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Article

Montessori Activities in India [Besant Montessori School, Juhu; Montessori Training Centre, Adyar; Shishu Vihar Montessori School, Yeotmal, Berar]

Publication: The Montessori Magazine: A Quarterly Journal for Teachers, Parents and Social Workers (India), vol. 2, no. 2

Pages: 122-123

Annie Besant Montessori School (Juhu), Asia, India, Montessori Training Centre (Adyar), Shishu Vihar Montessori School (Yeotmal), South Asia

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Language: English

Master's Thesis

A Casa das Crianças: Três Modelos de Espaços Escolares Montessori [Children's Space: Three Models of Montessori Schools]

Available from: Universidade do Porto - Repositório Aberto

Europe, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Portugal, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: A escola é um local de conexão do ser humano com o que o rodeia e, por isso é mais do que um espaço para educar. É o abrigo que acolhe e promove um processo educativo e de crescimento. A relação entre arquitetura e pedagogia, entende-se na medida em que o desenho do espaço é um instrumento pedagógico e, essa conexão entre as duas áreas é intensifcada pelas transformações na sociedade, que por sua vez têm infuenciado o desenho do espaço de ensino. A partir do século XIX e XX a introdução de novos métodos de ensino refetiu-se numa nova forma de olhar para as crianças e numa crescente preocupação com a pedagogia. Estes modelos inovadores distanciam-se da rigidez dos modelos tradicionais e, são ainda hoje pouco reconhecidos. As escolas Montessori representam essa nova forma de olhar para a educação e respondem às questões pedagógicas desenvolvidas por Maria Montessori, nas quais as crianças são seres independentes e são o centro de todo o processo educativo. Carateriza-se por ser uma pedagogia, que tal como o espaço a ela destinado, é complexa e pensada ao detalhe para satisfazer as necessidades de seres autónomos. Ao mesmo tempo, a principal caraterística da nova educação é a liberdade, que por sua vez se vê refetida no espaço arquitetónico, em espacialidades fexíveis e que permitem maior variedade de ocupação. Além disso, a pedagogia Montessori requer um ambiente de ensino estimulante à aprendizagem, que confere à criança a independência necessária na sociedade atual. Com isto, a presente Dissertação de Mestrado, "A casa das Crianças: Três Modelos de Espaços Escolares Montessori", pretende perceber de que forma a arquitetura responde ao próprio método Montessori, através de vários casos de estudo como por exemplo: A Casa das Crianças Viena (1922) de Franz Schuster, a Escola Montessori de Delft (1960/66) de Herman Hertzberguer e o Fuji Kindergarten projetado pelos Tezuka Architects (2007). A análise destes casos em detalhe, permitiu entender o espaço escolar Montessori através de temas comuns como: a relação ente a Escola e Cidade, o espaço de distribuição da escola, a sala Montessori e todos os espaços que a compõe, e o espaço exterior. / School is a connection place between humans and their surroundings, it is more than a place to teach. It is the shelter that welcomes and promotes both an educational and a growth process. The relation between architecture and pedagogy is understood as a pedagogical instrument and this relation is intensifed by changes in society, which in turn have infuenced the design of the teaching space. From the 19th and 20th century, the introduction of new teaching methods resulted in new ways of looking at children and in a growing concern with pedagogy. This happened as a reflection of introducing new teaching methods. These innovative models block the rigidity of traditional models and nowadays, they're not so recognized. Montessori schools represent this new way of looking at education created by Maria Montessori, where children are independent beings and are the center of the educational process. This pedagogy is known by being complex and designed to detail to satisfy the need of autonomous beings. Just like the space for them. At the same time, the main characteristic of the new education is freedom, that is refected in the architectural space too, with fexible spaces that allow childrens appropriation. Montessori Pedagogy requires a teaching environment that encourages learning, giving the child the independence needed in today's society. So, this master's thesis, Children's Space: Three Models of Montessori Schools, shows how architecture to the Montesssori Method principles, throught various study cases like: Children's House in Viena (1922) by Franz Schuster, a primary Montessori School in Delft (1960/66) by Herman Hertzberguer and the Fuji Kindergarten designed by Tezuka Architects (2007). The study of these and more cases, revealed the Montessori Spaces through themes like: The School and the City, The School distribution, The Montessory Classroom and The Outdoor Space.

Language: Portuguese

Published: Porto, Portugal, 2021

Book

The Montessori Method: The Origins of an Educational Innovation, Including an Abridged and Annotated Edition of Maria Montessori's 'The Montessori Method'

Available from: Internet Archive

Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Maria Montessori - Writings, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - History

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Abstract/Notes: An essential resource for all students and scholars of early childhood education, this book offers a rich array of material about Maria Montessori and the Montessori Method. Distinguished education scholar Gerald Gutek begins with an in-depth biography of Montessori, exploring how a determined young woman overcame the obstacles that blocked her educational and career opportunities in Italy during the late Victorian age. The author then analyzes the sources and influences that shaped the Montessori philosophy of education. After laying the foundation for Montessori's development, Gutek presents an annotated and abridged edition of The Montessori Method (1912), the seminal work that introduced her educational innovations to a U.S. audience. The book concludes with key historical documents, including disciple Anne E. George's notes on the Montessori lectures and William H. Kilpatrick's critique of the Montessori method. Preserving the historical context of Montessori's contribution, Gutek also shows the continuing relevance of her thought to educational reform in the twenty-first century.

Language: English

Published: Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2004

ISBN: 978-0-7425-1911-4 978-0-7425-1912-1

Article

Modernost pedagoške koncepcije Marije Montessori [The contemporariness of Maria Montessori’s pedagogical concept / Modernität der pädagogischen Konzeption von Maria Montessori]

Available from: Hrčak - Portal of Croatian scientific and professional journals

Publication: Pedagogijska istraživanja, vol. 8, no. 2

Pages: 205-216

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Abstract/Notes: U zadnjim desetljećima sve veći broj znanstvenika i pedagoga praktičara pokazuje interes za Montessori pedagogiju, provjerava je u praksi i potvrđuje da je riječ o modernoj, vremenu primjerenoj pedagogiji koja odgovara na razvojne potrebe suvremene djece i mladih. Brojna istraživanja pokazuju kako djeca iz Montessori škola, u usporedbi s djecom iz standardnih škola, pokazuju bolju motivaciju za učenje, višestruke interese, samostalnost i pozitivan odnos prema učenju te veću odgovornost prema zajednici. Istraživanja euroznanosti i razvojne psihologije potvrđuju postavke Montessori pedagogije o individualnom planu razvoja, koji prolazi određene stupnjeve (senzibilna razdoblja, prozori učenja) te o potrebi didaktički obliko vanog okruženja kao pomoći u individualnom razvoju. Zahtjev za slobodom, samostalnosti i samoaktivnosti Montessori je, za razliku od emancipatorske pedagogije i sociokonstruktivizma, postavila u okvire razvojne i moralne slobode i jasno defi nirala uvjete slobode i pretpostavke samostalnosti djeteta. Sloboda shvaćena kao izgradnja kompetencija za djelovanje – cilj je, ali i put, koji dijete prolazi u svome razvoju i na kojemu treba sigurnost, zaštićenost, praćenje i pomoć odraslih. Modernost Montessori pedagogije treba tražiti u znanstveno utemeljenoj psihologiji razvoja, u pedagoški oblikovanoj ponudi učenja i u pedagoškom etosu odgajatelja. [In recent decades an increasing number of scholars and pedagogues have been showing interest in the educational approach developed by Maria Montessori, applying it in practice and arguing that it is a modern and timely pedagogy that responds to the developmental needs of contemporary children and youth. Numerous surveys show that children educated in Montessori schools, in comparison to children educated in standard schools, demonstrate a greater motivation to learn, have a multiplicity of interests, display independence and a positive stance towards learning, as well as an increased sense of responsibility towards the community. Research in neuroscience and developmental psychology confi rms the hypotheses laid down by Montessori pedagogy about the individual development plan as evolving through certain stages (sensitive periods, learning windows) and about the need to have a didactically formulated environment that will support individual development. Unlike the emancipatory pedagogy and socio-constructivism, Montessori has placed the requirement for freedom, autonomy and self-activity within the bounds of a developmental and moral freedom and clearly defi ned the conditions of the freedom and the assumptions of the child’s autonomy. Freedom interpreted as a development of competencies for action represents the aim, but also the journey a child goes through during the development period when it needs safety, protection, attention and support from the adults. The contemporariness of Montessori pedagogy is to be found in scientifically-based developmental psychology, in pedagogically formulated teaching and in the pedagogical ethos of the teacher. / In den letzten Jahrzehnten wächst die Zahl von Wissenschaft lern und pädagogischen Praktikern, die sich mit der Montessori-Pädagogik beschäft igen, ihre Th esen in der Praxis überprüfen und die Meinung vertreten, dass es um eine moderne, zeitgemäße Pädagogik handelt, die auf Entwicklungsbedürfnisse der heutigen Kinder und Jugendlichen antwortet. Zahlreiche Untersuchungen bestätigen, dass die Kinder aus den Montessori-Schulen im Vergleich mit den Kindern aus den Standardschulen eine höhere Lernmotivation, vielfältigere Interessen, Selbständigkeit und positives Verhältnis zum Lernen sowie eine größere Verantwortung gegenüber der Gemeinschaft besitzen. Die im Rahmen von Neurowissenschaft en und Entwicklungspsychologie unternommenen Untersuchungen bestätigen die Hypothesen der Montessori-Pädagogik über den individuellen Entwicklungsplan, der bestimmte Stufen durchläuft (sensible Etappen, Lernfenster) sowie die Notwendigkeit einer didaktisch gestalteten Umwelt als individueller Entwicklungshilfe. Die Forderung nach der Freiheit, Selbständigkeit und Selbstaktivität stellte Montessori, im Unterschied zu emanzipatorischer Pädagogik und sozialem Konstruktivismus in den Rahmen der moralischen und Entwicklungsfreiheit und defi nierte klar die Voraussetzungen für die Freiheit und Selbständigkeit des Kindes. Die Freiheit, begriff en als Aufb au von Handlungskompetenzen, stellt das Ziel, aber auch den Weg dar, den das Kind in seiner Entwicklung zurücklegt und auf dem es Sicherheit, Geborgenheit, Hilfe und Aufsicht durch Erwachsene benötigt. Die Modernität der Montessori-Pädagogik ist in der wissenschaft lich begründeten Entwicklungspsychologie, in den pädagogisch aufb ereiteten Lernangeboten und dem pädagogischen Ethos der Erzieher zu suchen.]

Language: Croatian

ISSN: 1334-7888

Book

Aid to Life: Montessori Beyond the Classroom

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Abstract/Notes: In this book the author shares stories based on fifty years of Montessori work in thirty countries, first as a teacher of children from 2-13 in Montessori schools, then discovering new ways to use Montessori principles in a variety of situations—all aimed at inspiring, and providing practical ideas, to parents and teachers today. Here are some examples of her stories: preparing a group of elementary students in the Virgin Islands to run the class on their own; learning how to teach Montessori with no Montessori materials in a private girls school in Peru; applying Montessori in everyday situations by means of a Q and A newspaper column (twenty topics including self-esteem, preparing the home for a newborn, multiple intelligences, teenage troubles, homeschooling, and more); helping poor village children in a boarding school in Kathmandu, and blind children in Tibet; meeting with five other Montessori teachers, doctors, philosophers, educators, scientists, and the Dalai Lama in Sikkim to solve the country’s educational problems; visiting a school where Montessori helps severely disabled children and young adults in Russia; initiating a “first Year Montessori project” in an orphanage, helping village schools, and lecturing on the first Montessori 3-6 training course in Morocco. Susan shares two stories from a meeting of Educateurs sans Frontières in Thailand: Montessori help for mothers of babies born in prison, and for elders living with dementia.Enjoy the chapter describing the author and her husband reliving the book "Eloise in Paris." dictated by a four-year-old (used in the language area of some Montessori teacher training courses), and a detailed observation of a day in an authentic Montessori 3-6 class that is sure to inspire many teachers.Near the end of the book the author shares some of the solutions based on consultations with schools, and conversations with parents today, due to the unique situation of remote learning due to the pandemic. Age 0-6: Rather then recommending setting up mini-Montessori areas in the home which can cause even more stress for families, she gives suggestions on handling frustration and limited setting, welcoming the child into the daily work and activities of the family, understanding the value of protecting concentration, providing opportunities for children to be helpful and feel needed, and how to share the family ethics, morals, and even religions, in age-appropriate ways. Age 6-18: She explains the Montessori concepts of cosmic education and beginning the search for one’s cosmic task, so important at this age. She discusses homeschooling, the reasons and variety of methods, and her own experience of guiding her son’s self-chosen twelve years of homeschooling without materials or grades, but following interests.The last chapter, Stages of Development, the author explains how a Montessori education is completely different for birth-3, 3-6, 6-12, and 12-18. Rather then beginning with a desired standard academic curriculum, the learning is based on the needs and tendencies of human beings at different ages and planes, or stages, of development. As a result education becomes a joy. There are practical examples for parents and teachers.In the “Resources and Books” section, there are links to many of the projects described in the book, such as the school for the poor in Nepal. There are links to Montessori initiatives such as Educateurs sans Frontières she experienced in Thailand, Montessori for Dementia, the Montessori course for teaching adolescents, Montessori sports. There are also details about the author’s seven previous books, each one presenting Montessori in very practical examples from a unique perspective. Following Montessori principles can help anyone to dig deep and discover their inborn gifts, to gain the experience and confidence to push boundaries, to develop creative problem solving abilities, resilience, and compassion.

Language: English

Published: Arcata, California: Michael Olaf Montessori Company, 2021

ISBN: 978-1-879264-29-8

Master's Thesis

Pedagoška glasbena načela po Edgarju Willemsu v povezavi s pedagogiko montessori v predšolskem obdobju [Edgar Willems' Pedagogic Principles of Music in Conjunction with the Montessori Method in Pre-School Teaching]

Available from: Digital Library of the University of Maribor (DKUM)

Classroom environment, Edgar Willems - Philosophy, Europe, Montessori method of education, Montessori schools, Music education, Prepared environment, Slovenia, Southern Europe

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Abstract/Notes: Montessori pedagogika in glasbeni pristopi Edgarja Willemsa vzbujajo interes številnih, ki se ukvarjajo z vzgojo in izobraževanjem v povezavi z glasbeno umetnostjo. Težko je opisati razloge, zakaj je temu tako, ker se večina procesov odvija na emocionalni in podzavestni ravni, ki temeljijo na občutenju, nedvomno pa je, da oba pristopa obravnavata otroka kot prioriteto in se ob zavedanju njegovih sposobnosti optimalno razvijata otrokove individualne potenciale. Metodi temeljita na vsebinah, ki otroka vodijo do znanja na sprejemljiv in zabaven način. Oba pristopa poznata seveda tudi drugače misleče, vendar lahko na podlagi izkušenj trdimo, da je razlog temu v nepoznavanju in nekompetentnosti določenih pedagogov in glasbenih pedagogov v kontekstu pedagogike Montessori in metode Edgarja Willemsa. V magistrski nalogi predstavljamo v prvem teoretičnem delu pedagogiko montessori, njena načela in filozofska izhodišča ter pedagoški pristop in metode dela Edgarja Willemsa. V nalogi obravnavamo njune skupne in nasprotujoče vsebine, izhodišča in pristope. Med drugim izpostavljamo, kako glasbeno izobraževanje vpliva na kognitivno-socialni, afektivni in psihomotorični razvoj otrok. Oba pristopa pomembno ugotavljata, da je potrebno razumeti otroka, ga sprejemati kot individuum, vedeti, na kakšen način razmišlja in kako mu je potrebno ustrezno predstaviti nove vsebine, ki bodo otroka zanimale, ga pritegnile in ohranile pri delu dalj časa. V nalogi predstavljamo tudi vlogo vzgojitelja in pomembnost otrokovega okolja. V empiričnem praktičnem delu predstavljamo, kako montessori pedagogika ponuja otrokom glasbo in s katerimi pripomočki. V nalogi predstavljamo tudi posamezne vsebinske dele Willemsovih vzgojno učnih ur, postopek in predloge, kako jih lahko izvajamo ter nekatere pripomočke za uspešno delo. Willems je nedvomno natančneje in bolj strukturirano izoblikoval glasbeno pedagoške metode dela, kot je to razvila pedagogika montessori v predšolskem obdobju. Njegova dognanja sem umestila v montessori okolje tako pri glasbenih dejavnostih, kot tudi v kontekstu pripravljanja materialov, ki so otrokom dostopni kadarkoli v času varstva. Tako se lahko otrok v pripravljenem montessori okolju s pomočjo Willemsovega pristopa bolje seznani z glasbeno umetnostjo. [The Montessori pedagogy and Edgar Willems' approaches to music education arouse interest in many people who work in teaching and education combined with music. It is difficult to define the reasons for this because most of the processes occur on the emotional and subconscious level based on feelings but it is a fact that in both approaches a child is viewed as a priority. While being aware of their abilities, both of them develop individual child’s potentials optimally. The methods are based on the contents that motivate a child to learn in an acceptable and fun way. There are some people who oppose these approaches but from experience we can tell that it is because certain pedagogues and music pedagogues are incompetent and don’t know The Montessori pedagogy and Edgar Willems' method. In the postgraduate thesis we present the Montessori pedagogy, its principles and philosophy basis and Edgar Willems' pedagogic approach and his teaching methods in the first theoretic part. We present the contents, the basis and the approaches they have in common and the ones that are different. We point out how music education influences the cognitive-social, affective and psychomotor children's development. Both approaches point out that it is necessary to understand a child, accept them as individuals, understand their way of thinking and introduce new topics that will be interesting and will motivate them to learn for a longer period of time. We present the role of the teacher and the importance of the child's environment. In the empirical practical part we present how the Montessori pedagogy offers music to the children and what teaching accessories they use. In the thesis we present individual learning content parts of Willems’ lessons, the procedure and suggestions for the process of teaching and some teaching accessories for successful work in class. Willems has undoubtedly created musical pedagogy methods more thoroughly and structurally than the Montessori pedagogy in the preschool period. I have incorporated his discoveries into the Montessori environment with music activities and within preparing the materials which the children can use during the day care. So a child in a well arranged Montessori environment with help of the Willems’ approach can learn more about music.]

Language: Slovenian

Published: Maribor, Slovenia, 2018

Doctoral Dissertation

The Historical Evolution and Contemporary Status of Montessori Schooling in New Zealand as an Example of the Adaptation of an Alternative Educational Ideal to a Particular National Context

Available from: Massey University - Theses and Dissertations

Australasia, Australia and New Zealand, Montessori method of education - Criticism, interpretation, etc., Montessori method of education - History, New Zealand, Oceania

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Abstract/Notes: There have been two distinct phases of the Montessori method of education in New Zealand. The first began in 1912 and continued into the 1950s. The second phase, starting in 1975, has resulted in over one hundred Montessori early childhood centres being established throughout the country. In this thesis I examined the historical evolution and contemporary status of Montessori schooling in New Zealand, as an adaptation of an alternative educational ideal to a particular national context. To situate this study, the history of the Montessori movement was investigated, taking into consideration the particular character and personality of its founder, Dr. Maria Montessori (1870-1952). It is argued that the apparent contradictions of Montessori, who claimed to be both a scientific educator and a missionary, help explain the endurance of her method. The thesis further maintains that Montessori became a global educator whose philosophy and pedagogy transcends national boundaries. The middle section of this thesis examines the Montessori movement in New Zealand during the first phase and the second phase, highlighting the key role that individuals played in spreading Montessori's ideas. The major aim was to examine how Montessori education changes and adapts in different cultures and during different time frames. The thesis concentrates on New Zealand as a culturally specific example of a global phenomenon. The final section of the thesis is a case study of a Montessori early childhood centre examining the influence of Government policy and how the development of the centre supports the ongoing implementation of Montessori's ideas. The perceptions of Montessori teachers, former parents and students regarding the nature and value of Montessori education are also considered. Finally, observations carried out as part of the case study are analysed to further demonstrate the ways in which the original ideas of Montessori have been reworked to suit a different historical and societal context. It is concluded that Montessori is a global educator whose philosophy and pedagogy transcends national boundaries. Nonetheless, the integration of Montessori education within any country, including New Zealand, does result in a culturally specific Montessori education.

Language: English

Published: Palmerston North, New Zealand, 2004

Doctoral Dissertation

Measuring Parent Perception and Understanding of Montessori Education in Three Massachusetts Montessori Schools

Available from: University of Pepperdine

Americas, Montessori schools, North America, Parents - Perceptions, United States of America

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Abstract/Notes: The Montessori method is a comprehensive, child-centered, developmentalist philosophy of education developed by Dr. Maria Montessori in Rome, Italy, in the early 1900s. The Montessori method differs from traditional approaches to education, and has had limited exposure in the U.S. until the last 20 years. Despite this growth, little research data exists on the effectiveness of the method or of parent understanding of the method. This research project attempted to determine parent understanding of the Montessori method of education at three Montessori schools in Massachusetts that educate children from toddlers to grade 8. The objective of the research was to design, implement, and analyze a survey that measured parent understanding of the Montessori principles and classroom practices. The survey was developed using the Montessori principles as the foundation. The goal was to determine both the extent of parent understanding of the Montessori principles and parent perception of how these principles are carried out in the Montessori classroom. Parents and guardians were asked a total of 10 questions, 7 of which were five-point Likert scales. The quantitative questions specifically addressed the six Montessori principles and were designed to test parents’ overall understanding of each principle. Responses ranged from a principle being not at all important to very important. The qualitative portion of the survey instrument utilized three open-ended, self-completed questions designed to reveal a range of parent perceptions about Montessori education and classroom practices. The surveys revealed that parent values and thinking do line up with some aspects of the Montessori method and philosophy. The surveys also revealed that parents seem to value classroom practices contrary to the founding principles. What parents value and what parents think about regarding concepts such as goal setting, achievement, competition with peers, and teachers preparing and presenting lessons is in direct contrast with some of the Montessori founding principles and intentions. If Montessori schools wish to remain viable, they will need to reconcile the Montessori principles with conflicting parent values and, further, determine how to better align their principles with parent views and desires for their children.

Language: English

Published: Malibu, California, 2015

Book

Clara Grunwald und Maria Montessori die Entwicklung der Montessori-Pädagogik in Berlin

Clara Grunwald - Biographic sources, Clara Grunwald - Philosophy, Europe, Germany, Maria Montessori - Biographic sources, Maria Montessori - Philosophy, Montessori method of education - History, Montessori movement, Montessori schools, Western Europe

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Abstract/Notes: The study presents the life and work of Clara Grunwald and Maria Montessori, on the special background of the development of the Montessori movement in Berlin from the 1920s until the Nazis came to power in 1933 and their consequences. In this study, the effectiveness of Clara Grunwald for Montessori pedagogy in Germany, explicitly in Berlin during the Weimar Republic, is made clear. Here their intention, their influence and their commitment to the establishment of Montessori pedagogy and the development of the Montessori movement in Berlin are described. In addition, the emerging conflict between Maria Montessori and Clara Grunwald is viewed in several layers, as various factors influenced the development and spread of Montessori pedagogy. The conflict between the two women shows fateful effects on the person and work of Clara Grunwald, as well as on the Montessori movement in Berlin. The seizure of power by the National Socialists in 1933 also had serious effects on the work of Clara Grunwald and on Montessori pedagogy in Germany, which resulted in the decline of Montessori pedagogy. Against this historical background, the development of Montessori pedagogy after the end of the Second World War up to the present is examined and briefly outlined. (This is a published version of the author's thesis/dissertation.)

Language: German

Published: Hamburg, Germany: Diplomica Verlag, 2008

ISBN: 978-3-8366-6522-3 3-8366-6522-0

Book

Psychologisches zur Montessori-Methode: Aus dem Montessori-Heft der Neuen Erziehung [Psychological information on the Montessori method: From the Montessori booklet of the New Education]

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Abstract/Notes: Distributed by the Deutsche Montessori-Gesellschaft with the January 1927 issue of their periodical "Montessori-Nachrichten".

Language: German

Published: Berlin, Germany: Hensel and Co. Verlag, 1927

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