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979 results

Report

Workforce Composition, Qualifications and Professional Development in Montessori Early Childhood Education and Care Settings in England

Available from: Open University

England, Europe, Great Britain, Northern Europe, United Kingdom

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Abstract/Notes: In England, the early childhood education and care (ECEC) workforce is largely characterised by a high proportion of young, female employees with lower than average qualification levels to comparable sectors, high staff turnover, poor pay, and restricted professional development opportunities, while carrying out demanding and responsible work. Within this context, the research reported here examined the workforce, professional development and qualifications of Montessori settings within the Montessori Schools Association (MSA) in England compared to the general ECEC sector in England. An online survey with a mix of closed and open text questions using the Qualtrics survey tool was administered through MSA from February - Summer 2020. A response rate of 22% was achieved with 77 responding settings. Key messages from findings were: Montessori settings reported well qualified, experienced staff and higher Ofsted ratings; nonetheless there were threats to maintaining qualification levels, difficulties in professional development and poor external recognition of Montessori qualifications; the future supply of trained Montessori workforce was insecure and currently has limited diversity; Montessori provision was more likely to be in areas of lower disadvantage and, within settings, higher qualified staff were most likely to be deployed with older children.

Language: English

Published: Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, 2020

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Long-Term Effects of Four Preschool Programs: Ninth- and Tenth-Grade Results

Available from: JSTOR

Publication: Child Development, vol. 55, no. 4

Pages: 1570-1587

Americas, Comparative education, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Follow-up of achievement test and IQ data on low-income black youths who had participated for 1 year in Bereiter-Engelmann, DARCEE, Montessori, or Traditional prekindergarten was continued through ninth and tenth grades. Stable trends persisted. Montessori males and DARCEE females were high; Montessori males were performing at about grade level on reading and math; IQs parallelled achievement test results. Additional tests of fluid intelligence, task persistence, self-esteem, divergent thinking, task approach, and aspirations and expectations were administered in ninth and tenth grades. Results from program comparisons and factor analyses were consistent with those on IQ and school achievement. The possibility of relationships between techniques used in the different preschool programs and sex differences in children's developmental level was discussed.

Language: English

DOI: 10.2307/1130027

ISSN: 0009-3920, 1467-8624

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Flip Flops, Dress Clothes, and No Coat: Clothing Barriers to Children's Physical Activity in Child-care Centers Identified from a Qualitative Study

Available from: BioMed Central

Publication: The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 6, no. 1

Pages: 74

Americas, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Three-quarters of 3-6 year-old children in the U.S. spend time in childcare; many spend most of their waking hours in these settings. Daily physical activity offers numerous health benefits, but activity levels vary widely across centers. This study was undertaken to explore reasons why physical activity levels may vary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize an unexpected finding that child-care providers cited was a key barrier to children's physical activity.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-6-74

ISSN: 1479-5868

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Lead It!: An App to Enable Persons With Dementia to Lead Group Activities for Their Peers

Available from: Oxford Academic

Publication: Innovation in Aging, vol. 4, no. Supplement 1

Pages: 274-275

Alzheimer's disease, Dementia, Gerontology, Montessori therapy, Montessori-based interventions (MBI)

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Abstract/Notes: LEAD IT! is an app that enables persons with early and middle stage dementia to lead activities for their peers—i.e., other persons with dementia (PWD). An alpha version of the app was tested in a Phase 1 SBIR project. The alpha version included three Montessori-inspired activities. While PWD ostensibly view LEAD IT! as a set of enjoyable activities, it is actually an evidenced-based intervention aimed at reducing responsive behaviors and enabling PWD to fill meaningful social roles. A total of 24 PWD participated in the Phase 1 study: five leaders and 19 players. LEAD IT! Programming was implemented for six weeks, twice per week. LEAD IT! produced higher levels of positive engagement and affect, and lower levels of negative engagement, as compared to standard, baseline activities—i.e., non-digital activities led by staff. More specifically, when compared to baseline programming, players exhibited an 82% increase in Constructive Engagement (P=0.000), 80% increase in Passive Engagement (P=0.000), 60% reduction in Other Engagement (P=0.035), and 171% increase in Pleasure (P=0.000). One limitation of the Phase 1 study is that, at least insofar as the intervention is only implemented twice per week for six weeks, the positive outcomes seem to be limited to the period of time during which PWD are participating in the activity—i.e., changes on global measures, such as quality of life and depression were not detected. Still, the promising results of this study suggest that LEAD IT! is worthy of further development and evaluation in a planned Phase 2 study.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1093/geroni/igaa057.878

ISSN: 2399-5300

Doctoral Dissertation

Tibetanization Project: Teachers' Meanings and Perspectives

Available from: University of Virginia

Asia, Displaced communities, India, Refugees, South Asia, Tibet

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Abstract/Notes: This study investigates meanings and perspectives of Tibetan elementary school teachers with regard to Tibetan medium education termed as the Tibetanization Project. It is a qualitative study in which assertions were generated based on common themes that emerged from the participating teachers' shared perspectives. The research questions that guided this study were: (a) What does Tibetanization mean to teachers in Tibetan Children's Village (TCV) schools in India? (b) How has the Tibetanization Project changed the instructional methods of teachers? (c) Has the Tibetanization Project made education more relevant for the Tibetan children? If so, how? If not, why not? (d) How do teachers perceive the Tibetan language and cultural acquisition among the children under the Tibetanization Project? and (e) How does Tibetan medium education affect the Tibetan people in exile? As a result of the research carried out: (1) The Tibetan teachers believe that although teaching of English as a subject is important, instruction solely in a foreign language at the primary school level can deter complete understanding of important concepts, and hinder acquisition of both languages, native and foreign. (2) In order to preserve the Tibetan language and give a quality education to Tibetan children, it is imperative to use the mother tongue as the medium of instruction at the primary school level. (3) The Tibetanization Project has encouraged active participation, critical thinking, and problem solving skills among Tibetan refugee students. (4) The Tibetanization Project has enriched Tibetan vocabulary both Tibetan teachers and students of elementary schools. (5) In spite of the above mentioned benefits, teachers still doubt the practicality of the Tibetanization Project in exile. (6) Teachers believe that a Tibetan medium education would be more practical if Tibet was a free country, but because that Tibetans live in exile, education in English medium is more vital for a successful life.

Language: English

Published: Charlottesville, Virginia, 2001

Master's Thesis

Charter School Authorizers and Programming: Searching for Best Practices in Michigan

Available from: Georgetown University

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Abstract/Notes: Compares Montessori, Core Knowledge and Art based Curricula. Policymakers lack hard evidence that points toward specific educational best practices for charter schools at the school and authorizer level. This study uses proficiency rates and scale scores on the MEAP standardized exam to identify differences in the effectiveness of authorizers, school-level practices, and curricula among charter schools in Michigan. Following the work of Carlson, Lavery, and Witte (2012), I compare university-authorized charter schools to district-authorized charter schools but find little difference in proficiency rates or scale scores in individual grades or for white, black, and FRL-eligible subgroups. However, I am able to specifically identify several authorizers in Michigan as having below-average performance. I also find significant achievement gains associated with schools that use Core Knowledge and Montessori curricula, no positive achievement effects associated with arts-based curricula, and negative effects from attending a virtual charter school. Finally, I conduct a secondary analysis of charter school expulsions and conclude that it is unlikely that the achievement effects I observe are related to differences in the expulsion policies of charter schools.

Language: English

Published: Washington, D.C., 2013

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

Self-Efficacy: A First-Generation American Educator Teaching in a Culturally Diverse Montessori Classroom

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research

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Abstract/Notes: This action research project investigated my teacher efficacy in a multicultural classroom with children ages 3 to 6. This was a self-study that I started during my first year of teaching in a private school in downtown Chicago. As a first generation American, I was the only participant. Throughout the four-week study, I responded to journal prompts where I reflected on daily readings of anti-bias literature and my past schooling experiences. I measured my teacher efficacy and confidence levels through weekly attitude scales and pre and post self-assessments. My emotions were tracked with tally sheets. The data showed an increase in positive emotions vs. negative emotions, higher confidence levels in teaching, and growth in confronting bias and engaging in discussions about anti-bias education. This study recommends further engagement in anti-bias media and taking the time to reflect before making decisions in my work as a teacher.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2020

Conference Paper

The Application of Student Portfolios in Primary/Intermediate and Self-Contained/Multi-Age Team Classroom Environments: Implications for Instruction, Learning, and Assessment

Available from: ERIC

Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association

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Abstract/Notes: Portfolios have gained wide acceptance as a learning and assessment tool. Yet, little research has been reported on the practices of teachers who are actually using portfolios within their classrooms and how those practices are moderated by contextual variables. This research examined the instructional, learning, and assessment roles of student portfolios, and explored, from the perspective of the classroom teacher, variations in portfolio applications associated with teaching level (primary versus intermediate) and classroom environment (self-contained versus multiage/teaming). Teachers for kindergarten through grade 5 in 3 elementary schools (n=314) completed a survey questionnaire regarding the instructional and assessment uses to which portfolios are put within their classrooms. To further examine patterns of portfolio use, a subset of 44 teachers was interviewed to explore teacher perceptions about the impact of student portfolios on themselves and their students. Results suggest that these teachers make deliberate decisions regarding uses of their students' portfolios, decisions that appear heavily impacted by the maturity or skill level of the child, the purposes of the application, and the classroom environment within which the application occurs. They also depend on whether the portfolio product is in a formative state (working portfolio) or final state (performance portfolio). (Contains 7 tables and 14 references.) (Author/SLD)

Language: English

Published: Montreal, Canada, Apr 19-24, 1994

Book Section

The Fifth Woman: Maria Montessori

Available from: Springer Link

Book Title: America's Early Montessorians: Anne George, Margaret Naumburg, Helen Parkhurst and Adelia Pyle

Pages: 37-57

Americas, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Chapter two presents a biography of Maria Montessori and describes the key elements in her method when George, Naumburg, Pyle, and Parkhurst were students in her training courses. By 1910, Montessori had constructed the core features of her educational theory, known as the Montessori Method. Her educational theory was based on her medical education at the University of Rome, her work with children with mental disabilities, her intensive reading of the pioneer special education educators, Itard and Sequin, pedagogical anthropology and her first school, the Casa dei Bambini, in 1908, in Rome’s impoverished San Lorenzo district. Montessori’s view of the child holistically encompassed physical, sensory, muscular, social, intellectual, and moral development. All children, she believed, like all people, shared a universal human nature which led to common modes of development. Focusing on early childhood education, ages three to six, Montessori’s key principles were: children need liberty to fulfill their inner need to develop fully through their own self-, or auto-education; their self-education is optimal in a prepared structured learning environment with accessible didactic apparatus and material which they are free to choose and work out their own self- development; the first level of instruction develops sensory, muscular, and practical skills which lead to higher level cognitive, cultural, and literary skills. Montessori was recognized as an educational innovator in Europe but not widely known in the United States. George, Naumburg, Pyle, and Parkhurst played significant roles in introducing Montessori to Americans and in implementing the Montessori Method in the United States.

Language: English

Published: Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020

ISBN: 978-3-030-54835-3

Series: Historical Studies in Education

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Appropriating the New: Progressive Education and Its (re)constructions by Spanish Schoolteachers

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education

Pages: 1-20

Europe, Montessori method of education, Southern Europe, Spain

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Abstract/Notes: In this article we attempt to explain how Spanish schoolteachers built their knowledge around Progressive Education and just how they assimilated these new teaching practices, a process we conceptualise as “appropriating the New”. Our source consists of the 287 files presented by state schoolteachers from all of Spain as part of their candidacy in the competitive exams held in 1932 for the position of school headteacher. These files, which contain the professional history of each of these teachers, elaborated by him or herself, allow us to analyse the discourses and practices developed and used in their classrooms. Drawing on these teachers’ accounts we have designed a typology with five different levels of appropriation of the ideas and practices of Progressive Education. These five categories are: 1.- Recognising the New; 2.- Understanding the New; 3.- Bonding with the New; 4.- Applying the New; 5.- Internalising the New. These levels, which represent the gradual implication of this sample of schoolteachers with the ideas of Progressive Education, bear witness to how their identification with these concepts led to a transformation of their teaching practices. We will then use this typology to study the appropriation of one of the best-known progressive ideas, i.e. self-government, which under the Second Republic of Spain in the 1930s acquired a particular political relevance.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/00309230.2021.1915346

ISSN: 0030-9230, 1477-674X

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