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512 results

Doctoral Dissertation

A Comparison of Traditional vs. Montessori Education in Relation to Children's Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy, and Prosocial Behavior

Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

Academic achievement, Americas, Caribbean, Comparative education, Elementary education, Latin America and the Caribbean, Montessori schools, Puerto Rico, Student attitudes

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Abstract/Notes: The present study compares elementary school children from Traditional and Montessori programs. The purpose is to investigate how different educational philosophies and teaching methods affect perceived levels of self-esteem, self-efficacy, prosocial behavior and aggressive behavior in children. The participants in this study consisted of second through sixth grade students who were attending Montessori and Traditional schools since the age of five, or earlier. All children completed the Washington Self-Description Questionnaire (WSDQ), three subscales of the Children's Multi-dimensional Self-Efficacy Scales (i.e., academic achievement, self-regulated learning, & social), the Physical and Verbal Aggression Scale, and the Prosocial Behavior Scale. No significant differences were revealed between the Montessori and Traditional programs in relation to the children's perceived levels of self-esteem, self-efficacy for academic achievement, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, social self-efficacy, or prosocial behavior. However, the Montessori children reported significantly lower levels of physical/verbal aggression than the Traditional children. Moreover, as Montessori children develop a heightened ability to work within a group of peers, they seem to develop lower levels of physical/verbal aggression, which was not found among Traditional children. Furthermore, Montessori children's perceived ability to make and keep friends of the same gender was found to significantly improve with increased years in the program, which was not found in the Traditional method. For Montessori children, their perceived ability to work together in a group was found to be positively associated with heightened levels of self-efficacy for academic achievement and self-efficacy for self-regulated learning. Furthermore, the Montessori children's levels of self-esteem were correlated significantly with their perceived levels of self-efficacy for academic achievement and self-efficacy for self-regulated learning. Although Traditional children were also found to gain self-efficacy for self-regulated learning through working together at young ages, as they proceed to higher grade levels, their self-efficacy for self-regulated learning decreased.

Language: English

Published: San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2002

Article

Supporting Sensory-Sensitive Children in a Sensory-Intensive World

Available from: ProQuest

Publication: Montessori Life, vol. 29, no. 1

Pages: 34-39

Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, Sensory disorders in children, Sensory integration dysfunction in children, ⛔ No DOI found

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Abstract/Notes: For American children with educational challenges, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (or DSM-5) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), is critically important because inclusion of a disorder in the DSM-5 allows for treatment and support to be paid for by the child's public school district if it interferes with his or her educational achievement. Early parent observation of sensory differences is often a child's first reported sign of autism, occurring as early as 9-12 months of age (Murray-Slutsky & Paris, 2000; Baranek, 2002). * Sensory profiles can distinguish among children with autism, children with ADHD, and children without those diagnoses (Tomchek & Dunn, 2007; Yochman, Parush, & Ornoy, 2004). * Well-developed sensory integration has strong correlation with academic achievement and cognitive processing. Early detection and management of sensory challenges can tie to predicting later academic performance deficits (Parham, 1998; Koenig & Rudney, 2010). * In a review of studies examining links between SI and ADHD, sensory-motor abilities of children with ADHD were lower than those of a control group. Other literature examines connections with disorders ranging from fragile X syndrome, mood disorders, behavioral disorders, and nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) to physically based conditions, such as premature birth, prenatal drug exposure, cerebral palsy/spina bifida/ Down syndrome, language delay, and other learning disabilities, as well as environmentally caused deficits, including abuse, neglect, or trauma.

Language: English

ISSN: 1054-0040

Master's Thesis (Action Research Report)

The Effects of a Peace Curriculum on Reducing and Resolving Conflicts Among Children Ages 3-6 Years

Available from: St. Catherine University

Action research

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Abstract/Notes: An important part of a child’s development is learning how to relate to other children appropriately (Sidorowicz & Hair, 2009). The purpose of this study was to determine whether teaching children about peace would help them to reduce or resolve conflicts in the classroom. The study took place in a suburban Montessori classroom of 26 children, ages three to six years. The Research Methodology section of this Action Research report details the peace lessons and materials used in the peace curriculum. The data collection included observations of children’s conflicts and resolutions, conferences with the children and teachers, and children’s journal writings. The results of the study determined that, as the peace curriculum was implemented, there was a clear reduction in the number of daily conflicts among the children. Also, children involved in conflicts shifted from requiring a lot of teacher involvement to resolve their conflicts to needing little or no teacher involvement in the resolution. Suggested further research includes expanding the peace curriculum lessons over the entire year. In addition, further lessons and work could be added.

Language: English

Published: St. Paul, Minnesota, 2015

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Effectiveness of Montessori Sensorial Training Program for Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities in Pakistan: A Randomized Control Trial

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: International Journal of Disability, Development and Education

Pages: 1-11

Asia, Children with disabilities, Developmentally disabled children, Pakistan, Sensorial education, Sensorial materials, South Asia

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Abstract/Notes: Intellectual disability is a serious lifelong disability that places heavy demands on society and the health system. The study was designed to determine the extent to which the intellectually challenged children are capable of improving their cognitive abilities as well as adaptive functioning through the Montessori Sensorial Training program when introduced in a different setting (i.e. special education school system). With randomised control trial (RCT) of pre-and post-testing, 30 children with mild intellectual disabilities were randomly allocated to Montessori Sensorial Training intervention condition (n = 15) and waitlist control condition (n = 15). The intervention group showed significant improvement in cognitive abilities (i.e. classification, seriation, recognition, ordination, and visual and auditory discrimination) as compared to the control group at post-assessment. Children who received training also showed improvement in communication and self-care domain as compared to the control group. This study provides evidence that Montessori Sensorial Training is not only effective for children going to mainstream schools but also for children with intellectual disabilities. Despite some limitations, the results of the study are encouraging and suggesting that Montessori Sensorial Training is an effective intervention to facilitate self-based learning, independence, and decision-making skills in children with mild intellectual disabilities.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/1034912X.2021.2016657

ISSN: 1034-912X

Article

Integrated Edcuaton of Healthy Children and Children with Multiple and Variable Disorders

Publication: Communications (Association Montessori Internationale, 195?-2008), vol. 1981, no. 1/2

Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Special education

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Language: English

ISSN: 0519-0959

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

I bambini alla conquista di sé con la vita pratica / Niños a la conquista de sí mismos con la vida práctica / Children conquering themselves with the practical life

Available from: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

Publication: RELAdEI (Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Infantil), vol. 3, no. 3

Pages: 75-96

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Abstract/Notes: L’autrice studia il campo di applicazione delle attività della «vita pratica» sviluppate da Maria Montessori, che costituiscono i fondamenti principali nella Casa dei Bambini (3-6 anni). Queste sono sovente considerate meno importanti delle altre attività in quanto non sono strettamente congiunte all’apprendimento accademico di base. Dopo averne spiegato le origini, l’autrice presenta varie definizioni, soffermandosi sulla differenza tra i «giochi di far finta» e le attività della vita pratica. Dopo aver commentato le classificazioni più importanti, presenta gli obiettivi che queste attività raggiungono affinché la personalità del bambino si sviluppi in maniera integrale. Ciò viene mostrato tramite numerosi esempi osservati in tutto il mondo. È dimostrato che le attività della «vita pratica» rispondo alle profonde necessità che il bambino ha di muoversi e lavorare facendo uso delle sue grossolane abilità motorie. Si sottolinea il nesso tra questo lavoro e lo sviluppo del pensiero matematico, che mostra come queste attività sviluppano le funzioni esecutive del cervello. Spesso l’adulto, cercando di evitare di far stancare il bambino, produce l’effetto contrario e dunque non gli permette di produrre lavori autentici, come al bambino piacerebbe. Vengono analizzate le preparazioni necessarie dell’ambiente e del modo di presentare queste attività. C’è un interesse particolare nell’analisi e nell’economia dei movimenti, temi prediletti da Maria Montessori. L’autrice descrive anche i principi più importanti che devono guidare la selezione dei materiali, che diversamente da altre aree del lavoro non sono scientifiche e dunque lasciano maggiori opportunità di creatività alle maestre. / La autora investiga el campo de aplicación de las actividades de la “vida práctica” desarrolladas por Maria Montessori, que constituyen la base fundamental en la Casa dei Bambini (3-6 años). Éstas son muchas veces consideradas menos importantes que otras actividades porque no están íntimamente ligadas al aprendizaje académico básico. Después de explicar sus orígenes, la autora presenta varias definiciones, para, a continuación, centrarse en las diferencias entre el “juego simbólico” y las actividades de la vida práctica. Después de comentar las clasificaciones más importantes, se presentan los objetivos que logran estas actividades para que la personalidad del niño se desarrolle de una forma integral. Se ilustra a través de numerosos ejemplos observados en todo el mundo. Está demostrado que las actividades de la “vida práctica” responden a las profundas necesidades que el niño tiene de moverse y trabajar usando sus habilidades motoras gruesas. Se hace hincapié en la conexión entre este trabajo y el desarrollo del pensamiento matemático, que muestra cómo estas actividades desarrollan las funciones ejecutivas del cerebro. Muchas veces el adulto, tratando de evitar cansar al niño, produce el efecto contrario y así, no permite al niño producir trabajos auténticos como al niño le gustaría. Se analiza también la preparación necesaria del ambiente y del modo de presentar estas actividades. Hay un interés particular en el análisis y la economía de movimientos, temas preferidos por Maria Montessori. La autora también describe los principios más importantes que deben guiar la selección de materiales que, en contra de lo que sucede en otras áreas de trabajo no son científicos, por lo tanto, dejan más oportunidades de creatividad a las profesoras. / The author investigates the scope of “Practical Life” activities developed by Maria Montessori that are mainly found in the Children’s House (3-6 years). These are often regarded less important than other activities because they are not closely linked to basic academic learning. After explaining their origin, the author presents several definitions, pausing to focus on the distinction between “pretend” games and practical life activities. After commenting on the major classifications, she presents the objectives that these activities accomplish so that the personality of the child is developed in an integral way. This is illustrated with numerous examples observed from around the world. It is shown that practical life activities respond to the deep needs that the child has to move and work using their gross motor skills. The link between this work and the development of mathematical thinking is also noted, showing how these activities develop the executive functions of the brain. Many times the adult, trying to avoid tiring out the children, produces the opposite effect and therefore does not allow the children to produce authentic work as they would have liked. The necessary preparations of the environment and the way of presenting these activities are analyzed. There is a particular appeal to the analysis and economy of movements, themes that are dear to Maria Montessori. The author also describes the main principles that should guide the choice of materials, which, unlike that of other areas of work, is not scientific and therefore leaves more opportunity for creativity to teachers.

Language: Italian

ISSN: 2255-0666

Report

Preschool Education for Inner-City Children: Preliminary Results of an Experimental Montessori Programme

Available from: ERIC

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Abstract/Notes: Early results from a Montessori nursery program initiated by Toronto, Canada, in 1971, to help inner-city children prepare for formal education indicate that the mothers of the 15 three- and four-year-old children were pleased with the program. Specifically, they felt that the children had increased their verbal skills, preparedness for junior kindergarten, and social maturity. However, not all mothers were pleased with the increased independence shown by some of the children. A study of the children's characteristics suggested that caution should be exerted in extrapolating the findings from other so-called disadvantaged children to inner-city children in one's own city. Other data are useful but the needs of a particular population must be carefully observed. When isolating deficiencies or identity needs, wholesale generalizations from superficial measures should not be made. Precise and explicit definitions should be made for such terms as deficient in language, intellectual motivation, or conceptual ability. Otherwise inadequate solutions are likely to result. (JS)

Language: English

Published: Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Nov 1971

Article

✓ Peer Reviewed

Cognitive Performance in Montessori and Nursery School Children

Available from: Taylor and Francis Online

Publication: The Journal of Educational Research, vol. 62, no. 9

Pages: 411-416

Americas, Cognition, Comparative education, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., North America, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: Cognitive performance was measured in fourteen pairs of children, matched in social class, CA, sex and IQ, selected from a Montessori and from a “traditional” nursery school. No differences were found between the parents in these schools on such measures of social and parental attitudes and behavior as: achievement orientation, traditional family ideology, dogmatism, anomie, parental control behavior, or task oriented vs. person oriented values. The nursery school children were significantly more creative on a measure of non-verbal creativity, were more socially oriented, and less task oriented than the Montessori children.Style of approach to tests was felt to be a critical outcome of the two educational environments. The Montessori children used significantly more physical characteristics to describe commonplace objects, whereas significantly more functional terms were used by the nursery school children in their descriptions. Montessori children’s drawings had people present significantly less often and geometric forms significantly more often than the nursery school children’s drawings.

Language: English

DOI: 10.1080/00220671.1969.10883885

ISSN: 0022-0671

Book Section

A Bibliography on Children for Parents, Focusing Upon Special Children

Book Title: Montessori and the Special Child

Pages: 150-152

Bibliographies, Children with disabilities, Inclusive education, Montessori method of education, Special education

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Language: English

Published: New York: Putnam, 1969

Master's Thesis

Patterns of Concentration in Montessori Preschools: Investigating Concentration When Children are Free to Choose Their Own Work

Available from: University of Virginia

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Abstract/Notes: One key characteristic of Montessori classrooms is that children freely choose to engage with whatever they are most interested in. A common concern about Montessori is thus whether students will concentrate on their work throughout the day, and even whether they will actually choose to work at all. We completed 115 observations of children in Montessori Primary classrooms (ages 3-6), coding for children’s concentration and activity across two to three hours in the morning. The best fitting model of concentration across time was a quartic model, including age. This model indicated that 3-year-olds had two bouts of concentration, with a brief period of fatigue mid-morning. Four-year-olds showed an increased ability to concentrate across the entire morning, with minimal indication of fatigue. Five-year-olds showed a higher level of concentration than their younger peers, and were able to concentrate longer than the 3-year-olds, but this was followed by a period of fatigue. These findings are in line with Montessori theory, and suggest that children do freely choose to concentrate on their work. In regard to activities that children chose to do, we found children choose to spend a majority of the time engaged in work. Further, children distributed their time across all areas of the classroom, indicating that choice does not limit their exposure to any one area of learning.

Language: English

Published: Charlottesville, Virginia, 2020

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