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Book Section

Montessori-Geist und Montessori-Praxis in der Schule [Montessori Spirit and Montessori Practice in School]

Book Title: Montessori-Unterricht: Aus dem Montessori-Heft der Neuen Erziehung [Montessori lessons From the Montessori booklet of the New Education]

Pages: 7-21

Maria Montessori - Speeches, addresses, etc., Montessori training courses, Trainings

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Language: German

Published: Berlin, Germany: Hensel and Co. Verlag, 1926

Article

Montessori Revisited [Essay Review of Rita Kramer 'Maria Montessori: A Biography' and Mario Montessori Jr. 'Education for Human Development: Understanding Montessori' edited by Paula Polk Lillard]

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Educational Studies, vol. 8, no. 2

Pages: 163-174

Book reviews

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Language: English

DOI: 10.1207/s15326993es0802_9

ISSN: 0013-1946

Book

The Montessori Method: The Origins of an Educational Innovation, Including an Abridged and Annotated Edition of Maria Montessori's 'The Montessori Method'

Available from: Internet Archive

Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Writings, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - History

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Abstract/Notes: An essential resource for all students and scholars of early childhood education, this book offers a rich array of material about Maria Montessori and the Montessori Method. Distinguished education scholar Gerald Gutek begins with an in-depth biography of Montessori, exploring how a determined young woman overcame the obstacles that blocked her educational and career opportunities in Italy during the late Victorian age. The author then analyzes the sources and influences that shaped the Montessori philosophy of education. After laying the foundation for Montessori's development, Gutek presents an annotated and abridged edition of The Montessori Method (1912), the seminal work that introduced her educational innovations to a U.S. audience. The book concludes with key historical documents, including disciple Anne E. George's notes on the Montessori lectures and William H. Kilpatrick's critique of the Montessori method. Preserving the historical context of Montessori's contribution, Gutek also shows the continuing relevance of her thought to educational reform in the twenty-first century.

Language: English

Published: Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2004

ISBN: 978-0-7425-1911-4 978-0-7425-1912-1

Master's Thesis

Poučevanje tujih jezikov v montessori in waldorfskih šolah ter v vrtcih v Sloveniji / Fremdsprachenunterricht an Montessori und Waldorfschulen und Kindergärten in Slowenien [Foreign language teaching at Montessori and Waldorf schools and kindergartens in Slovenia]

Available from: Digital Library of the University of Maribor (DKUM)

Comparative education, Europe, Language acquisition, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Second language acquisition, Slovenia, Southern Europe, Waldorf method of education, Waldorf schools

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Abstract/Notes: Magistrsko delo se posveča alternativnim šolam in vrtcem v Sloveniji na primeru pristopov montessori in waldorf. Ti dve vrsti šol, ki so ju običajno ustanovili starši, postajata v Sloveniji v zadnjih letih vedno bolj priljubljeni. Namen magistrskega dela ju je primerjati in analizirati, torej podrobneje preučiti filozofiji waldorf in montessori šol, njun položaj v svetu in v Sloveniji ter znotraj tega njuno poučevanje tujih jezikov. V nadaljevanju magistrskega dela sledi opis izobraževanja za učitelje pri enem in pri drugem sistemu, torej waldorf in montessori. Navajamo tudi, kdo so znane osebnosti obeh šol in kaj o njuni teoriji, razlikah in podobnostih ter primerjavi z ustaljenim šolskim sistemom ugotavljajo mednarodne in domače raziskave. Sledi opis organiziranosti teh šol in vrtcev v Sloveniji. V empiričnem delu se ukvarjamo s podobnostmi in razlikami obeh šol. Skušamo odgovoriti na vprašanje, kakšno vlogo igrajo te alternativne šole v našem šolskem sistemu. Primerjalno opišemo tudi učne načrte obeh šol s poudarkom na področju poučevanja tujih jezikov. S pomočjo intervjujev in opazovanj pouka tujega jezika skušamo predstaviti sliko realnega šolskega življenja v teh alternativnih šolah. / Die vorliegende Magisterarbeit widmet sich Alternativschulen und Kindergärten, und zwar den Montessori- und Waldorfschulen in Slowenien. In Slowenien bekommen diese aus Elterninitiativen entstandenen Schulen in letzter Zeit neuen Schwung. Der Zweck der Magisterarbeit ist die Montessori- und Waldorfschulen gegenüberzustellen und sie zu analysieren, insbesondere im Bereich der Fremdsprachen. Zuerst befasst sich die Magisterarbeit mit der Montessori-Schule und ihrer Philosophie, ihrer Lage weltweit und in Slowenien und mit dem dort ausgeführten Fremdsprachenunterricht. Im Weiteren wird untersucht, wie man ein Montessori- oder Waldorf-Pädagoge wird, wer bekannte Montessori- oder Waldorf Personen sind und was die Forschung empfiehlt. Es folgt die Beschreibung der Organisation der Montessori- oder Waldorfschulen und Kindergärten im slowenischen Raum. Der empirische Teil befasst sich mit den Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschieden der beiden Alternativschulen. Der Frage, welche Rollen diese beiden Alternativschulen in slowenischem Schulsystem spielen, wird ebenfalls nachgegangen. Die Lehrpläne der beiden Schulen wurden verglichen, insbesondere im Bereich der Fremdsprachen. Mit den Interviews und den Unterrichtsbeobachtungen wird ein Bild des realen schulischen Lebens in beiden Alternativschulen dargestellt. [This master’s thesis is dedicated to alternative schools and kindergartens, namely the Montessori and Waldorf schools in Slovenia. In Slovenia, these schools, which were created from parents' initiatives, have recently been gaining momentum. The purpose of the master’s thesis is to compare the Montessori and Waldorf schools and to analyze them, especially in the field of foreign languages. First, the master’s thesis deals with the Montessori school and its philosophy, its situation worldwide and in Slovenia and with the foreign language teaching carried out there. It also examines how to become a Montessori or Waldorf teacher, who are known Montessori or Waldorf people and what research recommends. The following is a description of the organization of the Montessori or Waldorf schools and kindergartens in the Slovenian region. The empirical part deals with the similarities and differences between the two alternative schools. The question of what roles these two alternative schools play in the Slovenian school system will also be investigated. The curricula of the two schools were compared, particularly in the field of foreign languages. With the interviews and the observation of lessons, a picture of the real school life in both alternative schools is presented.]

Language: Slovenian

Published: Maribor, Slovenia, 2017

Article

Il ruolo del gioco infantile nel pensiero di Maria Montessori e nelle scuole a metodo / El papel del juego infantil en el pensamiento de Maria Montessori y en las escuelas de método / The role of children's playing in the thought of Maria Montessori and in Montessori method schools

Available from: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

Publication: RELAdEI (Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Infantil), vol. 5, no. 2

Pages: 114-126

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Abstract/Notes: Lo scopo dell’articolo è di mettere in evidenza quale ruolo educativo assegni la Montessori ad alcune tipologie di gioco. In particolare si cerca di mettere in evidenza la sua mancata comprensione del ruolo del gioco simbolico nei primi anni di vita dei bambini, dando vita ad un vero e proprio paradosso per cui nonostante l’osservazione dei bambini in contesti scolastici e naturali, che la Montessori ha preconizzato al fine di proporre una pedagogia con basi di natura scientifica, ella non è riuscita a integrare il gioco simbolico nella sua proposta pedagogica. Si mette anche in luce la sua sua sostanziale concordanza con Dewey nella descrizione di un tipo di attività intelligente che origina da un interesse del bambino nei confronti di uno stimolo ambientale su cui egli riesce a mantenere una concentrazione sostenuta, tuttavia la Montessori mantiene una profonda distanza terminologica da Dewey, che chiama questa attività “gioco”, mentre lei, invece, “lavoro”. Si dà conto infine del ruolo positivo che hanno l’attività giocosa e l’attitudine giocosa (playfulness) nel metodo montessoriano e anche dell’importanza dei giochi sensomotori e dei giochi di regole nell’applicazione didattica ed educativa del metodo stesso. Dall’analisi emerge che la Montessori ha saputo integrare la dimensione giocosa dell’attività umana nel processo di insegnamento/apprendimento attraverso il riconoscimento dell’attività ludiforme, pur con incomprensioni e paradossi in merito al gioco simbolico e in merito alla definizione stessa di gioco. / El propósito de este artículo es analizar el papel educativo que Montessori otorga a ciertos tipos de juego. En particular, se pretende poner de relieve su falta de comprensión del papel del juego simbólico en los primeros años de vida de los niños, creando una verdadera paradoja, ya que a pesar de la observación de los niños en contextos escolares y naturales, método propuesto por Montessori con el fin de conseguir una pedagogía con base científica, no ha sido capaz de integrar el juego simbólico en su propuesta pedagógica. En el artículo también se evidencia la concordancia sustancial con Dewey en la descripción de un tipo de actividad inteligente que se origina en el interés del niño por un estímulo ambiental a partir del que es capaz de mantener una concentración sostenida, sin embargo, Montessori mantiene una profunda distancia terminología con relación a Dewey, quien llama a esta actividad “juego”, mientras que para Montessori es “trabajo”. Finalmente, se aborda el papel positivo que tienen las actividades y actitudes lúdicas (playfulness) en el método Montessori y también la importancia del juego sensoriomotor y el juego de reglas en la aplicación didáctica y educativa del propio método. El análisis muestra que Montessori ha sido capaz de integrar la dimensión lúdica de la actividad humana en el proceso de enseñanza/aprendizaje a través del reconocimiento de este tipo de actividad, a pesar de la incomprensión y las paradojas sobre el juego simbólico y de la propio definición de juego. / The purpose of the article is to highlight the role played by certain types of game in Montessori. In particular, it seeks to highlight the lack of understanding of the role of symbolic play in the early years of children’s lives, creating a real paradox in the Montessori system despite her observation of children in school and natural contexts. Montessori has advocated a view to proposing a pedagogy with scientific bases, but she has been unable to integrate the symbolic play in its pedagogical proposal. I also try to outline her substantial correlation with Dewey in the description of a type of intelligent activity that originates from a child’s interest in respect of an environmental stimulus on which he is able to maintain a sustained concentration, however Montessori maintains a deep distance from Dewey in terminology, who calls this activity “game”, while she, instead, “work.” I give an account of the positive role that have the playful activities and the playful attitude (playfulness) in the Montessori method and of the importance of sensorimotor games and rulegames. The analysis shows that Montessori has been able to integrate the playful dimension of human activity in the teaching/learning process through a general recognition of the playful activity, despite misunderstandings and paradoxes about the symbolic play and on the very definition of play.

Language: Italian

ISSN: 2255-0666

Article

To What Extent Do Parents of Montessori-Educated Children “Do Montessori” at Home? Preliminary Findings and Future Directions

Available from: University of Kansas Libraries

Publication: Journal of Montessori Research, vol. 4, no. 1

Pages: 14-24

Americas, Montessori method of education, North America, Parents - Attitudes, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Few, if any, empirical studies have explicitly examined the home environments of Montessori-educated children, and specifically whether or not Montessori parents reinforce or undermine their children’s Montessori education at home. With a sample of 30 parents of Montessori-educated toddlers and preschoolers attending a private Montessori school in the Midwest, this cross-sectional study examined Montessori parents’ knowledge of Montessori methods and their parenting beliefs and behaviors at home. Results suggested that Montessori parents from the targeted school were knowledgeable about and valued Montessori methods, even though few had a Montessori education themselves. Parents in this sample varied in their parenting behaviors and choices at home, with some parents who intentionally reinforced Montessori principles and others whose behaviors were inconsistent with a Montessori approach. Findings from this preliminary study provide a first glimpse into the beliefs and behaviors of Montessori parents from which future studies can build upon. Montessori educators and administrators will benefit from future research involving Montessori parents, particularly for those who offer Montessori-based parent education sessions to the families they serve.

Language: English

DOI: 10.17161/jomr.v4i1.6737

ISSN: 2378-3923

Undergraduate Thesis

Perancangan Buku Ilustrasi Tutorial Aktivitas Parenting Montessori Untuk Orangtua Yang Memiliki Anak Usia 2-6 Tahun

Available from: Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya

Asia, Indonesia, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori merupakan salah satu metode parenting untuk anak usia dini yang dikembangkan oleh Maria Montessori, seorang dokter perempuan dari Italia pada tahun 1870. Menurut dr. Montessori, anak-anak dapat belajar dengan baik dalam lingkungan yang tepat. Maksudnya, lingkungan yang sesuai ukuran, untuk merangsang, dan mempermudah anak untuk mencerna pengetahuan kognitif. Seiring dengan perkembangan metode montessori, metode ini banyak diminati para orangtua. Meskipun begitu, banyak orangtua masih belum paham bagaimana memulai untuk menerapkan metode montessori. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan sebuah media yang dapat dijadikan salah satu preferensi para orangtua untuk memudahkan mereka dalam memulai aktivitas montessori si rumah. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, dengan instrumen penelitian seperti studi literatur untuk menggali informasi mengenai konten montessori yang didapat dari beberapa buku serta jurnal yang berkaitan dengan topik penelitian , depth interview kepada ahli montesori untuk menggali info lebih detail mengenai montessori, studi komparator, dan eksplorasi visual, dan juga user testing yang menggunakan instrumen focus group discussion bersama target audien. Seluruh konsep perancangan ini akan dirangkum dalam sebuah buku yang berisi materi mengenai tutorial aktivitas montessori yang disajikan dengan menggunakan elemen-elemen visual berupa ilustrasi tutorial aktivitas montessori pada outputnya. Buku ilustrasi tutorial aktivitas montessori ini nantinya akan digunakan sebagai media alternatif yang dapat memudahkan para orangtua yang memiliki anak usia 2-6 tahun untuk memulai kegiatan montessori di rumah. / Montessori is a parenting method for early childhood developed by Maria Montessori, a female doctor from Italy in 1870. According to dr. Montessori, children can learn well in the right environment. That is, an appropriate size environment, to stimulate, and make it easier for children to digest cognitive knowledge. Over time, this method is in great demand by parents. Even so, many parents still do not understand how to start implementing the Montessori method. Therefore, we need a media that can be used as one of the preferences of parents to make it easier for them to start montessori activities at home. This study uses a qualitative approach, with research instruments such as literature studies to explore information about Montessori content obtained from several books and journals related to the research topic, depth interviews with Montessori experts to explore more detailed information about Montessori, comparative studies, and visual exploration. , as well as user testing using a focus group discussion instrument with the target audience. All of these design concepts will be summarized in a book containing material on Montessori activity tutorials presented using visual elements in the form of illustrations of Montessori activity tutorials on the output. This Montessori activity tutorial illustration book will later be used as an alternative media that can make it easier for parents who have children aged 2-6 years to start Montessori activities at home.

Language: Indonesian

Published: Surabaya, Indonesia, 2022

Article

Manajemen Pendidikan Karakter Metode Montessori di Jogjakarta Montessori School [Montessori Method of Character Education Management at Jogjakarta Montessori School]

Available from: Universitas Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa

Publication: Media Manajemen Pendidikan [Educational Management Media], vol. 2, no. 2

Pages: 251-259

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Montessori method of education, Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui manajemen pendidikan karakter yang meliputi 1) perencanaan, 2) pengorganisasian, 3) pengarahan dan pelaksanaan, 4) evaluasi dan pengendalian, 5) faktor pendukung serta 6) faktor penghambat di SD Montessori. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi partisipatif, studi dokumentasi. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif kualitatif melalui tahapan pengumpulan data, reduksi data, penyajian data, dan penarikan kesimpulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: 1) perencanaan manajemen pendidikan karakter pada kurikulum, pendidik, pembiayaan peserta didik, sarana dan prasarana, pembiayaan pendidikan; 2) pengorganisasian manajemen pendidikan karakter pada pelatihan guru baru, pengarahkan para guru, kesempatan bagi guru atau staf untuk berpartisipasi dalam memberikan sumbangan pikiran, mengikutsertakan yayasan, guru, staf dan komite sekolah dalam membuat perencanaan manajemen, memberikan nasehat dan arahan yang benar; 3) pelaksanaan manajemen pendidikan karakter sesuai dengan perencanaan dengan apparatus dan pendampingan dari guru; 4) evaluasi manajemen pendidikan karakter dengan melihat kemandirian dan keberanian, pembuatan project, berperilaku santun; 5) faktor pendukung meliputi kegiatan di luar sekolah bermasyarakat, kegiatan ektrakurikuler, peraturan untuk tidak memakai atribut keagamaan selama di sekolah, sarana dan prasarana sekolah, pendidik yang ramah dan perhatian, kegiatan sosial dan kerjasama dengan sekolah lain; 6) faktor penghambat pendidikan karakter pada Jogjakarta Montessori School yaitu kurangnya kerjasama orang tua siswa dalam menanamkan nilai kedisiplinan, tanggungjawab, menghargai prestasi, dan rasa ingin tahu. [This study aims to determine the management of character education which includes 1) planning, 2) organizing, 3) directing and implementing, 4) evaluation and control, 5) supporting factors and 6) inhibiting factors in SD Montessori. This research use desciptive qualitative approach. Data collection techniques are in-depth interviews, participatory observation, and documentation studies. Data were analyzed descriptively qualitatively through the stages of data collection, data reduction, data presentation, and drawing conclusions. The results showed that: 1) character education management planning in the curriculum, educators, student funding, facilities and infrastructure, education financing; 2) organizing character education management on new teacher training, directing teachers, opportunities for teachers or staff to participate in contributing ideas, involving foundations, teachers, staff and school committees in making management plans, providing correct advice and direction; 3) implementation of character education management in accordance with planning with apparatus and mentoring from teachers; 4) evaluation of character education management by looking at independence and courage, making projects, behaving politely; 5) supporting factors include activities outside of school in the community, extracurricular activities, regulations not to use religious attributes while at school, school facilities and infrastructure, friendly and caring educators, social activities and collaboration with other schools; 6) the inhibiting factor for character education at Jogjakarta Montessori School is the lack of cooperation between parents in instilling the values ​​of discipline, responsibility, respect for achievement, and curiosity.]

Language: Indonesian

DOI: 10.30738/mmp.v2i2.5072.g2662

ISSN: 2622-3694

Doctoral Dissertation

L’impact de la pédagogie Montessori sur le développement cognitif, social et académique des enfants en maternelle [The impact of Montessori pedagogy on the cognitive, social and academic development of children in kindergarten]

Available from: HAL Theses - Online Theses

Academic achievement, Child development, Europe, France, Montessori method of education - Evaluation, Western Europe

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Abstract/Notes: La pédagogie Montessori est une méthode d’éducation qui a été mise au point au début du siècle dernier par Maria Montessori pour des enfants d’un quartier défavorisé de Rome en Italie. Depuis sa création, elle s’est développée à la marge de l’éducation nationale et se retrouve principalement dans des écoles privées. La pédagogie Montessori devient cependant de plus en plus populaire auprès des enseignants de l’école maternelle publique. Ce récent engouement apparaît fondé à la vue de plusieurs principes de cette méthode. En effet, elle promeut l’autonomie, l’auto-régulation, la coopération entre pairs d’âges variés et l’apprentissage à partir de matériels sensoriels et auto-correctifs. Ces caractéristiques sont plutôt en accord avec les connaissances scientifiques sur l’apprentissage et le développement de l’enfant. Cependant, à ce jour, les preuves expérimentales rigoureuses de son efficacité sont limitées. Dans cette thèse, nous avons mesuré les compétences langagières, mathématiques, exécutives et sociales d’enfants d’une école maternelle, repartis aléatoirement entre des classes appliquant la pédagogie Montessori ou une pédagogie conventionnelle. Nous avons suivi leurs progrès au cours des trois années de l’école maternelle (étude longitudinale) et avons comparé les performances des enfants en fin de Grande Section (étude transversale). Nous avons également élaboré une mesure pour évaluer objectivement la qualité d’implémentation de la pédagogie Montessori dans cette école, situé dans un quartier défavorisé. Nos résultats ne montrent pas de différences entre les groupes dans les domaines des mathématiques, des compétences exécutives et des compétences sociales. Cependant, les enfants issus des classes Montessori avaient de meilleures performances en lecture que les enfants issus des classes conventionnelles en fin de Grande Section. La pédagogie Montessori apparaît donc comme adaptée à l’apprentissage de la lecture chez le jeune enfant. [The Montessori method of education was created at the beginning of the last century by Maria Montessori to help children in a disadvantaged neighborhood of Rome in Italy. Although it is nowadays most commonly found in private schools, the Montessori method has gained popularity among teachers in public preschool and kindergarten in France and around the world. This popularity may appear legitimate with regards to the principles underlying the Montessori methods, which involve autonomy, self-regulation, cooperation between children from different age groups and learning with multi-sensorial and self-correcting materials. These characteristics are broadly in line with research on learning and development in young children. However, there is limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Montessori method in the scientific literature. In this thesis, we measured the linguistic, mathematical, executive and social skills of preschoolers and kindergarteners from a public school in which children were randomly assigned to classrooms in which the Montessori method was implemented or to classrooms in which a conventional teaching was used. We followed children from the first year of preschool to kindergarten (longitudinal study) and compared the performance of children at the end of kindergarten (cross-sectional study). We also developed a scale to evaluate the quality of implementation of the Montessori method in the school, located in a disadvantaged neighborhood. Our results do not show any difference between groups in terms of mathematical, executive and social skills. However, children from Montessori classrooms had better reading performance than children from conventional classrooms at the end of kindergarten. Therefore, the Montessori method appears to be well suited for developing reading skills of young children.]

Language: French

Published: Lyon, France, 2019

Article

Membedah Pemikiran Maria Montessori Pada Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini [Dissecting Maria Montessori's Thought on Early Childhood Education]

Available from: Pedagogi: Jurnal Anak Usia Dini dan Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini

Publication: Pedagogi: Jurnal Anak Usia Dini dan Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini [Pedagogy: Journal of Early Childhood and Early Childhood Education], vol. 6, no. 2

Pages: 57-67

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Southeast Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Artikel ini mengkaji tentang pendidikan anak usia dini berdasarkan pemikiran Montessori. Biografi, kurikulum, metode, lingkungan kelas Montessori menjadi pembahasan dalam artikel ini. Hasil penelitian studi literatur menunjukkan bahwa Montessori merupakan seorang wanita pertama Italia lulusan kedokteran. Montessori tertarik pada studi tentang penyakit mental dan gangguan psikologis terhadap anak. Ia membuka sebuah sekolah dengan murid-muridnya yang cacat mental, hingga ia meneliti bagaimana metode pendidikan untuk anak cacat mental. Montessori berkeyakinan bahwa metode yang telah dilakukannya pada anak cacat mental bisa dilakukan juga pada anak-anak normal. Menurut Montessori rentang usia anak 0 sampai 3 tahun merupakan usia dibawah sadar, dan rentang usia 4 sampai 6 tahun mengalami peningkatan ke usia sadar. Kurikulum Montessori terdiri dari tiga bagian yaitu lingkungan praktis, latihan sensorik motorik, dan perkembangan bahasa. Kebebasan, lingkungan yang terstruktur dan teratur merupakan elemen penting dalam metode Montessori. Dan lingkungan kelas Montessori yang terdiri dari prinsip kebebasan, ketertiban, kenyataan dan alam, suasana dan keindahan, bahan-bahan Montessori dan pengembangan kehidupan masyarakat. [This article examines early childhood education based on Montessori thinking. Biography, curriculum, methods, and the Montessori classroom environment are discussed in this article. The results of the literature study showed that Montessori was the first Italian woman to graduate from medicine. Montessori was interested in the study of mental illness and psychological disorders in children. He opened a school with mentally disabled students, so he researched educational methods for mentally disabled children. Montessori believes that the method he has done on mentally disabled children can also be applied to normal children. According to Montessori, the age range of children 0 to 3 years is a subconscious age, and the age range of 4 to 6 years has increased to the conscious age. The Montessori curriculum consists of three parts, namely the practical environment, motor sensory training, and language development. A free, structured and orderly environment is an essential element of the Montessori method. And the Montessori classroom environment which consists of the principles of freedom, order, reality and nature, atmosphere and beauty, Montessori materials and the development of people's lives.]

Language: Indonesian

DOI: 10.30651/pedagogi.v6i2.4950

ISSN: 2599-042X, 2599-0438

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