Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Infantil), vol. 5, no. 4

Pages: 78-91

Hélène Lubienska de Lenval - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Teacher training, Montessori method of education - Teachers, Teacher training

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Abstract/Notes: È noto quanto Maria Montessori fosse esigente nei confronti del maestro. In questo articolo si presenta la sua visione delle caratteristiche che devono animare il «nuovo Maestro» per consentire «al bambino nuovo» di potersi sviluppare in modo armonioso ed equilibrato. Dato che la peculiarità della pedagogia montessoriana è cambiare la modalità relazionale tra l’adulto e il bambino, sono messi in risalto alcuni aspetti concreti e universali condivisibili da tutti gli insegnanti. Questi possono essere applicati ovunque e possono anche facilitare la didattica, anche senza applicare tutto il Metodo Montessori, giacché l’autoeducazione del bambino è legata all’autodisciplina dell’adulto. Per formare i maestri Maria Montessori aveva scelto di organizzare i Corsi internazionali di formazione che duravano diversi mesi. Per chiarire gli elementi essenziali, vengono studiate le conferenze riguardo al nuovo maestro pronunciate durante questi corsi. Da esse vengono ricavati i tre livelli di formazione: materiale, scientifica e spirituale. Alcuni aspetti imprescindibili vengono più approfonditi, quali lo spogliarsi dei preconcetti, il cambiare le attitudini morali e l’essere un’osservatore gioioso, aspetti che la Montessori considerava essenziali per risolvere il problema dell’educazione. Basandosi anche su alcuni racconti di allieve, sono proposte alcune modalità scelte da Hélène Lubienska de Lenval durante il suo Cours Pédagogique, e sono presentate alcune scelte pedagogiche di Adele Costa Gnocchi, che aprirà la Scuola Assistenti all’Infanzia dove saranno approfondite le intuizioni della Montessori per il bambino piccolo fino a tre anni. / Es conocido lo exigente que Maria Montessori ha sido en relación a los maestros. En este artículo se presenta su visión de las características que debería poseer el “nuevo maestro” para permitir al “nuevo niño” desarrollarse de manera armoniosa y equilibrada. Considerando que la finalidad de la pedagogía montessoriana es cambiar la modalidad de interacción entre el adulto y el niño, se pueden destacar algunos aspectos concretos y universales que puedan compartir por todos los maestros. Sin necesidad de aplicar completamente el Método Montessori, estos elementos pueden ser útiles en todo tipo de circunstancia y facilitar la didáctica, puesto che la autoeducación del niño depende de la autodisciplina del adulto. Para formar a los maestros, Maria Montessori decidió organizar los cursos internacionales de formación con una duración de varios meses. Para aclarar los aspectos esenciales, en este artículo se toman en consideración las conferencias relativas al “nuevo maestro” que se pronunciaron en estos cursos. A partir de ellas se pueden derivar los tres niveles de formación: material, científica y espiritual. Se profundiza sobre algunos aspectos fundamentales como liberarse de los prejuicios, cambiar la actitud moral y ser un alegre y atento observador, aspectos que Maria Montessori consideraba primordiales para resolver el problema de la educación. Basándose en algunos relatos de sus alumnas, también se exponen algunas modalidades adoptadas por Hélène Lubienska de Lenval presentadas durante su Cours Pédagogique y además se presentan algunas opciones pedagógicas de Adele Costa Gnocchi, que abrirá la Escuela de Asistentes de la Infancia donde se estudiará a profundidad la visión de Maria Montessori para el niño pequeño, hasta los tres años de edad. / It is well known how much Maria Montessori demanded of teachers. This article presents her vision of the characteristics which should animate the “new teacher” in order to allow the development of the “new child” in a harmonious and balanced manner. Given that the goal of the Montessori pedagogy is to change the manner of relating between adult and child, some concrete and universal characteristics are highlighted which are common to all teachers. Even without applying the entire Montessori methodology, these elements can be useful in all circumstances and can facilitate teaching, given that the self education of the child is linked to the self discipline of the adult. To train teachers, Maria Montessori chose to organize international training courses lasting several months. To clarify the essential elements, the conferences regarding the topic of the new teacher during these training courses are presented here. These elements are divided into three levels of training: the material level, the scientific level, and the spiritual level. Some essential aspects are covered in depth, such as the denuding of preconceptions; changing of moral attitudes; being a joyful observer; all approaches that Maria Montessori considered essential to solve the problem of education. Finally, on the basis of stories of students, there are presented some methods chosen by Helene Lubienska de Lenval taken from her Cours Pedagogique, and some pedagogical methods taken from Adele Costa Gnocchi, who will open the Scuola Assistenti all’Infanzia, where they will delve deeper into Montessori insights regarding the small child up to three years of age.

Language: Italian

ISSN: 2255-0666

Book Section

Die Anfänge der Montessori-Methode in der Schweiz [The Beginnings of the Montessori Method in Switzerland]

Book Title: Hundert Jahre Montessori-Pädagogik, 1907-2007: Eine Chronik der Montessori-Pädagogik in der Schweiz [One Hundred Years of Montessori Education, 1907-2007: A Chronicle of Montessori Education in Switzerland]

Pages: 25-88

Europe, Fascism, Giovannina Mattei-Alberti - Biographic sources, Maria Boschetti-Alberti - Biographic sources, Maria Valli - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Sister Irene Curti - Biographic sources, Switzerland, Teresa Bontempi - Biographic sources, Western Europe

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Language: German

Published: Bern, Switzerland: Haupt Verlag, 2007

Edition: 1st edition

ISBN: 978-3-258-07092-6

Doctoral Dissertation

Φύση και αγωγή στη διαδικασία διαμόρφωσης της προσωπικότητας: εξέταση των ιδεών των Ζ.Ζ. Ρουσσώ, Μ. Μοντεσσόρι, Κ. Ρότζερς και Λ. Βυγκότσκι [Nature and education in the process of personality development: an analysis of the ideas of J.J. Rousseau, M. Montessori, C. Rogers and L. Vygotsky]

Available from: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Carl Rogers - Biographic sources, Carl Rogers - Philosophy, Child development, Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Biographic sources, Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Philosophy, Lev Vygotsky - Biographic sources, Lev Vygotsky - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Maturation (Psychology), Student-centered learning

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Abstract/Notes: Η παρούσα διατριβή επιχειρεί τη διερεύνηση της διαμόρφωσης της προσωπικότητας υπό το πρίσμα της αλληλεπίδρασης μεταξύ των βιολογικών και των κοινωνικών συνιστωσών της ανάπτυξης του παιδιού, όπως την πραγματεύονται οι θεωρίες του Ζαν-Ζακ Ρουσσώ, της Μαρίας Μοντεσσόρι, του Καρλ Ρότζερς και του Λεβ Βυγκότσκι. Δεδομένου ότι η προσωπικότητα αποτελεί το επίκεντρο κάθε παιδαγωγικής θεωρίας συνιστώντας το ιδεώδες στο οποίο αποσκοπεί η αγωγή, εξετάζονται οι δυνατότητες και οι περιορισμοί της αγωγής όσον αφορά τη διαμόρφωση της προσωπικότητας των παιδιών μέσω της συγκριτικής ανάλυσης της πολιτισμικής-ιστορικής θεωρίας του Λ. Βυγκότσκι και της παιδοκεντρικής παράδοσης, όπως εκφράζεται στις θεωρίες του Ζ.Ζ. Ρουσσώ, της Μ. Μοντεσσόρι και οτου Κ. Ρότζερς. Στο πρώτο κεφάλαιο επιχειρείται η εννοιολόγηση του όρου προσωπικότητα όπως αποτυπώνεται στις κυριότερες θεωρίες προσωπικότητας και στα επόμενα κεφάλαια παρουσιάζονται και εξεταζονται κριτικά οι θεωρίες των τεσσάρων προαναφερθέντων στοχαστών. Τέλος, διατυπώνονται ορισμένα μεθοδολογικά συμπεράσματα σχετικά με τη διαλεκτική αλληλεπίδραση μεταξύ φύσης και αγωγής στη διαδικασία διαμόρφωσης της προσωπικότητας και αναδεικνύεται η συμβολή των τεσσάρων θεωριών που εξετάστηκαν στη διαμόρφωση της παιδαγωγικής σκέψης. Επιπλέον, προσεγγίζεται η έννοια της ολόπλευρα ανεπτυγμένης προσωπικότητας ως σκοπού της αγωγής. [The present thesis aims to study personality development in the light of the interaction between biological and social factors of child development as it is discussed in the theories of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Maria Montessori, Carl Rogers and Lev Vygotsky. Given the fact that personality development constitutes the centre of every pedagogical theory, being the ideal to which education aims, the potential and the limits of education with regard to the development of children’s personality are examined through the comperative analysis of L. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical theory, and the child-centred tradition as it is presented in the theories of J.J. Rousseau, M. Montessori, and C. Rogers. In the first chapter there is an attempt to conceptually delineate the term personality as it is outlined in the main personality theories, and in the following chapters the theories of the four thinkers mentioned above are presented and critically examined. Finally, some methodological conclusions concerning the dialectical interaction between nature and education in the process of personality development are put forth, and the contribution of the four theories which were investigated in the development of pedagogical thinking is highlighted. Furthermore, the notion of the wholly developed personality as the goal of education is approached.]

Language: Greek

Published: Thessaloniki, Greece, 2018

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