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Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

On Ki Hadjar Dewantara’s Philosophy of Education

Available from: Universitetsbiblioteket OsloMet

Publication: Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE), vol. 5, no. 2

Pages: 65-78

Asia, Australasia, Indonesia, Ki Hadjar Dewantara - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Southeast Asia, Taman Siswa

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Abstract/Notes: This comparative education article explores the purpose of education in the Indonesian context. My aim is to see if there are any differences between the purpose of education during the colonial era and present-day Indonesia. In order to do that, I draw mostly on the philosophy of Ki Hadjar Dewantara, who is regarded as the father of Indonesian education. This article is particularly relevant because the Indonesian government has recently started to critically re-examine two of the educational concepts proposed by Dewantara, which are "pendidikan karakter" (character education) and "merdeka belajar" (independent learning). In conceptualising education, Dewantara, who was influenced by Tagore, Montessori, and Fröbel, saw the importance of imparting local wisdom and values ignored by the colonial schools. Therefore, in this article, I will compare his educational views with the Dutch view of schooling during the colonial era. I will then look at Indonesia's current approach to education to find the similarities and differences of purpose relative to Dewantara's views of education. In this article, I argue that Dewantara's philosophy is still very much relevant today. I conclude that the Indonesian government should refer back to its history when defining education for its next generation.

Language: English

DOI: 10.7577/njcie.4156

ISSN: 2535-4051

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Maria Montessori’s Philosophy of Experimental Psychology

Available from: The University of Chicago Press Journals

Publication: HOPOS: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science, vol. 5, no. 2

Pages: 240-268

Maria Montessori - Philosophy

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Abstract/Notes: Through philosophical analysis of Montessori’s critiques of psychology, I aim to show the enduring relevance of those critiques. Maria Montessori sees experimental psychology as fundamental to philosophy and pedagogy, but she objects to the experimental psychology of her day in four ways: as disconnected from practice, as myopic, as based excessively on methods from physical sciences, and—most fundamentally—as offering detailed examinations of human beings (particularly children) under abnormal conditions. In place of these prevailing norms, Montessori suggests a model of the teacher-scientist in a specially prepared environment, who can engage in sustained and impassioned observation of “normalized” children. Drawing from a variety of texts and recently published lectures, this article lays out Montessori’s philosophy of experimental psychology and briefly discusses its relevance today.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1086/682395

ISSN: 2152-5188

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Montessori Philosophy is a Good Foundation to Education of New Generation

Available from: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)

Publication: ILIRIA International Review, vol. 8, no. 2

Pages: 227-238

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: The purpose of the paper is to present the philosophy of reform of education in Albania during the post-communist transition. Reforming education is a priority, but has been neglected by governments over the last 25 years. Over the last five years, the new curriculum and the new textbook system are being implemented according to the European standards. The core of reform is "have human beings learnt" (E. Ultarur, 2012). The constructivist philosophy of learning is a sure foundation that guarantees the new quality of the educational process. The Montessori's philosophy guarantees high quality and safety for the future because: First, this philosophy serves as a theoretical basis and serves as a method. Montessori has discovered the stages of natural development of the thinking human beings from childhood to adolescence, basing on scientific evidence, from childhood to adolescence. Secondly, Montessori’s constructivism moved the knowledge from the product into the process. Montessori illuminates the way of building human values during educational teaching process at school and in the community by the falling down of the classic wall that separates school from the community (public). Our research is based on the study of curricular experiences and on data from consultations with students, parents and specialists. The search method is holistic. By the holistic education the children need not only to develop academically, but to develop the ability as well in order to survive in the real world. The real world in our era is in front of the virtual world. In this contexts, we must teach children to learn not what?, but how? (How does it work/learn?). The teacher must learn his/her students how they construct the values by their immediate relationships with their friends and family as well as social development, health, and intellectual development.

Language: English

DOI: 10.21113/iir.v8i2.447

ISSN: 2365-8592, 2192-7081

AudioRecording

Micro Temoin: Batey Merger; Peter Hesse sur la pedagogie Montessori

Available from: Digital Library of the Caribbean

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Abstract/Notes: (00:00:00) Repòtaj sou jan moun ap viv nan mizè nan Batèy Mèje, yon batèy ayisyen nan zòn Bon Repo. Moun k ap abite Mèje dekri grangou, maladi, lanmò timoun (ki konn mouri pou maladi lèzòm ak maladi Bondye), ak move trètman patwon konn fè yo sibi. Travayè yo pa touche regilyèman, epi pafwa grangou fè yo manje kann, menm si yo ka arete yo pou sa. Dapre moun yo, abitasyon sa a te pou yon blan meriken ki rele "Mr. Hill" men kounye a se pou HASCO li ye. Sa se premye fwa yon radyo vin entèvyouve moun Mèje, 1988-09-06 (00:20:09) J.J. Dominique entèvyouve Peter Hesse sou edikasyon Montessori nan peyi d Ayiti, 1988-09-15|(00:00:00) Report on the horrendous living conditions at Batèy Merger, a Haitian batèy near Bon Repos. Residents of Batèy Merger describe hunger, disease, the deaths of children from both "maladi lèzòm" and "maladi Bondye" (diseases sent by others and natural diseases), and mistreatment by employers. Workers are paid irregularly, and hunger sometimes forces them to eat sugar cane, for which they can be arrested. According to speakers, the plantation was owned by an American named "Mr. Hill" who then passed ownership to HASCO. This is the first time a radio station has ever come to interview them, 1988-09-06 (00:20:09) J.J. Dominique interviews Peter Hesse about Montessori education in Haiti, 1988-09-15

Language: English

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Epistemology Behind the Educational Philosophy of Montessori: Senses, Concepts, and Choice

Available from: Simon Fraser University

Publication: Philosophical Inquiry in Education, vol. 23, no. 2

Pages: 125–140

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Abstract/Notes: This article seeks to re-introduce Dr. Maria Montessori’s educational philosophy, which has been absent from modern philosophy of education literature. It describes and analyzes crucial aspects of her epistemology, as best known through her Method. Discussed are the need for early education, the development of the senses, and the exercise of choice by the students. Concept formation is also shown to be an important part of Montessori’s philosophy of instruction. This article concludes with a brief resolution of the “is–ought” objection as framed by Scheffler that might be waged against Montessori’s approach.

Language: English

ISSN: 2369-8659

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

From Inspired Teaching to Effective Knowledge Work and Back Again: A Report on Peter Drucker's Schoolmistress and What She Can Teach Us About the Management and Education of Knowledge Workers

Available from: Emerald Insight

Publication: Management Decision, vol. 48, no. 4

Pages: 475-484

Eugenie Schwarzwald - Biographic sources, Knowledge management, Leadership, Maria Montessori - Influence, Peter Drucker - Philosophy, Schwarzwald School (Vienna)

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Abstract/Notes: The emerging knowledge societies will – besides many other dramatic changes – see a teaching revolution. This paper seeks to propose quality standards for this new type of teaching. The paper argues that Peter Drucker experienced much of what he later came to call the principles of self management and effective knowledge work as a boy aged nine or ten at the Schwarzwald School – an utterly exceptional, progressive elementary school in Vienna. Given these astonishing similarities, this school's avant‐garde approach to teaching might just provide some insights into what effective teaching for a future knowledge society should be like. The paper is based to a large extent on accounts by and about the almost forgotten school's owner‐manager Eugenie Schwarzwald, some of which were made available only recently in the course of several biographical research projects dealing with this revolutionary pedagogue and social entrepreneur. Firstly, the paper identifies similarities between the teaching practice at Eugenie Schwarzwald's schools, her approach to leadership on the one hand, and Drucker's principles of effective management and knowledge work on the other. Secondly, it concludes that in a knowledge society both effective management and teaching need to be extensively individualised services – much more than in an industrial mass society. Combined, Schwarzwald's practice and Drucker's teachings challenge some seemingly up‐to‐date practices in both higher education and corporate personnel development, and helps in understanding what actually produces effective personal learning for the rapidly changing knowledge economies of the twenty‐first century. The paper introduces selective aspects of progressive education to the field of management.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1108/00251741011041292

ISSN: 0025-1747

Blog Post

The Beginning of the Peter Hesse Foundation

Americas, Caribbean, Haiti, Latin America and the Caribbean, Montessori method of education, Peter Hesse Foundation

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Abstract/Notes: The Beginning who? – when? – how? – why? I visited Haiti for the first time in 1980 with the intention of enjoying a Caribbean Christmas-holiday with sun, sand, and Haitian Cadence music. While in Haiti, I was touched by the living conditions of people there, and could not continue my tourist vacation with a […]

Language: English

Published: n.d.

Book Section

Montessori Philosophy in Early Childhood Education

Book Title: Early Childhood Education in Nigeria: Proceedings of the International Seminar on Early Childhood Education, Zaria, 4-8 July, 1983

Pages: 31-52

Africa, Early childhood education, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Nigeria, Sub-Saharan Africa, West Africa

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Abstract/Notes: In this paper a brief biographical introduction to Dr. Maria Montessori provides insight into the origin of her philosophy of early childhood education. Key concepts underlying the Montessori approach to education are then developed with special emphasis on their interrelationship. More details are included in the group discussion report which is included at the end of the section.

Language: English

Published: Zaria, Nigeria: Institute of Education, Ahmadu Bello University, 1983

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

The Development of Italian Educational Philosophy in the 20th Century

Available from: Springer Link

Publication: International Review of Education, vol. 4, no. 1

Pages: 313-326

Europe, Italy, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: In our brief historical outline of educational conditions in Italy, we have seen that by far the greatest efforts over the past fifty years have been devoted to clarifying the theoretical issues of educational problems. We have been examining philosophical Systems that pretended to afford an unshakeable foundation to educational theory and to answer every problem raised by educational practice. They have been scrutinized and found wanting. The new Government Syllabus (1955) for the Italian elementary schools is thoroughly Catholic in spirit, humanistic in content and progressive in method. The author of the present paper feels, however, that too much theorizing is still blinding Italian educators. The canker of Transcendental Idealism is still gnawing at the efforts of all too many, also Catholic, thinkers. The “active schools” need renewed fervour, cogent Stimulation, and enlightened Inspiration from an integral Catholic philosophy of life. We must stop philosophizing and get down to realizing: experimentation and co-operative effort are badly needed, not less than clear ideas. Not words but deeds! Idealism had thought of itself being the all-inclusive answer to every problem. We must repeat Hamlet's word to the die-hard Idealist: “There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, Than are dreamt of in your philosophy”.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1007/BF01423725

ISSN: 1573-0638, 0020-8566

Article

Montessori Lecture in Philosophy Today

Available from: Columbia Spectator Archive

Publication: Columbia Spectator, vol. 59, no. 195

Pages: 2

Americas, Helen Parkhurst - Biographic sources, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori movement, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: "Miss Helen Parkhurst, United States Montessori Director, gave the third of her lectures on the Montessori Method in Room 307 Philosophy Hall Wednesday afternoon. Miss Parkhurst explained the meaning of 'education through the senses' and gave the history of some of the experiments that led to the discovery of Dr. Montessori's didactic material. In closing she made a plea for the establishment of educational experimental laboratories throughout the country. A copy of Dr. Montessori's pamphlet, 'The Organization of Intellectual Work in the School,' was given to each of the attendants at the lecture. Miss Parkhurst will continue her lectures in Room 307 Philosophy Hall on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays at 5:00 o'clock throughout July. Admission in free."

Language: English

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