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Article

A Neuroscience-Based Learning Technique: Framework and Application to STEM

Available from: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

Publication: International Journal of Educational and Pedagogical Sciences, vol. 14, no. 3

Pages: 197-200

Montessori method of education, Neuroscience, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Existing learning techniques such as problem-based learning, project-based learning, or case study learning are learning techniques that focus mainly on technical details, but give no specific guidelines on learner’s experience and emotional learning aspects such as arousal salience and valence, being emotional states important factors affecting engagement and retention. Some approaches involving emotion in educational settings, such as social and emotional learning, lack neuroscientific rigorousness and use of specific neurobiological mechanisms. On the other hand, neurobiology approaches lack educational applicability. And educational approaches mainly focus on cognitive aspects and disregard conditioning learning. First, authors start explaining the reasons why it is hard to learn thoughtfully, then they use the method of neurobiological mapping to track the main limbic system functions, such as the reward circuit, and its relations with perception, memories, motivations, sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions, and sensations, as well as the brain cortex. The authors conclude explaining the major finding: The mechanisms of nonconscious learning and the triggers that guarantee long-term memory potentiation. Afterward, the educational framework for practical application and the instructors’ guidelines are established. An implementation example in engineering education is given, namely, the study of tuned-mass dampers for earthquake oscillations attenuation in skyscrapers. This work represents an original learning technique based on nonconscious learning mechanisms to enhance long-term memories that complement existing cognitive learning methods.

Language: English

Article

We in Our Turmoil: Theological Anthropology Through Maria Montessori and the Lives of Children

Available from: The University of Chicago Press Journals

Publication: The Journal of Religion, vol. 95, no. 3

Pages: 318-336

Feminism, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Spirituality

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Abstract/Notes: A few decades ago, a small stone of concern about whom theology excludes began rolling through the field of theology. It gained momentum as it gathered questions, including important ones in theological anthropology: What is the significance of the fact that almost all preserved writings pondering what it means to be human originate from monastic—and often privileged—men? And then: How might theological anthropology look different if authored by and attentive to different bodies? Various feminists and liberationists have identified the way patriarchy, whiteness, and power have determined theological discussion, and slowly mainstream theology has opened to these concerns. But there is another class of humans whose bodies have been insufficiently acknowledged in theological discourse: children. This neglect is especially grievous if Maria Montessori is right that children name not just one group of humanity among others, nor a phase on the path to adulthood, but an entire pole of humanity, one that must be kept in balance with the adult. By her lights, the child and adult are not just successive phases in an individual life but are “two different forms of human life, going on at the same time, and exerting upon one another reciprocal influence.” If childhood constitutes a “form of human life” rather than simply incomplete human life or a transitional phase preparing for adulthood, then the dearth of serious theological reflection on children should alarm scholars as a woeful imbalance in theological anthropology. In what follows, I continue the work of feminist and liberationist theologians by noting the importance of children to theological reflection. I do so, in particular, by establishing Montessori as a figure worthy of theological consideration. She did not profess to be a theologian, but Montessori’s observations of children can help us articulate a supple theological anthropology that offers a sophisticated and persuasive approach to original sin despite initial impressions. Her images of original sin depict a chain connecting the sin of Eden to the sin of Calvary to those neglecting “the least of these,” as she makes plain the way we are responsible for a fallenness that is yet beyond us. Montessori’s remarks on the nature and Christ-likeness of children advance a doctrine of original sin that helps to make sense of the darkness in the world even as she identifies sources of hope within it.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1086/681109

ISSN: 0022-4189

Report

Preschool Education for Inner-City Children: Preliminary Results of an Experimental Montessori Programme

Available from: ERIC

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Abstract/Notes: Early results from a Montessori nursery program initiated by Toronto, Canada, in 1971, to help inner-city children prepare for formal education indicate that the mothers of the 15 three- and four-year-old children were pleased with the program. Specifically, they felt that the children had increased their verbal skills, preparedness for junior kindergarten, and social maturity. However, not all mothers were pleased with the increased independence shown by some of the children. A study of the children's characteristics suggested that caution should be exerted in extrapolating the findings from other so-called disadvantaged children to inner-city children in one's own city. Other data are useful but the needs of a particular population must be carefully observed. When isolating deficiencies or identity needs, wholesale generalizations from superficial measures should not be made. Precise and explicit definitions should be made for such terms as deficient in language, intellectual motivation, or conceptual ability. Otherwise inadequate solutions are likely to result. (JS)

Language: English

Published: Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Nov 1971

Book

Scuola '92

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Abstract/Notes: Suddiviso in tre parti, il volume contiene contributi di analisi e di riflessioni sulle principali problematiche inerenti la scuola italiana, nonché una cronaca degli avvenimenti più significativi quali l'irrealizzata riforma della scuola superiore, la vicenda del contratto degli insegnanti scaduto nel 1990 e non ancora rinnovato, le conferenze di Maastricht e Rio, la legge sull'educazione sessuale e quella sull'handicap. La terza parte del volume è un utile strumento informativo per indirizzi, sedi istituzionali, associazioni, ecc. [Divided into three parts, the volume contains contributions of analysis and reflections on the main problems inherent in the Italian school, as well as a chronicle of the most significant events such as the unrealized reform of the high school, the story of the teachers' contract expired in 1990 and not yet renewed, the conferences of Maastricht and Rio, the law on sex education and the law on disabilities. The third part of the volume is a useful information tool for addresses, institutional offices, associations, etc.]

Language: Italian

Published: Bari, Italy: Laterza, 1993

ISBN: 88-420-4186-6 978-88-420-4186-3

Series: Universale Laterza , 746

Report

Experimental Variation of Head Start Curricula: A Comparison of Current Approaches. (November 1, 1969-January 31, 1970)

Available from: ERIC

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Abstract/Notes: This paper reports results of the first year of a 2-year comparative study of four curricula used for disadvantaged preschool children: Bereiter-Engelmann, DARCEE, Montessori, and Traditional (the official Head Start program). Details of the study design and procedures are contained in the abbreviated Annual Progress Report for 1968-1969 (PS 003 034). Treatment (program) dimensions were assessed by in-class monitoring of teachers and children using a time-sampling procedure, and by video-tape monitoring of teachers in their classrooms. Significant differences were found among the four curricula on a number of dimensions of behavior for both teachers and children, most of these differences being in predicted directions. Treatment effects were assessed by use of a variety of cognitive, social, motivational, perceptual, and achievement measures. Programs had significantly different effects on the children with respect to a number of variables measured, such as curiosity, initiative, arithmetic, and verbal participation. Preliminary regression analyses on the relationship between teaching techniques monitored in class and dependent variables have produced multiple R's between .229 and .419 and partial R's between - .293 and .307. No interpretation has been made, pending the inclusion of variables from the video-tape monitoring. (Author/NH)

Language: English

Published: Louisville, Kentucky, Jan 31, 1970

Article

Managing Your Multi-Age Classroom

Publication: Teaching Pre K-8, vol. 25, no. 1

Pages: 68-73

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Abstract/Notes: Examines the advantages of teaching in a multiage elementary classroom and discusses specific techniques that work well with children of different ages and abilities. Suggests that teachers need to integrate material as much as possible, balance large- and small-group activities, and utilize cooperative teams made up of students from each age group. (MDM)

Language: English

ISSN: 0891-4508

Article

Movement Matters: Observing the Benefits of Movement Practice

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 26, no. 4

Pages: 30-37

⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori's first premise is that movement and cognition are closely entwined, and movement can enhance thinking and learning (Lillard, 2005). Children must move, and practice moving, to develop strength, balance, and the stability needed to fully participate in the rigors of daily life. It is imperative for young children's motor development that, on a daily basis, parents and teachers give children opportunities for physical activity. Children need time to explore, walk, run, climb, touch, smell, see, and hear the natural world. It is also imperative that teachers begin to implement opportunities for gross-motor development within classrooms. As a physical educator and movement specialist, Melani Fuchs observes children and adults in the four phases of motor development: Reflexive, Rudimentary, Fundamental, and Specialized. Here she explains that each phase lays the foundation for the phase that follows it. In this article Fuchs explains each phase and details their natural developmental progression. Having seen a need for a classroom Movement curriculum after working with special needs children within a Montessori environment, Fuchs, in collaboration with professor Diane Craft, a faculty member of the Physical Education Department at the State University of New York at Cortland, created "Movement Matters: A Movement Album for Montessori Early Childhood Programs" (Fuchs, M. & Craft, D., 2012). The album provides a developmentally appropriate Movement curriculum for Early Childhood and early Elementary programs, with in-depth explanations and illustrations of motor development concepts. As teachers cultivate an understanding of these concepts, they develop new insights and, ultimately, new techniques to assess and assist children's pathways to mature movement skills. Teachers will find practical suggestions for leading children in physical activities as well as a discussion of Maria Montessori's philosophy regarding movement. The album's lesson plans and activities are written specifically to give teachers the means to normalize movement in the classroom (to make movement a "right" choice), thus accommodating the child's natural need to move. The lessons encourage children to move to learn, to understand movement concepts, to master movement skills, to develop self-awareness, and to become joyful, healthy movers.

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Doctoral Thesis

La plusdotazione in classe: le percezioni di alcuni insegnanti, genitori e dirigenti veneti

Available from: AMS Dottorato - Institutional Theses Repository (University of Bologna Digital Library)

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Abstract/Notes: La plusdotazione è un’interazione di fattori biologici e contestuali (Gagné, 2001). Tuttavia, fin dal passato, si tende a far rientrare in questa categoria i soggetti che dimostrano un quoziente intellettivo (Q.I.) sopra la media, privilegiando i fattori ritenuti “biologici”. La normativa scolastica identifica le caratteristiche dei bambini con plusdotazione (gifted children) come bisogni educativi speciali (BES), dato confermato anche da alcune ricerche (De Angelis, 2017; Pinnelli, 2019) e sancito dalla recente nota ministeriale n. 562 del 3 aprile 2019, rimarcando così quella “specialità” propria di chi dimostra difficoltà o svantaggio (Dovigo, 2014b). Il campione di ricerca è costituito da: 37 insegnanti di scuola primaria; 15 genitori e 3 dirigenti scolastici. Gli insegnanti sono stati raggruppati in 6 focus group, mentre i genitori e i dirigenti hanno partecipato a una intervista individuale. Tutti gli incontri sono stati audio registrati e poi trascritti. I dati, poi, sono stati analizzati con il software NVivo. Le percezioni di alcuni insegnanti della scuola primaria, di alcuni dirigenti e genitori dimostrano il prevalere di un approccio medico, dove l’etichetta avrebbe la priorità nel riconoscere la plusdotazione nei bambini, per adottare, di conseguenza, delle pratiche sbilanciate sul versante cognitivo. La priorità sembra data al punteggio del QI piuttosto che al riconoscimento e alla valorizzazione dei talenti. Il considerare lo sviluppo dei talenti, attraverso un approccio bio-psico sociale (con riferimento all’ICF (OMS, 2001), ci induce a spostare il focus sulle potenzialità e sui talenti di ciascuno, e interrogarci su una possibile didattica dei talenti. Il passaggio è fondamentale se vogliamo dare maggiore importanza al ruolo dell’insegnante, che non può e non deve essere quello di un “assistente” al clinico, intento a individuare difficoltà, disturbi e bisogni “speciali”, ma promotore di apprendimento, facendo leva sui talenti di tutti, verso un modello di "scuola dei talenti" (Baldacci, 2002; Margiotta, 2018).

Language: Italian

Doctoral Dissertation

The Developmental Psychology of Maria Montessori (Italy)

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori is historically recognized for her contributions to early education. Her primary recognition derived from the comprehensive educational program which became known as the Montessori Method. Relatively little attention has focused on her background as physician, psychiatrist, and pedagogical psychologist, from which she developed a body of psychological knowledge which established the foundation of the well-known Method. Her pedagogical psychology was overshadowed by her pedagogical theory despite her secure position in the history of child psychiatry. Also contributing to the non-acceptance of Montessori's psychology was the psychological tenor of the times. In the forefront of the psychological movement in the early 1900's were psychometric testing, Freud's psycho-sexual stages, Thorndike's stimulus-response theory, and the emergence of behaviorism under the leadership of Watson, to name a few. This climate was not hospitable to Montessori's developmental-interactionist theory. In the 1960's through the research findings of psychologists and the availability of Federal funds to compensate the "cumulative deficits" of the disadvantaged child, interest was focused on early childhood education and consequently the Montessori Method. As psychologists embraced Piaget's developmental theory, resemblances in thinking between Piaget and Montessori were noted. While psychologists pointed to Montessori's developmental-interactionist ideas, nobody attempted to elaborate her developmental theory in toto. This study attempts to do so. For Montessori, the development of the child takes place in successive and qualitatively different stages, with each stage providing the foundation for succeeding stages. Within this framework, she clearly delineates cognitive, motor, language, socialization, personality, and character as developing through stages. Cognitive structures develop through the child's interaction with, and actions upon, objects in the environment. A thorough examination of her theory leaves no doubt that Montessori is a cognitive developmentalist. While at times she appears nativistic, and at other times an extreme environmentalist, her position on development is interactionist and constructivist. Montessori is historically recognized for her contributions to early education. Her primary recognition derived from the comprehensive educational program which became known as the Montessori Method. Relatively little attention has focused on her background as physician, psychiatrist, and pedagogical psychologist, from which she developed a body of psychological knowledge which established the foundation of the well-known Method. Her pedagogical psychology was overshadowed by her pedagogical theory despite her secure position in the history of child psychiatry. Also contributing to the non-acceptance of Montessori's psychology was the psychological tenor of the times. In the forefront of the psychological movement in the early 1900's were psychometric testing, Freud's psycho-sexual stages, Thorndike's stimulus-response theory, and the emergence of behaviorism under the leadership of Watson, to name a few. This climate was not hospitable to Montessori's developmental-interactionist theory. In the 1960's through the research findings of psychologists and the availability of Federal funds to compensate the "cumulative deficits" of the disadvantaged child, interest was focused on early childhood education and consequently the Montessori Method. As psychologists embraced Piaget's developmental theory, resemblances in thinking between Piaget and Montessori were noted. While psychologists pointed to Montessori's developmental-interactionist ideas, nobody attempted to elaborate her developmental theory in toto. This study attempts to do so. For Montessori, the development of the child takes place in successive and qualitatively different stages, with each stage providing the foundation for succeeding stages. Within this framework, she clearly delineates cognitive, motor, language, socialization, personality, and character as developing through stages. Cognitive structures develop through the child's interaction with, and actions upon, objects in the environment. A thorough examination of her theory leaves no doubt that Montessori is a cognitive developmentalist. While at times she appears nativistic, and at other times an extreme environmentalist, her position on development is interactionist and constructivist. In contemporary terms her "psychopedagogy" would be considered an action psychology, which basically precludes it from academic "respectibility". Her theory contains both strengths and weaknesses in light of present-day thinking; however, on balance, Montessori's theory is quite contemporary and remarkably ahead of most of the psychological thinking of her time.

Language: English

Published: New York, 1982

Article

Maria Montessori: l'errore e il suo controllo

Publication: Scuola italiana moderna, vol. 96

Pages: 9-10

, premi, punizioni

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Language: Italian

ISSN: 0036-9888

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