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Master's Thesis

Nekatere značilnosti pouka matematike po pedagoških načelih pedagogike Montessori [Some Characteristics of Mathematics Instruction According to Pedagogical Principles of Montessori Pedagogy]

Available from: Digital Library of the University of Maribor (DKUM)

Mathematics education, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: V magistrskem delu analiziramo nekatere značilnosti pouka matematike po pedagoških načelih pedagogike Montessori in predstavimo, kakšen odnos imajo učenci osnovne šole Montessori do pouka matematike. Magistrsko delo je razčlenjeno na teoretični in empirični del. V teoretičnem delu najprej predstavimo Mario Montessori, ki je z opazovanjem otrok začela spreminjati pogled na vzgojo, šolo in učenje ter razvila novo metodo poučevanja, metodo Montessorijeve. Spoznamo se z omenjeno metodo, s principi, ki so temeljni za vzgojo po metodi Montessori, spoznamo temelje pedagogike Montessori, kjer so otrok, odrasli in okolje med seboj enakovredno povezani. V nadaljevanju predstavimo delovanje osnovne šole Montessori. Posebno pozornost namenimo pedagogiki Montessori pri matematiki in primerjamo učna načrta javne osnovne šole in osnovne šole Montessori ter predstavimo razvojne materiale s področja matematike na predšolski stopnji, 1. in 2. triadi. Zadnji del teoretičnega dela namenimo predstavitvi nekaterih prednosti in omejitev pedagogike Montessori in iščemo podobnosti in razlike med konstruktivističnim načinom poučevanja z načinom poučevanja po metodi Montessori. V empiričnem delu analiziramo in interpretiramo rezultate opazovanja pouka, ki je bilo izvedeno med učenci druge in tretje triade (od četrtega do devetega razreda) osnovne šole Montessori. Zanimale so nas aktivnosti učitelja v splošnem in posebej med samostojnim delom učencev, aktivnosti učencev v splošnem in posebej med njihovim samostojnim delom, v kolikšni meri je prisotno medvrstniško učenje in kakšen je odnos učencev do pouka matematike. [The aims of the master’s thesis were to analyse some of the characteristics of mathematics education according to the pedagogical principles of Montessori pedagogy and present the attitude of Montessori elementary school students towards mathematics lessons. In the theoretical part, Maria Montessori, the person who developed a new teaching method – the Montessori method, was presented. Furthermore, the Montessori method, the fundamental principles of Montessori education and the foundations of Montessori pedagogy were presented. Next, the functioning of Montessori elementary school. A great attention was given to Montessori pedagogy in mathematics. The curriculums of public elementary school and Montessori elementary school were compared. Moreover, the Montessori mathematics materials at pre-elementary level, first triad and second triad were presented. In the final section of the theoretical part, some of the advantages and disadvantages of Montessori pedagogy were presented, as well as the similarities and differences between the constructivist teaching method and the Montessori method. In the empirical part, the results of the observed lesson that had been carried out among students of the second and third triad (from fourth to ninth grade) of Montessori elementary school were analysed and interpreted. The aims of the observation were to determine the teachers’ and students’ activities in general and during the students’ independent work, as well as the presence of peer learning. The research also focused on the attitude of students towards mathematics lessons.]

Language: Slovenian

Published: Maribor, Slovenia, 2018

Article

Maria Montessori uno sguardo diverso sull’infanzia [Maria Montessori a different look at childhood]

Available from: Foro de Educacíon

Publication: Foro de Educación [Education Forum], vol. 13, no. 18

Pages: 37-50

Educational change, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: Nel panorama pedagogico italiano del XX secolo Maria Montessori è stata tra le figure femminili più interessanti. Ha interpretato con cura e perspicacia la figura del bambino, chiarendo il ruolo significativo che l’ambiente riveste nella sua formazione cognitiva ed emotiva e della sua mente “assorbente”. Punto di partenza dei suoi studi è stato Il metodo della pedagogia scientifica (1909), da cui è emerso in maniera evidente che la scienza doveva studiare il processo di formazione della personalità del bambino nella sua interazione sociale. La Montessori, ha rivendicato i diritti dell’infanzia di fronte al mondo degli adulti, evidenziando l’antico errore, dal punto di vista psicologico ed educativo, di far assumere al bambino atteggiamenti e abiti mentali che non siano conformi alla sua natura di bambino. A tal scopo, la studiosa organizzò il suo l’ambiente educativo, cioè la scuola dell’infanzia, come un luogo ideale in cui il bambino, in piena libertà di azione e opportunamente stimolato, potesse fare le sue esperienze formative. Una rilettura del pensiero di Maria Montessori ha reso possibile alcuni riscontri con problematiche pedagogiche attuali che hanno avuto riflessi nella Pedagogia contemporanea, per esempio, il rapporto tra ambiente e educazione, l’organizzazione del processo di insegnamento-apprendimento, l’uso di procedure, di tecniche e di materiali relativi ad un intervento pedagogico vero e proprio. [In the Italian pedagogical panorama of the twentieth century, Maria Montessori was among the most interesting female figures. She has interpreted the figure of the child with care and insight, clarifying the significant role that the environment plays in her cognitive and emotional formation and in her "absorbing" mind. The starting point of her studies was The Method of Scientific Pedagogy (1909), from which it emerged clearly that science had to study the process of formation of the child's personality in its social interaction. Montessori claimed the rights of childhood in front of the adult world, highlighting the ancient error, from a psychological and educational point of view, of making the child assume attitudes and mental habits that do not conform to her child's nature. For this purpose, the scholar organized her educational environment, that is the kindergarten, as an ideal place where the child, in full freedom of action and appropriately stimulated, could have his educational experiences. A re-reading of Maria Montessori's thought has made possible some feedbacks with current pedagogical problems that have had repercussions in contemporary Pedagogy, for example, the relationship between environment and education, the organization of the teaching-learning process, the use of procedures, of techniques and materials related to a real pedagogical intervention.]

Language: Italian

DOI: 10.14516/fde.2015.013.018.002

ISSN: 1698-7802

Article

María Montessori y la Educación Cósmica [Maria Montessori and Cosmic Education]

Available from: Universidad de Costa Rica - Portal de Revistas Académicas

Publication: REHMLAC (Revista de Estudios Históricos de la Masonería Latinoamericana y Caribeña), vol. 7, no. 2

Pages: 290-326

Asia, Cosmic education, India, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, South Asia, Theosophical Society, Theosophy

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Abstract/Notes: La etapa de Montessori en la India fue uno de los periodos más enriquecedores en la vida de Maria Montessori. Allí escribió y publicó La Mente Absorbente del niño, y una serie de libros fundamentales. En su obra La educación de las potencialidades humanas desarrolló los principios de la “Educación Cósmica” que adaptó para el currículo de Primaria. Invitada en 1939 a dar unas conferencias en la India por el Presidente de la Sociedad Teosófica, Montessori y su hijo, se vieron atrapados por el estallido de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y su posterior desarrollo. Tenía 69 años cuando llegó a Madrás. Permaneció diez años. Pero nada sería igual que antes. Había una Montessori antes de la India, y otra mucho más profunda después. Cuando regresaba a Europa declaró, a los que le preguntaban qué había hecho en la India: “creo que he aprendido a aprender, como el Niño”. [The decade Maria Montessori spent in India was one of the most enriching periods of her life. During that phase, she wrote and published The Absorbent Mind of the Child, as well as a number of fundamental books in her career. In The Education of Human Potentialities, she developed the principles of the “Cosmic Education”, a curriculum which she adapted for elementary students. Invited in 1939 to give lectures by the president of the Theosophical Society, Maria Montessori and her son were trapped by the outbreak of World War II and its subsequent development. She was 69 when she arrived to Madras. She stayed ten years. There was a Maria Montessori before India, and a much deeper one later. When she returned to Europe, when asked what she had done in India, she declared, “I think I’ve learned how to learn, as if I were a Child”.]

Language: Spanish

DOI: 10.15517/rehmlac.v7i2.22697

ISSN: 1659-4223

Article

Filsafat Pendidikan Maria Montessori Dengan Teori Belajar Progresivisme Dalam Pendidikan Aud [Maria Montessori Educational Philosophy with Progressivism Learning Theory in Early Childhood Education]

Available from: Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry

Publication: Bunayya: Jurnal Pendidikan Anak [Journal of Children's Education], vol. 6, no. 2

Pages: 64-88

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Tulisan ini berusaha menjelaskan pendidikan Islam dari sudut pandang Maria Montessori, yang merupakan tokoh pendidikan anak yang mencurahkan hampir keseluruhan hidupnya untuk anak-anak. Maria Montessori memiliki prinsip dasar mengenai metode montessori ini, yang sangat memfokuskan anak sebagai childern center dan orang dewasa sebagai pembimbing. Menurutnya, suatu fase kehidupan di awal sangat berpengaruh terhadap faserase kehidupan selanjutnya artinya bahwa pengalaman-pengalaman yang dialami oleh seorang anak di awal kehidupannya sangat berpengaruh terhadap kedewasaannya kelak begitu juga perlakuan yang di dapatkan anak sejak kecil akan sangat berpengaruh terhadap perkembang an anak selanjutnya. Kemudiaan sebagai umat Islam, sudah menjadi kewajiban bagi orang tua dan pendidik untuk menanamkan nilai-nilai ke-Islaman pada anak-anaknya. Dan agar nilai-nilai ke-Islaman tersebut dapat terserap dengan sempurna, maka harus diajarkan sejak anak-anak usia dini juga. Rasulullah telah menegaskan tentang tanggung jawab orang tua terhadap anak-anak dalam sabdanya. [This paper tries to explain Islamic education from the perspective of Maria Montessori, who is a figure of children's education who devotes almost her entire life to children. Maria Montessori has a basic principle regarding this Montessori Method, which is very focused on children as children centers and adults as guides. According to him, a phase of life at the beginning is very influential on the phases of the next life which means that the experiences experienced by a child early in life are very influential on their maturity as well as the treatment that children get from childhood will greatly affect the subsequent development of children. Youth as Muslims, it has become an obligation for parents and educators to instill Islamic values in their children. And so that these Islamic values can be absorbed perfectly, it must be taught from an early age as well. Rasulullah has emphasized the responsibility of parents towards children in their sayings.]

Language: Indonesian

ISSN: 2549-3329

Book

Clara Grunwald und Maria Montessori die Entwicklung der Montessori-Pädagogik in Berlin

Clara Grunwald - Biographic sources, Clara Grunwald - Philosophy, Europe, Germany, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - History, Montessori movement, Montessori schools, Western Europe

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Abstract/Notes: The study presents the life and work of Clara Grunwald and Maria Montessori, on the special background of the development of the Montessori movement in Berlin from the 1920s until the Nazis came to power in 1933 and their consequences. In this study, the effectiveness of Clara Grunwald for Montessori pedagogy in Germany, explicitly in Berlin during the Weimar Republic, is made clear. Here their intention, their influence and their commitment to the establishment of Montessori pedagogy and the development of the Montessori movement in Berlin are described. In addition, the emerging conflict between Maria Montessori and Clara Grunwald is viewed in several layers, as various factors influenced the development and spread of Montessori pedagogy. The conflict between the two women shows fateful effects on the person and work of Clara Grunwald, as well as on the Montessori movement in Berlin. The seizure of power by the National Socialists in 1933 also had serious effects on the work of Clara Grunwald and on Montessori pedagogy in Germany, which resulted in the decline of Montessori pedagogy. Against this historical background, the development of Montessori pedagogy after the end of the Second World War up to the present is examined and briefly outlined. (This is a published version of the author's thesis/dissertation.)

Language: German

Published: Hamburg, Germany: Diplomica Verlag, 2008

ISBN: 978-3-8366-6522-3 3-8366-6522-0

Article

Meng tai suo li (Montessori Maria 1870-1952) / 蒙台梭利 (Montessori Maria 1870-1952) [Maria Montessori, 1870-1952]

Publication: Xiandai Daxue Jiaoyu / 現代大學敎育 [Modern University Education], vol. 1991, no. 4

Pages: 3

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Abstract/Notes: <正> 意大利女教育家,蒙台梭利法的创始人。作为意大利女性,最初毕业于罗马大学医学系,后到法国钻研特殊儿童的治疗。1899年任国立异常儿童学校校长,1909年任罗马大学讲师。1907年在罗马贫民街开设“幼儿之家”,采用自己考察的教育法,引起了世界的注目。她在人类学、生理学、异常心理学等领域潜心钻研,积累了实践经验,充分有效地利用

Language: Chinese

ISSN: 1671-1610

Article

Maria Montessori du côté de enfance [Maria Montessori from the childhood side]

Available from: Università di Macerata

Publication: History of Education and Children's Literature (HECL), vol. 1, no. 2

Pages: 231-247

Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc.

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Abstract/Notes: Following the more recent and up-to-date literary criticism, the article outlines the biog- raphy and the complicated cultural and scientific route of Maria Montessori. The main stages of her psycho-pedagogical works are underlined, as well as the origin and develop- ment of the enterprise she furthered in special education and in children’s care. Through the analysis of a large review of both traditional and recent studies about Maria Montessori and her work, it stands out the Montessorian conception of a scientific pedagogy. This one, based on the Positivistic culture, is not extraneous to other influences, such as the Itard’s Sensism, and the theosophical suggestions about an aesthetic and moral perfecting of the human being through the exercising of his sensibility. The Montessori’s idea of spir- itual embryo can be referred to the Neo-evolutionist theories and to religious contamina- tions from different sources. It is so possible to outline the eclectic connotation of the anthropological – and then psycho-pedagogical – thought that the researcher and peda- gogue Maria Montessori had worked out.

Language: French

ISSN: 1971-1093, 1971-1131

Article

Maria Montessori und die Montessori-Erziehung [Maria Montessori and Montessori Education]

Publication: Pädagogische Welt, vol. 9

Pages: 27-29

Europe, Germany, Western Europe

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Language: German

Article

Montessori Eğitim Yönteminin Rousseaucu Kökenleri / The Rousseauian Roots of Montessori Education Method

Available from: The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies

Publication: Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, vol. 14, no. 86

Pages: 535-556

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Abstract/Notes: Bu çalışmada eğitim felsefesinde adı çokça zikredilen Fransız filozof Jean-Jacquez Rousseau’nun, Maria Montessori tarafından kurulan ve kendi adıyla anılan Montessori eğitim yöntemi üzerindeki etkisi incelenecektir. Rousseau’nun meşhur Emile kitabı, eğitimin amacı ve işlevi meselesine dair ayrıntılı bir izah içerir. Onun eğitim konusuna yaklaşımı kimi zaman sert tartışmalara sebep olmuş kimi zaman da ilham kaynağı olmuştur. İtalya’nın ilk kadın doktoru olarak da bilinen Maria Montessori onun fikirlerinden olumlu yönde etkilenen bir isimdir. Montessori, yaşama uzanan yardım eli yaklaşımına indirgediği eğitim meselesini aldığı tıp, felsefe ve antropoloji eğitimi sayesinde geniş bir bakış açısıyla inceler. Bu sayede daha sistemli ve bilimsel temeli olan bir eğitim modeli sunar. Rousseau ise kelimenin tam anlamıyla sistematik olmaktansa doğal gidişata göre hareket etmeyi ve kendi gözlemlerinden faydalanmayı tercih eder. Bu tercihinden dolayı kendisine ağır eleştirilerin yapıldığı da bir gerçektir. Rousseau’nun ve Maria Montessori’nin eğitim alanındaki fikirleri pek çok tartışmayı beraberinde getirse de her iki ismin pedagoji alanındaki etkisi görmezden gelinemez. Ancak Rousseau’nun bu alandaki düşüncelerinin bir eğitim tasarısı ya da eğitime dair yapılan bir yorum düzeyinde kaldığı söylenebilir. Rousseau’nun aksine Maria Montessori’nin fikirlerinin ise pek çok ülkede benimsendiği ve bu fikir doğrultusunda pek çok eğitim kurumunun açıldığı görülür. Her ne kadar somut alanda aralarında bu denli fark olsa da çıkış noktaları ve eğitim alanındaki bazı tasavvurları benzerlik göstermektedir. Bu çalışmada söz konusu benzerlik kavramsal bir çerçeve doğrultusunda ele alınacaktır. Böylece Rousseau’nun Maria Montessori üzerindeki etkisi irdelenip onun eğitim alanında bir romandan fazlasını yazdığı sonucuna ulaşılacaktır. / In this study, the effect of the French philosopher Jean-Jacquez Rousseau, whose name is mentioned a lot in educational philosophy, on the Montessori education method established by Maria Montessori and named after her will be examined. Rousseau’s famous book Emile contains a detailed explanation on the goal and function of the education. Sometimes, his approach to education caused very significant discussions and sometimes it was a source of inspiration. Maria Montessori, who is also known as Italy’s first female doctor was one of the names who was affected from his opinion in a positive way. Montessori examines the issue of education considered as helping hand approach to life from a wide perspective thanks to her education in medicine, philosophy and anthropology. In this way, she presents a more systematic and scientific based education model. On the other hand, Rousseau prefers to act according to the natural course and uses his own observations rather than being systematic in the strictest sense of the world. It is a fact that he was heavily criticized for this preference. Even though Rousseau and Maria Montessori’s ideas on the education field bring a lot of debate, the effect of both names in pedagogy cannot be ignored. However, it can be noted that Rousseau’s ideas in the field stayed only as an education design or a comment made on education. Unlike Rousseau, it is seen that Maria Montessori’s ideas were adopted in many countries and a lot of educational institutions were established in the direction of this idea. Although there is such a difference between them in the concrete field, their starting points and some of their imaginations in the field of education are similar. These similarities in the direction of a conceptual frame will be addressed in the study. Thus, Rousseau’s influence on Maria Montessori will be examined and it will be concluded that he wrote more than a novel in the field of education.

Language: Turkish

DOI: 10.29228/JASSS.50020

ISSN: 2148-4163

Doctoral Dissertation

Montessori e a mídia contemporânea: análise discursiva de textos midiáticos estadunidenses sobre o método Montessori publicados entre 2000 e 2015 [Montessori and the contemporary media: a discursive analysis of american media texts about the Montessori method published between 2000 and 2015]

Available from: Universidade de São Paulo

Americas, Montessori method of education, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: O método Montessori, como se convencionou chamar a perspectiva pedagógica derivada do trabalho de Maria Montessori (1870-1952), foi desenvolvido, principalmente, ao longo da primeira metade do século XX. Até hoje, no entanto, há escolas, publicações e cursos para professores sendo criados em todo o mundo. Desde o início de sua história, a pedagogia montessoriana aparece frequentemente na mídia de vários países do mundo, e, em alguns momentos da história, representou tanto um fenômeno midiático quanto editorial (KRAMER, 1988). Esta pesquisa trabalhou com um arquivo de textos midiáticos, publicados desde 1911 nos Estados Unidos da América e dedicou-se à análise e à interpretação de um corpus de textos da mesma natureza. Uma ênfase da análise foi dada aos textos publicados entre os anos 2000 e 2015. O aporte teórico das análises e das reflexões expostas aqui é a Análise de Discurso filiada aos estudos do inconsciente e da ideologia, iniciada na França, por Michel Pêcheux, e desenvolvida e ampliada no Brasil por autoras como Eni Orlandi. A história da perspectiva pedagógica de que tratamos já foi explorada antes por diversos autores (STANDING, 1962; KRAMER, 1988; POVELL, 2010, entre outros), mas poucos tangenciaram o trabalho da mídia quanto a essa pedagogia, embora mencionem a importância desta mesma instância de produção, e nenhuma das publicações emprega a perspectiva discursiva, que pode oferecer outros pontos de vista e permite a interlocução de diversas áreas de estudo. Os resultados obtidos com esta pesquisa apontam para uma direção previsível e duas bifurcações importantes desta. Em primeiro lugar, como propõe a teoria da Análise de Discurso, a produção discursiva é atravessada pela ideologia, e, assim, os textos com que trabalhamos fazem parte de um conjunto de sentidos e proposições que harmonizam com o verdadeiro, como operado pela ideologia dominante. Isso tem duas consequências específicas para este corpus. Por um lado, os sentidos que caracterizam o método Montessori são vinculados a valores não estranhos ao neoliberalismo e ao discurso empreendedor: fala-se muito de diversão, e, ao mesmo tempo, de alto desempenho, liberdade, sucesso, escolha individual e liderança. Por outro lado, há uma contradição muito presente entre caracterizar-se Montessori como uma pedagogia alternativa e dizer-se que Montessori é só uma via diversa para se alcançar os mesmos fins: alto desempenho acadêmico e sucesso financeiro. Em segundo lugar, notamos a proeminência do ponto de vista adulto sobre o possível ponto de vista infantil. Os textos, especialmente a partir de 2011, fazem sentido, com frequência, construindo as vantagens que a pedagogia montessoriana representa para o adulto, segundo uma perspectiva corporativa ou empreendedora. Por meio de nossa análise, pudemos caracterizar a configuração do discurso midiático sobre o método Montessori nos Estados Unidos e compreender como os sentidos se articulam para fazer de Montessori uma perspectiva válida e positiva, ao mesmo tempo, silenciando os sentidos que, ligados a ela, poderiam ser desarmônicos e, até mesmo, arriscados para a hegemonia do verdadeiro sobre a criança e sobre a educação. [The Montessori method, as the pedagogical perspective derived from the work of Maria Montessori (1870-1952) is usually called, was developed mainly during the first half of the twentieth century. To this day, however, there are schools, publications and courses for teachers being created around the world. From the beginning of its history, Montessori pedagogy has frequently appeared in the media of several countries, and at some moments in history has represented both a mediatic and editorial phenomenon (KRAMER, 1988). This research relies on an archive of media texts published since 1911 in the United States of America and is focused on the analysis and interpretation of a corpus of texts of the same nature. Emphasis was given to those texts published between the years 2000 and 2015. The theoretical foundation for the analyzes and reflections exposed here is the Discourse Analysis affiliated to the studies of the unconscious and the ideology, initiated in France by Michel Pêcheux, and developed and expanded in Brazil by authors such as Eni Orlandi. The history of the pedagogical perspective that we have dealt with has already been explored by several authors (STANDING, 1962, KRAMER, 1988, POVELL, 2010 and others), but few have touched on the work of the media in relation to this pedagogy, although they recognize its relevance, and none of the publications adopts the discursive perspective, which can offer other points of view, allowing the interlocution with several areas of study. The results obtained with this research point to a predictable direction, and two important and novel bifurcations. First, as the theory of discourse analysis proposes, discursive production is traversed by ideology, and thus the texts we work with are part of a set of meanings and propositions that harmonize with the truth, as operated by the dominant ideology. This, in turn, has two specific consequences for this corpus. On the one hand, the meanings that characterize the Montessori method are linked to values not unfamiliar to neoliberalism and entrepreneurial discourse: much is said of fun, and at the same time high performance, freedom, and success, individual choice, and leadership. There is a very present contradiction between characterizing Montessori as an alternative pedagogy and saying that Montessori is only an alternative way to achieve the same ends: high academic performance and financial success. Secondly, we notice the prominence of the adult point of view over the possible infantile one. The texts, especially as of 2011, often make sense from the advantages that the Montessori pedagogy represents for the adult, from a corporate or entrepreneurial perspective. Through our analysis, we have been able to characterize the configuration of the media discourse on the Montessori method in the United States and to understand how the senses are articulated to make Montessori a valid and positive pedagogical perspective, while silencing the meanings that could, if linked to that, be disharmonious, and we would say risky, for the hegemony of the truth about the child and about education.]

Language: Portuguese

Published: São Paulo, Brazil, 2019

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