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Article

Pour l'Ère nouvelle (1922-1940): La science convoquée pour fonder une «internationale de l'éducation» [For the New Era (1922-1940): Science called upon to found an "international education"]

Available from: CAIRN

Publication: Carrefours de l'education, no. 31

Pages: 137-159

Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., New Education Fellowship, New Ideals in Education

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Abstract/Notes: La revue Pour l’Ère nouvelle constitue un observatoire privilégié pour cerner la nature des initiatives prises par les tenants de l’éducation nouvelle pour mobiliser, par delà les frontières, tous les amis de l’enfance afin d’améliorer l’humanité par une meilleure connaissance de l’enfant. En tant que lieu d’échange, elle permet à ses protagonistes d’y faire connaître leurs convictions et expériences favorisant ainsi la construction et la diffusion de connaissances au-delà de la francophonie. Nous nous proposons plus concrètement d’éprouver la thèse du cosmopolitisme et de la communauté d’esprits (convergence/divergence) des promoteurs de l’éducation nouvelle, en étudiant comment, dans Pour l’Ère nouvelle, ses auteurs invoquent la science pour fonder leurs thèses et si cette invocation fait l’objet de tensions ou controverses parmi eux. Cet article s’inscrit dans le sillage de recherches menées sur les relations entre éducation nouvelle et sciences de l’éducation, par nombre de chercheurs, notamment par ERHISE (Equipe de recherche en histoire des sciences de l’éducation). [The journal Pour l’Ère nouvelle is a privileged observation post from which one can define the initiatives promoted by the leaders of the New Education movement. They seek to mobilize, over frontiers, the actors involved in the study of childhood, aiming to ameliorate humanity through a better knowledge concerning that question. As a place of interaction, it allows its protagonists to bring their convictions and experiences to others, favouring development and spreading of knowledge beyond French speaking community. In this article, we propose to test the theory of the New Educationalist’s cosmopolitism and community of minds (convergence/ divergence) and to see how, Pour l’Ère nouvelle’s authors use science to base their theories and, further, we propose to see if this position arouses tensions or controversies. This article is part of a research undertaken by ERHISE (Research Team in History of Sciences of Education).]

Language: French

DOI: 10.3917/cdle.031.0137

ISSN: 1262-3490

Article

New Zealand Theosophists in “New Education” networks, 1880s-1938

Available from: Emerald Insight

Publication: History of Education Review, vol. 46, no. 1

Pages: 42-57

Asia, Australasia, Australia and New Zealand, India, Montessori method of education, New Education Fellowship, New Education Movement, New Zealand, Oceania, South Asia, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Abstract/Notes: Purpose It is well-known that Beatrice Ensor, who founded the New Education Fellowship (NEF) in 1921, was a Theosophist and that from 1915 the Theosophical Fraternity in Education she established laid the foundations for the NEF. However, little research has been performed on the Fraternity itself. The travels of Theosophists, texts, money and ideas between Auckland, India and London from the late nineteenth century offer insights into “New Education” networking in the British Commonwealth more broadly. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This paper draws on archival documents from the Adyar Library and Research Centre, International Theosophical Society (TS) headquarters, Chennai, India; the archive at the headquarters of the New Zealand Section of the TS, Epsom, Auckland; the NEF files at the archive of the London Institute of Education; papers past digital newspaper archive. Findings New Zealand’s first affiliated NEF group was set up by the principal of the Vasanta Gardens Theosophical School, Epsom, in 1933. She was also involved in the New Zealand Section of the Theosophical Fraternity, which held conferences from 1917 to 1927. New Zealand’s Fraternity and Theosophical Education Trust had close links with their counterparts in England and India. The setting up of New Zealand’s first NEF group was enabled by networks created between Theosophists in New Zealand, India and England from the late nineteenth century. Originality/value The contribution of Theosophists to the new education movement has received little attention internationally. Theosophical educational theory and Theosophists’ contributions to New Zealand Education have not previously been studied. Combining transnational historiography with critical geography, this case study of networks between New Zealand, Adyar (India) and London lays groundwork for a wider “spatial history” of Theosophy and new education.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1108/HER-10-2015-0024

ISSN: 0819-8691

Report

Alternatives in Education: An Exploration of Learner-Centered, Progressive, and Holistic Education

Available from: ERIC

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Abstract/Notes: Based on a database of over 500 resources, this paper explores the educational alternatives that exist today between the cracks of mainstream education and culture. It presents information about the growing numbers of schools and education centers that call themselves learner-centered, progressive, and/or holistic. Sources of data for this summary report also include over 3 years of informal interviews with and observations of people at alternative schools. The paper begins by examining terminology issues, discussing qualities for distinguishing educational alternatives, and describing eight types of schools (democratic and free schools, folk education, Quaker schools, homeschooling/unschooling/deschooling, Krishnamurti schools, Montessori schools, open schools, and Waldorf schools). It also presents frameworks for education (maps for understanding the territories of alternatives), and it discusses the three orientations of a competency based education: transaction (progressive), self-directed (learner-centered), and transformation (holistic). After looking at political issues around school choice which could impact the growth of the various philosophical alternatives, the paper concludes that in a society where issues of pluralism and diversity are valued as part of creating a more sustainable world and just democracy, the diversity of philosophical perspectives in education needs to be acknowledged. (Contains 41 references.) (SM)

Language: English

Published: New Orleans, Louisiana, 2002

Article

Comparison of Sudoku Solving Skills of Preschool Children Enrolled in the Montessori Approach and the National Education Programs

Available from: Red Fame

Publication: Journal of Education and Training Studies, vol. 8, no. 3

Pages: 32-47

Asia, Comparative education, Middle East, Turkey, Turkey, Western Asia

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Abstract/Notes: According to Johnson-Laird (2010), sudoku, a mind game, is based on a pure deduction and reasoning processes. This study analyzed sudoku solving skills of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of Education preschool education program and the Montessori approach. Sudoku skills of children were analyzed by gender, age, duration of preschool attendance, mother’s and father’s education level and previous experience of playing sudoku using a 12-question Sudoku Skills Measurement Tool developed for this research study. The study sample of the study consisted of 118 children (57 girls, 61 boys) aged between 54-77 months. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in sudoku skills by gender. However, sudoku skills varied with age (54-65 months and 66-77 months) in favor of older groups. Children's sudoku skills were more developed with an increase in education level of either parent. Children who had been in preschool for longer had higher sudoku scores. A previous experience of playing sudoku did not impact sudoku scores. Sudoku skills of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to Ministry of National Education program.According to Johnson-Laird (2010), sudoku, a mind game, is based on a pure deduction and reasoning processes. This study analyzed sudoku solving skills of preschool children and to ascertain whether there was a difference between children who were educated according to the Ministry of Education preschool education program and the Montessori approach. Sudoku skills of children were analyzed by gender, age, duration of preschool attendance, mother’s and father’s education level and previous experience of playing sudoku using a 12-question Sudoku Skills Measurement Tool developed for this research study. The study sample of the study consisted of 118 children (57 girls, 61 boys) aged between 54-77 months. The findings showed that there was no significant difference in sudoku skills by gender. However, sudoku skills varied with age (54-65 months and 66-77 months) in favor of older groups. Children's sudoku skills were more developed with an increase in education level of either parent. Children who had been in preschool for longer had higher sudoku scores. A previous experience of playing sudoku did not impact sudoku scores. Sudoku skills of children who were educated according to the Montessori program were more developed compared to those of children educated according to Ministry of National Education program.

Language: English

DOI: 10.11114/jets.v8i3.4620

ISSN: 2324-8068

Conference Paper

mLearning in Primary Education: An Online Teacher Training Proposal Based on Montessori Education Principles

Available from: IATED Digital Library

12th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies

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Abstract/Notes: Mlearning is learning through digital mobile environments, making it possible to acquire, interrelate and share new knowledge through mobile devices. There is a consensus on the growth of the use of these devices for different educational actions. According to Sarrab, Elgamel & Aldabbas (2012), there are different recreational and pedagogical uses based on mlearning. According to De Araújo Junior et al (2019), these uses are based on the possibility of combining more than one methodology and learning strategies in line with students’ learning characteristics and needs. To this end, mlearning seeks to integrate learning theories, especially constructivist and behavioral theories to also create collaborative working environments (Crompton, Burke & Gregory, 2017). The greatest advantage of mlearning is the possibility of it being applied pedagogically beyond the school environment, with the participation of families and with various proposals for interaction between teacher-student, student-student, and teacher-student-families. This whole range of possibilities has created a new field of study. By overcoming the design approach on mlearning environments and their different effects (Devinder Singh & Zaitun, 2006), a new line of research is becoming relevant: the role of teachers and their training in the use of this technology. Sanchez-Prieto & Hernández García (2019) point out that despite its advantages, the number of teachers using this technology is still very limited. A bibliographic review of 7 scientific articles related to the use of mlearning in primary classes within different educational contexts identified that teachers still lack, not only technical and/or pedagogical but also comprehensive training, making it difficult for them to become familiar with this technology and applying it as another teaching tool in their primary classes. Considering the needs found regarding digital teacher competence, the basis of digital interaction between teacher-student-families and the assessment, selection, and design of didactic contents, this study is an integral part of the Koulu I +D project (Mobile learning in primary education) number ID19-XX-003, aims to present a proposal for teacher training taught within an online learning environment. It does so regarding the basis, application and use of mlearning in primary classes based on the principles of Montessori education: personal choice of the student, collaborative learning, self-direction, the teacher as a guide and learning by discovery. To this end, the training model is based on these points to guide the work using mlearning by considering the characteristics and needs of primary education, regardless of the tool’s typology. The training proposal is based on providing the necessary teaching knowledge to conduct the pedagogical work at the comprehension, application and assessment levels of mlearning in primary classes. The training was designed as an online format to overcome the first barrier for some teachers: the use of technology. The defined points of training to meet the demands of the application in primary classes are: Digital teacher competence, Montessori and Mlearning Pedagogy, Pedagogical tools and the possibilities of primary education and mlearning Assessment in primary education.

Language: English

Published: Online Conference: International Academy of Technology, Education and Development (IATED), 2020

Pages: 7979-7983

DOI: 10.21125/edulearn.2020.2004

ISBN: 978-84-09-17979-4

Master's Thesis

蒙特梭利幼兒教育的幼兒就學準備度之研究 [The School Readiness of Montessori Early Childhood Education]

Available from: National Chengchi University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Academic achievement, Asia, East Asia, Montessori method of education, Readiness for school, Taiwan

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori education has developed for over a century, mainly due to Montessori found the early childhood development principles and rules by the scientific method. She advocates child-centered,and there are three elements of Montessori education:(1)prepared environment, (2) teachers, (3) teaching aids, through the three to guide children's learning. However, in Taiwan, people worried about that Montessori education is lack of emotional, creativity , interpersonal learning, and the transition with primary education, therefore Montessori education is still being considered as an alternative education. In this regard, Montessori Teachers Association of the R.O.C pointed many longitudinal study shows that Montessori children perform better than the traditional-education children in many ways of academic achievements, active learning, interpersonal relationships, and emotional management. Nowadays, the concept of " school readiness " becomes more important, and the Ministry of Education is actively compiling the "Guidelines of Nursery Education Activities and Security Curriculum " which is particularly imply the importance of transition program. Thus, this study proposes to investigate Montessori education from the perspective of school readiness. First , researcher explored the common context of Montessori education and school readiness by document analysis, then based on the results to construct "The corresponding table of Montessori education and five-year-old children school readiness assessment “, and corrected the table by expert validity. Finally, assess the Montessori children's school readiness in actually. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, Crosstabs, Chi-square test, Pearson’s product -moment correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, t- test, and one way ANOVA. The results were summarized as follow: A."The corresponding table of Montessori education and five-year-old children school readiness assessment “ is highly corresponded, show they concerned the same capacity of children. Initially reflected Montessori education conform the basic development requirements of Taiwan early child education, and could help children get ready into primary school. B. Montessori children in this study sample get good school readiness. C. There is significant difference towards the school readiness between children study /non-study Montessori kindergarten. D. There is significant difference towards school readiness of “physical health and development domain”、”mathematical logic and cognitive science domain” between Montessori kindergartens and Montessori child care;there is no significant correlation between children’s school year in Montessori kindergarten and children’s school readiness;there is no significant difference towards the school readiness between boys and girls. E. There is significant correlation in “physical health and development domain”、”language and communicate domain”、” mathematical logic and cognitive science domain”、” cultural and artistic domain” and ” overall average” between school readiness and the years of teaching five-year classes (ambiguous age);there is significant correlation between school readiness and the highest degree of Montessori teachers;there is no significant difference towards the school readiness between the teachers with different Montessori teacher license.

Language: Chinese

Published: Taipei, Taiwan, 1999

Article

Montessori Eğitim Yönteminin Rousseaucu Kökenleri / The Rousseauian Roots of Montessori Education Method

Available from: The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies

Publication: Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, vol. 14, no. 86

Pages: 535-556

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Abstract/Notes: Bu çalışmada eğitim felsefesinde adı çokça zikredilen Fransız filozof Jean-Jacquez Rousseau’nun, Maria Montessori tarafından kurulan ve kendi adıyla anılan Montessori eğitim yöntemi üzerindeki etkisi incelenecektir. Rousseau’nun meşhur Emile kitabı, eğitimin amacı ve işlevi meselesine dair ayrıntılı bir izah içerir. Onun eğitim konusuna yaklaşımı kimi zaman sert tartışmalara sebep olmuş kimi zaman da ilham kaynağı olmuştur. İtalya’nın ilk kadın doktoru olarak da bilinen Maria Montessori onun fikirlerinden olumlu yönde etkilenen bir isimdir. Montessori, yaşama uzanan yardım eli yaklaşımına indirgediği eğitim meselesini aldığı tıp, felsefe ve antropoloji eğitimi sayesinde geniş bir bakış açısıyla inceler. Bu sayede daha sistemli ve bilimsel temeli olan bir eğitim modeli sunar. Rousseau ise kelimenin tam anlamıyla sistematik olmaktansa doğal gidişata göre hareket etmeyi ve kendi gözlemlerinden faydalanmayı tercih eder. Bu tercihinden dolayı kendisine ağır eleştirilerin yapıldığı da bir gerçektir. Rousseau’nun ve Maria Montessori’nin eğitim alanındaki fikirleri pek çok tartışmayı beraberinde getirse de her iki ismin pedagoji alanındaki etkisi görmezden gelinemez. Ancak Rousseau’nun bu alandaki düşüncelerinin bir eğitim tasarısı ya da eğitime dair yapılan bir yorum düzeyinde kaldığı söylenebilir. Rousseau’nun aksine Maria Montessori’nin fikirlerinin ise pek çok ülkede benimsendiği ve bu fikir doğrultusunda pek çok eğitim kurumunun açıldığı görülür. Her ne kadar somut alanda aralarında bu denli fark olsa da çıkış noktaları ve eğitim alanındaki bazı tasavvurları benzerlik göstermektedir. Bu çalışmada söz konusu benzerlik kavramsal bir çerçeve doğrultusunda ele alınacaktır. Böylece Rousseau’nun Maria Montessori üzerindeki etkisi irdelenip onun eğitim alanında bir romandan fazlasını yazdığı sonucuna ulaşılacaktır. / In this study, the effect of the French philosopher Jean-Jacquez Rousseau, whose name is mentioned a lot in educational philosophy, on the Montessori education method established by Maria Montessori and named after her will be examined. Rousseau’s famous book Emile contains a detailed explanation on the goal and function of the education. Sometimes, his approach to education caused very significant discussions and sometimes it was a source of inspiration. Maria Montessori, who is also known as Italy’s first female doctor was one of the names who was affected from his opinion in a positive way. Montessori examines the issue of education considered as helping hand approach to life from a wide perspective thanks to her education in medicine, philosophy and anthropology. In this way, she presents a more systematic and scientific based education model. On the other hand, Rousseau prefers to act according to the natural course and uses his own observations rather than being systematic in the strictest sense of the world. It is a fact that he was heavily criticized for this preference. Even though Rousseau and Maria Montessori’s ideas on the education field bring a lot of debate, the effect of both names in pedagogy cannot be ignored. However, it can be noted that Rousseau’s ideas in the field stayed only as an education design or a comment made on education. Unlike Rousseau, it is seen that Maria Montessori’s ideas were adopted in many countries and a lot of educational institutions were established in the direction of this idea. Although there is such a difference between them in the concrete field, their starting points and some of their imaginations in the field of education are similar. These similarities in the direction of a conceptual frame will be addressed in the study. Thus, Rousseau’s influence on Maria Montessori will be examined and it will be concluded that he wrote more than a novel in the field of education.

Language: Turkish

DOI: 10.29228/JASSS.50020

ISSN: 2148-4163

Conference Paper

Emerging Trends and Issues in Early Childhood Education

Available from: ERIC

Meeting of the Elementary Education Division of the Virginia State Department of Education

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Abstract/Notes: Ten selected emerging trends in the field of early childhood education are discussed in this conference address: (1) a reevaluation of the view that early childhood education is a panacea; (2) greater emphasis on planned continuity between kindergartens and the primary grades; (3) increased use of multi-age grouping; (4) need for parenthood education in the high school; (5) importance of parent involvement in the decision making and policy formation processes concerning the education of his child and the implementation of classroom programs; (6) wider acceptance of the structured or prepared environment in programs; (7) development of a quality day care environment based on careful research and evaluation, (8) importance of humanistic or affective education; (9) need for aesthetic education (music, dance, literature, dramatics) in the total education of the child; and (10) accountability of teachers to the consumer as well as to the school boards. (Paper presented at a meeting of the Virginia State Department of Education, Elementary Education Division – Richmond, Virginia – October 1974)

Language: English

Published: Richmond, Virginia: Virginia State Department of Education, Oct 1974

Article

The Spread of Montessori Education in Mainland China

Available from: Journal of Montessori Research and Education

Publication: Journal of Montessori Research and Education, vol. 3, no. 1

Pages: 1–8

Asia, China, East Asia

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Abstract/Notes: This paper is a historical account of the spread of Montessori education in mainland China. It surveys the general picture of early childhood education (ECE) in China and discusses the factors leading to the popularity of Montessori education in the 1990s. Although first introduced into China in the early 1900s, for reasons explained, Montessori education was unsuccessful in catching on as an education method in the early part of the 20th century. Following policy changes and growing interest in western education methods, Montessori education reemerged in the 1990s and has remained a sought-out education method since. In this paper, localization is also discussed as a prominent concern expressed in the Chinese research is ensuring Montessori education promotes and instills values consistent with Chinese society. As is shown, elements of the Montessori method are consistent with Chinese culture, creating a cooperative relationship between these two systems. Of equal importance, Montessori education emphasizes the cultivation of collective identity and societal relationships similar to Chinese culture, the slight difference between them being that Montessori also emphasized the construction of the individual as well.

Language: English

DOI: 10.16993/jmre.17

ISSN: 2002-3375

Article

Three Streams in Alternative Education: A Philosophical, Pedagogical, and Practical Comparison Between Democratic, Waldorf, and Montessori Education

Available from: European Journals of Education Studies

Publication: European Journal of Alternative Education Studies, vol. 6, no. 1

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Abstract/Notes: This article examines the three most prominent movements of alternative education in Israel: Democratic education, Waldorf education, and the Montessori method of education. By comparing the educational approaches according to specific criteria, the goal is to provide the reader with as broad a picture as possible of their similarities and differences. The discussion focuses on the philosophical approach and general principles of each movement and does not aim to provide information or characteristics of specific educational institutions. One of the goals of the article is to bring before parents, educators, and policy makers knowledge of the different approaches so that they can understand and judge them with greater clarity.

Language: English

DOI: 10.46827/ejae.v6i1.3563

ISSN: 2501-5915

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